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• • • • • » 

• • •• * 

• • • a • 


This Manual was first issued in 1874 as one of a 
series intended primarily to assist candidates in pre- 
paring for the Civil Service examinations. But in 
these examinations English literature has never proved 
a particularly attractive subject ; and in the second 
edition of 1880 an attempt was made to extend the 
utility of the book as a work of reference. In this 
character it achieved a certain success, and went out 
of print. In 1895 the publishers decided to re- 
issue it with such revision and supplement as might 
serve to bring it down to the present date. This 
task, rendered more formidable by two-and-twenty 
years of dictionaries, biographies, histories, and 
special ^ monographs,' the original compiler had 
neither the leisure nor the inclination to undertake ; 
and with his entire concurrence, it was entrusted to 
the capable and experienced hands of Mr. W. Hall 
GriflSn, Professor of English Language and Litera- 
ture at Queen's College, London. 

Professor Hall Griffin has revised the volume 
[roughout in the light of the most recent authori- 



ties. For the initial chapter he has substituted 
another ; and he has furnished a long supplementary 
chapter treating of those writers who have died since 
1875. He has also verified and in part re-written 
the different Appendices ; that entitled ^ Dictionary 
of Minor Authors ' — always regarded as a valuable 
feature— has indeed been completely remodelled, 
and has received such material additions that it now 
contains nearly five hundred names. In all this the 
existing scheme of the book has been closely adhered 
to; and the original ' Introduction/ which, as before, 
correctly describes its scope and purpose, is there- 
fore, with a few verbal alterations, still retained. 

A. D. 

Jkeemher 1896. 








From A.D. 600 to tbe Worman ConqiMtt- 

r 600-1066. 

1. TheComingof the English —2. The old English Langnagd, 
its Dialects and Versificalion. — 3. The Epic Poetry. — 4. Th« 
Introduction of Christianity and Learning. — 5. Religioui 
Poetiy. — 6. Lyric and Shorter Poems. — 7. The proff 
Writings .1 


From tlio Worman Conquest to criiftneer* 


8. The Language of the Normans; Langae d'Oyl, Langoe 
d'Oc. — 9. Progress of the English Language. — 10. Th« 
Literature of the Anglo-Normans ; Trouviree, Troubadours. 
—11. The Arthurian Romances, the ' Mabinogion.' — 12. 
Writers in Latin. — 18. Writers in French. — 14. Writers in 
English 16 


Froni Cliaacer to Surrey. 


15. Progress of the £«ngl]sh Language. — 16. Langland, Gower, 
Barbour. — 17. Chaitcbb. — 18. Manderille, Widif, TreviBa. 
—19. Ocdeve, Lydgatc— 20. James of Scotland.~21. 


• •• 

TUl OOBTTBinnit 


Peeock, Fostefeut.— 22 The <FM»n Leitm.'— 23. The 
Intzoduction of Printing.— 24. Haires, BarUaj, Skelton.— 

26. The Scotch Poets.— -26. TianMlatione of the Bible.— 

27. Bernen» More.— 28. Eljot, Latimer, Gheke.— 29. 
Wyatt, Snxrej. — 80. Earlj Dramatic Writers.— 31. Ballad 
Poetry . • *, ^ 

Tbe Age of Spenser* Sltakespearev and Baeon. 


82. Snmmazy of the Period.— 88. The Poets: Gascoigne, 
Sachrille. — 84. Sidney. — 85. Spkksbb. — 86. The Minor 
Poets.- 87. The Growth of the English Drama.— 88. Early 
EngUsh Plays. — 89. The Precnrsors of Shakespeare: Mar- 
lowe, &c. — 40. Shaxbspbabb. — 41. The Contemporaries of 
Shakespeare: Jonson, Webster, Beaumont and Fletcher, 
Massinger, to — 42. The Prose Writers: Ascham. — 48. 
Lyly.— 44. Hooker, Raleigh. — 45. Baoow. — 46. Burton. 
Selden, Lord Herbert. — 47. The Minor Prose Writers. — 48. 
The Authorised Version of the Bible 60 


Tbe Age of Milton and Dryden. 


49. Summaiy of the Period.— 50. The < Metaphysical School ' 
of Poets. — 51. Cowley.— 52. Herbert, Crashaw.— 58. 
dnarles, Wither.— 54. Herriiik, Habington.— 55. The 
Caralier Poets. — 56. Waller. — 57. Milton. — 58. Butler. — 
59. MarreU.— 60. The Minor Poets.— 61. The Prose 
Writers.— 62. Hobbes, Clarendon.— 63. Fuller, Browne.— 
64. Walton. — 65. The Diarists. — 66. Bunyan. — 67. Locke, 
Temple.— 68. The Theologians.— 69. The Scientific Writers. 
— 70. The Minor Prose Writers. — 71. The Newspaper Press. 
— 7SS. IlieSurriToni of the Shakespearean Stage. — 78. The 
Stage of the Restoration. — 74. DnTDmr. — 75. Shadwell, 
Lee. — 76. Otway, Southeme. — 77. The Comic Dramatists T6 


Tbe Affe of Pope, SwUt, tbe WovelUitov Mid Johasmi. 


78. Sumixi^j^-«f-the"Period.--79. The Po6t«: Fopb.— 80. 

Prior, Gay. — 81. Young, Thomson.— 82. Gray, OollinB. — 
83. Ohurchill.— 84. Chatterton, Macpherson.^86. The 
Minor Poets.— 86. The Wartons, Percy.— 87. The Prose 
Writers : Defoe. -^8. 8^1^.-89. Berkeley, Arbathnofc.— 
90. Shaftesbnzy, Bolingbroke, MandeTille.— 91. The Es- 
sayists : Addison, Steele, &c 92. The Novelists : 

Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, &e, — 93. Goldsmith. 
—94. Johnson.— 95. Burke. — 96. The Historians. — 97. 
Wilkes, * Junius/^98. Adam Smith, Blackstone.— 99. The 
Theologians.— 100. The Dramatic Writers . . .112 


Tbe £Lg9 of liirordswoitliv Byron, and Soott. 


101. Summ'aiy of th6 Period.— 102. Tbe Potits: Cowper.— 

103. Crabbe.— 104. Darwin.— 106. The Della-Cruscans 

106. Bums. — 107. Rogers, Bowles. — 108. Wobdswobth. — 
109. Southey.— 110. Coleridge.— 111. Lamb.— 112. Camp- 
bell. — 113. Hogg, Bloomfield. — 114. Moore. — 116. Btron. 
—116. Shelley.— 117. Keats.— 118. Leigh Hunt, Landor. 
—119. Other Poets.— 120. The Novelists : Mrs. Radcliffe. 
— 121. Lewis, Godwin. — 122. MissEdgeworth, Miss Austen. 
^-123. SooTT.— 124. Other Novelists.- 126. The Philo- 
sophers. — 126. The Historians. — 127. The Theologians. — 
128. Hazlitt, Cobbett.— 129. The Quarterlies.— 130. The 
Dramatic Writers 164 


Tbo Modem Age (Deceased Autbors). 


181. Summary of the Period.— 132. The Poets: Hood.— 133. 
Mrs. Browning. — 134. Other Poets : Miss Procter, Aytoun, 
Smith, Clough. — 136. The Novelists: Lytton, Dickens, 
Thackeray, Lever, Mrs. NichoUs, Mrs. Gbskell, &c. — 136. 
— The Historians : Macaulay, G. C. Lewis, Grote, Alison, 



Milman, Buekle. — 137. 'Hie Phiioflophen : Hamilton, J. S. 
Mill.— ^38..T}ie TbeologiaDS.— 139. The Sdendfic Writers. 
—140. Other Prose Writers: De Quincey.— 141. The 
Dramatic Writers , . 193 


Vhe Modem Jkye (pont,) (Beoeasad Autbovs). 


142. Sammai7 of the Period. — 148. Tennyson and Browning. 
— 144. Other Poets: Matthew Arnold, Dante Gabriel and 
Christina Bossetti, Sir Henry Taylor, William Morris, &c 
— 145. The Novelists : Disraeli, George Eliot^B. L. Steren- 
son, Kingsley, Trollope, Charles Beade, &c — 146.. The 
Historians: Carlyle, Froude, Green, Freeman, &c. — 147. 
The Philosophers and Theologians: Carlyle, Newman, 
Pnsey, Colenso, Lightfoot, &c — 148. TheScientificWriters: 
Darwin, Lyell, Huxley, Tyndall, &e. — 149. Other Prose 
Writers : John Forsier, James Spedding, Sir A. Helps, &c 
—160. The Dramatie Writers 221 


Bztraeta illnstratiwe of tlie Progress of tlio Bsagvage 

prewiovs to 1600. 

A J) 

660 (?) , I. BmnUf 266 

900 (?) II. TltfilofoQ/'iS^Mnif, by King Alfred , 267 

937 III. Th€ Battle of Brunanburh , .267 

1000 (?) IV. The Grave 269 

1 160 (?) V. Ooae of the * Anglo-Saxon Ckromde ' . 270 

1200 VI. Jl^ Bream of Brutus, hjlAyamon, . 271 

1200 (?) VII. The Finding of Christ in the TmpUy by 

Orm 272 

1340 (?) Vm. King Arthur and the Round TaUe, by 

. Bobert of Brunne . . . .273 
1346 IX. Th Battle of J^emU^s Cross, by Laurence 

Minot 274 


▲J). PAOI 

1356 X. 77te Lady of the Lafid, hy Six JohnMAnd^ 

vUle 276 

1377 XI. The Description of Sloih, by William 

Langland .... 276 

1380 Xll. The FaraUe of the Tares in the Wheat, by 

JohnWiclif . . . , .277 

1387 XIII. The SuhstUution of English for French, by 

John of Trevisa 278 

1377-83 (?) XIV. The Vision of Philosophy, by Geoffirey 

Ohancer 278 

1390 XV. The Portrait of the Schipmm, by Geoffrey 

Chaucer 279 

1449 XVI. The Scheme of the * Repressor,' by Reginald 

Pecock « 280 

1485 XVII. Sir Ector's Lament for Sir Lancdot, by 

Sir Thomas Malory . . . .281 
1525 XVIII. The Parable of the Tares in the Wheat, by 

WilUam Tyndale 282 

1535 XIX. ALeiierfromPrison^hySiTThomss^oTe 282 

1549 XX. The Bishop and Robin Hood, by Sngh 

Latimer 283 

1557 XXI. The Parable of the Tares in the Wheat, 

from the * Geneva Bible * . . ,283 
1570 XXII. I%e Apology for the * Schoolmaster,* by 

BogerAscham 284 

1589 XXIII. The First Adventure of the • Faery Queens; 

by Edmund Spenser .... 284 

1590 XXIV. DescHption of the Red Cross Knighi find 

Una, Edmund Spenser . . • 285 
1595 XXV. The Elizabethan Stage^hySaPhiii^aidiiey 286 


Tlie ' Canterbury Tales.* 

A list of the Tales, in the order adopted by the * Chaucer 
Society/ showing the sources (so &r as they hare been 
traced) from which Chaucer derived them . • • • 287 



Tbe Plays of 81a«kespeare« 

A list of the PlaySi in the order of the Folio of 1623, showing 


the souiees (so far as they have been traced) from which 
Shakespeare derired the 'plots, and the probable or approxi- 
mate date of production ...•••• 292 

• Paradise &ost ' and ' Paradise Seffalned.' 

A brief account and summary of the twelve books of Paradite 
Lo^ and the four books of Taradiae Begained • • • 299 

Blotlonary of Minor Antlaors* 

A brief Dictionary of Deceased Minor Authors, &c., ginng 
the dates of their births and deaths, the reigns in which 
they wrote, and the titles of some of their chief works • 30& 



In proposing to give an account of the Rise and Progress 
of English Literature within the space of some three 
hundred pages ^ it is desirable — in order to avoid mis- 
conception, and perhaps in a measure to anticipate 
certain not unreasonable objections to books of brief 
compass— that the precise nature of the account here 
intended should be clearly defined ; and that both what 
it includes and what it does not include should be 
plainly set forth. And, first, as to what it 'does not in- 
clude. Inviting as it might be to swell this Introduction 
with promises, it must at the outset be admitted that 
original research and a philosophic plan do not come 
within its scheme. To trace the growth and develop- 
ment of those great latent forces which have determined 
the direction and the course of English Literature — to 
recount its * history,' and ' to seek in it for the psy- 
chology of the people,' must be left to larger and more 
ambitious works. In this it is simply designed to give 
a concise and, as a rule, chronological record of th» 




principal English authors, noting the leading charac- 
teristics of their productions, and, where necessary, the 
prominent events of their lives. Its primary object is 
to assist those whose time and opportunities are 
restricted ; — an object prescribing very definite limits. 
But, within these limits, care has been taken to make 
the dates and facts as accurate as possible, to verify all 
statements from trustworthy sources, and, as far as is 
consistent with its plan, to avert the charge of super- 
ficiality. In other words, cursory though the work 
must necessarily be in many respects, the compiler has 
endeavoured, as far as it goes, to render it exact in 
detail and particulars, and to make it, if possible, 
better than the engagement of his title-page. 'A 
meane Argument,' writes Ascham in The Scholemaster, 
' may easelie beare the light burden of a small f ante, 
and haue alwaise at hand a ready excuse for ill hand- 
ling : And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be 
better in deede, than a man dare venture to seeme.' 

The Divisions or Chapters, in which the book ia 
arranged, are shown so clearly in the foregoing table of 
Ck>ntent6 that it would be superfluous to repeat them 
here. The reader is warned, however, that they are 
not scientific, but conventional : — not adopted because 
our national literature can, in the author's opinion, be 
unalterably pigeon-holed in the compartments in ques- 
tion ; but because it has been found easier and mor« 


conyenient to class them in this manner. With a view 
to curtail mere lists of lesser names, a number of the 
least important have been consigned to a Dictionary 
Appendix ; and in illustration of those portions of the 
earlier chapters which deal with the formation of the 
language, a few Extracts are printed at the end of the 
volume. As exhibiting, even in an imperfect degree, 
the structure of English at different periods, these 
passages may not be without interest ; but they can 
scarcely be regarded as typical samples of the literary 
quality of the works from which they are taken. For 
such, the student is referred to some of the professed 
collections of longer specimens, or, better still, to the 
authors themselves. ' A great writer,' it has been aptly 
said, ' does not reveal himself here and there, but every- 
where.' To be studied to any good purpose, he can only 
be studied as a whole. 

• • o <> 
m * w » 

'„' :•". V,- , 

•) • •al i# «> <J 

1 !•> •. 







1. Tbe Oominff of tbe Siiffll«l&«~Thfire is a strange appro 
priateness in the fact that the poem which perhaps contains the 
oldest Terse of the wide-spread English race should be a record of 
wanderings. It bears the name of Widsifi — ^the Far-Jonzneyer. 
' Always wandering with a hungry heart,' this old English scop, 
like Tennyson's Ulysses, could not * rest from travel,' and in the 
bald lines of his verse he * unlocks his word-hoard' to tell how he 


trayelled tluongh strange lands, and learnt 
Of good and evil in the spadons irorld. 
Parted from home friends and his kindred dear. 

- These ' home friends ' were those of the mainland, for the poem 
in its earliest portions goes back * to the days when the English 
tribes dwelt on and near the Cimbrian peninsula. To this day 
between the Fiord of Flensborg and the river Slei in East Sleswig 
the little district of Angeln preserves the name of the Angles; 
northward were the Jutes^ while to the south along the coast and 

* As to the conflicting views In regard to the date of Widtt^j see Stopford 
Brooke's SUtinrp </ JBarii^ Englith LUerature^ 1893, L 823-S26. 


« • • • 


inland dwelt the more widely spread Saxons. These restless Tentoiii« 
seamen in their * foamy-necked bark journey^ over the sea waves 
most like a bird/ to borrow the phraseology of Beowtdf, till they 
beheld * the sea-cliffii gleam, the lofty downs, and the great head- 
lands/ and were early led to seek a new field for plunder in Bomaa 
Britain. Like the Dane» of later days, long before they came to 
settle they came to spoil. By a.d. 286 an imperial fleet, large 
enough to encourage its commander to revolt and proclaim himself 
Emperor, had to be fitted ont to stay their ravages ; a ' Count of 
the Saxon Shore ' had to be appointed to defend the coasts, and nine 
castles, that of Richborongh among them, lined the shores from the 
Wash to Sussex. Such attacks, however, were but piratical raids, 
and the ' Coming of the English ' is connected with the great wave 
of Teutx>nic invasion which swept not only over distant provinces 
but over Italy itself. Four hundred years before Christ, Brennus 
the Gaul had uttered Va victia over a conquered Borne ; not till 
eight centuries later (ad. 410) did the city again fall beneath a 
foreign foe. Then the spoilers were Teutons ; the West Goths, under 
Alaric Not even the plaintive ' groans of the Britons ' could now 
, draw help from desolated Italy for a remote province ; and ener- 

9 vated by nearly four centuries of Boman rule, Britain was left de- 

fenceless against the Picts and Scots of the North. In despair, 
King Yortigem called in the Teutonic seamen, and our Old English 
Chronicle under the year 449 thus sets forth the result : — * The 
king bade them fight against the Picts ; and they did so and had 
victory wheresoever they came. They sent then to Angeln and 
bade them send further help, and bade them tell the nothingness of 
the Britons and the goodness of the land. They therefore sent thrm 
more help. Then came men from three tribes of Germany, from Old 
Saxons, from Angles and Jutes.' To these we may add the Frisians, 
many of whom are known to have accompanied the other tribes. 

2. Tbe Old SngUsb KaDguagei Its Bialeots and wenl- 

floatlon.— * All these tribes spoke the same Anglo-Frisian language 

^ with slight differences of dialect,' and all * agreed in calling their 

common language English (O.E. Englisc), i.e, Anglinb, because 
the Angles were for a long time the dominant tribe.' * The name 
Anglo-Saxon was applied to the people^ not to the language ; origin- 
ally, indeed, it was but a name to distinguish the * English ' Snxons 
from the Saxons of the mainland, and the growing tendency to discard 
its usage in favour of that of * Old ' or * Oldest English ' is one of many 
signs of the revived interest in the history of our early speech and 

• Hy. Sweet) A'eir English Grammar ^ ?t. L 1892, p. 214. 


litcontinre. Modem English, indeed, differs much from its earliest 
form, but onr grammar still remains thoroughly Teatonic, "while, in 
spite of all additions to onr yocabnlaij, the great majority of the 
words we use are of similar origin. Old English, like Latin or 
German, was a highly inflected language ; but even in its earliest 
known form its inflectional system b^ins to show signs of decay. 
Some of the case-endings seen in the cognate Gothic and Icelandic 
are already gone ; the gender distinctions in the plural of adjec- 
tiyes, also seen in both these languages, have disappeared; and 
very early the tendency to use compound forms for the past and 
future tenses is noticeable. The stages of inflectional change cannot 
of course be sharply defined, but conyenience demands approximate 
diyisibn, and the retention of the name ' English ' throughout is an 
obyious adyantage for marking the unity of our linguistic history.* 

As has been stated, it was the Anglian tribes which first 
assumed supremacy ; and it was also in the North that our early 
poetry was produced. The coming of the Danes swept away the 
northern centres of learning, and when literature reyiyed it was 
under the West-Saxon Alfred ; thus the Wessex dialect henceforth 
became the official and practically the literaiy language of England. 
In it the older poems were re-copied, and they now remain to us 
only in their southern dress, though the language often retains 
traces of the original northern. Bat West-Saxon writers from King 
Alfred to Abbot JE]Mc still called their language English. 

The remains of our early literature are but fragmentary. JBeo* 

* Various divisions of English into Vperlods' have been from time to time 
proposed, tmt there is an inoreflstng and healthy tendency to adopt the names 
*0]a,' 'Middle,' and * Modem * BngUsb. These correspond with those adopted 
lor other langoages, and as teehnieal names there can be little donbt as to their 
adyisabOity, although in general speech other names may be and are at times 
employed. An astronomer may stiU speak of the sun * rising,* or a chemist xA 
*8nlphnrioaold* instead of hydric sulphate, and similarly the terms 'Anglo- 
Saxon 'and* Burly English* may be used; but this in no way detracts from 
the yalne of a more systematic terminology. The technical use of the name Anglo- 
Saxon for the dialect of Wessex, as adopted by Professor Bkeat and some others 
seems but a kind of * half-way house.* It limits a term which was popularly used 
in a wider sense before the study of our older dialects was recognised ; and 
it departs from the otherwise uniform territorial nomenclature adopted for these 
dialeots— the Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, and Wessex. 

Thb following subdivisions are those proposed by Dr. Sweet {New English 
Grammar, 1893}^ and when it is remembered that all such dates are at best but 
tipprmeimaU, it will be seen that his scheme presents several advantages v— 

a. Early 0. E. (Eng. of Alfred) • . 700-900 

b. Z<tf«0.^. (Bng.of JElfric) • • 900-1100 
0. Transition 0, E. (Eng. of Layamon) 1100-1200 

a. Earlp M. E. (Eng. of * Ancren iU wle ') I200-130O 

b. Late M. E, (Eng. of dhaucer) . . 1800-1400 
c. Transition M. E. (Eng. of Gaxton) . 1400-1600 

Z. Old BngUsb • 

(a. Early Mod. E. (Tudor Eng. : Eng. of ) . kao i 
Shakespeare) .|i'>w-i 
b. Iat0 Mo4. Engtisfi -^ t  ^^^ 



wu^ i» preserred in a single mannflcript : the Bodleian Libraiy 
oontainsthe solitary copy of the Csedmoniaii poems: the 'great 
English book on yariotis subjects -wrought in verse' given by 
LeoiHo, first Bishop of Exeter (1050-1072), to his Cathedral library, 
where it still remains, contains in most cases the only existing 
copies of other poems. In 1822 a volnme of six poems was dis- 
covered at Vercelli, in North Italy: a fragment of the Fight at 
Finn^rg was found a century ago on the cover of a book in Lam- 
beth Library : in 1860 two leaves of the lost epic Waldere were 
found at Copenhagen. On such slender threads has the life of our 
old literature hung. But if this is so in regard to the literature as 
a whole, much more is it so in regard to our dialects. For the 
study of these— so important philol<^eally and phonetically if not 
on the purely literary side— we are dependent upon scraps of verse, 
inscriptions, charters, and the fortunate ignorance which led to 
interlining Latin books with English translations, or to crude 
gloBssries or dictionaries. Of the early Northumbrian dialect in 
which our poetry was chiefly composed, less than thirty lines 
remain in the manuscript versions of Csedmon's * Hymn,' Boeda's 
< Death-song,' and a metrical riddle found at Leyden. To these 
must be added a few inscriptions, of which the chi^ is that on the 
tall stone cross behind the pulpit at Buthwell church, overlooking 
the Solway Firth, dose by the early home of Carlyle and the last 
home of Bums. In the interlinear glosses of the Durham Gospels 
and the ' Bitual ' are preserved very pure examples of late Northum- 
brian (950-.1000). The Mercian dialect of middle England is best 
represented in its early form by the ' Vespasian Psalter/ * and by 
a glossary preserved at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge : while 
an interlinear gloss on the Bushworth Oospel of St. Matthew 
shows the dialect in its later form. Kentish is seen, in part at least, 
in the glossaries at Erfurt and Epinal, the former of which pro- 
bably dates from the beginning of the eighth century; also in 
numerous charters. Glosses, charters, and the ' Proverbs of Solo- 
mon ' show its later form. West Saxon first appears in a charter 
of 778, while some contemporary MSS. of King Alfred's works 
fortunately exist. The homilies of ^Ifric show the later form of 
this dialect in a very pure state, but most of the late West Saxon 
HSS. exhibit a great mixture of forms.f 

* In the library of Sir Bob. Cotton, now in the British Hnsenm, the shdvea 
were originally named after the busts of the Roman Emperors placed orer them 
The Mnseom still keeps this nomenclature. Thus the MS/of Beotou^f is * YiteU 
Una A. ztV bo called after YiteUlus. Similarly with the *Te8pasian' version 
of the Psalms. 

t J>r. Hy^Bwcft edited tat the Barly Eogltah T$xt Society ia 188S sll th«M 


The age of Terse precedes that of prose, and song was part of 
the very life of oar bygone days. At the ooiirt of flrothgar in 
our Eiiglish Beowulf the banqnet is no more complete -without 
the soDg of the scdp, than was that of Aldnons in the Odyuey with- 
out the voice of ' the sacred singer, grave Demodocns.' And not 
only was there the professional poet— ^^foman or courtly 9c6p — 
bnt the King himself, like the Hebrew David, could ' touch the 
glee-wood,' wake its sweet note^ and * tell well a wondrous tale : ' * 
even among peasants the harp passed &om hand to hand, as the 
legend of Csedmon shows ; the churchman Aldhehn would sing to 
the crowds on the bridge at Malmesbury; and the saintly scholar 
Bseda died with a note of song on his lips. For linguistic pur- 
poses the Gothic gospels of Wulfila take us several centuries 
farther back, but no early Teutonic poetic remains can compare with 
our own. The German fragment of The Song of Eildebrand,^ found, 
like that of the IHffht at Fmnsburg and the first mention of Chaucer, 
on a scrap of pazcUment in the binding of a book, is the <»ily other 
specimen. But it is a mere fragment of less than- sixty lines ; our 
Beowulf containa over three thousand. 

As our older English language differs from that of modem days, 
so does the structure of old English verse. Coleridge in his 
Ckristabel claimed to make an ' innovation ' in modem poetiy which 
may partly serve as an illustration. In justifying himself from the 
charge of irregularity, he states in his Preface that the metre was 
' founded on a new principle, namely^ that of counting in each line 
the accents, not the^ syllables. Though the latter may vaiy from 
seven to twelve, yet in each line the accents toiU be found to be only 
four* This ' new principle ' was but one main feature of a verse sys- 
tem which ' belonged to the antiquity of all Germanic races ; ' | for 
Old English verse is based on rhythm, not on metre. Each line has 
four accented syllables, the accents coinciding, as in Christabel, with 
the natnral word-stress. But to give a clearer idea of the rhythm 
of our older verse, the lines of Christabel should have a well-defined 
caesura clearly dividing the line into two half lines, each having 
two accents. Further, these accented syllables would have to be 
inseparably connected by means of * alliteration : ' both the accented 
syllables in the first half line and the first of the two in the second 
half must begin with the same consonant or group of consonants. 

Oldeit English Textt^ and has made many of them aooeasible in his small 
Clarendon Press ed. called A Second Anglo-Saxon Reader, Archaic and JHdUetic 
• BeovnOf, 8107-2110. 

A translation will be found in Morley's Engliih Writert, 1887, i. 859, 860. 

Ten Brink, Earln English Literature^ Ft. 1. Kennedy's translAtion, pb 31* 



If thb idiitoration were on Towels these rowels would differ.* Still 
farther: ChristabeliM laAyme: classical Old English Terse loiows 
no rhyme, its metre is * blank Terse.' Only one regularly rhyming 
poem— and that of but eightynseTen Unes— exists in Old English, 
and it is a late work, dne to ScandinaTian influence. Bhyme appears 
in some of the later poems, bat its presenoe is a sign of decadence. 
* The measure/ if we may adapt Milton's words ooneeming his own 
metre, * is English heroic Terse without rime^ as that of Homer in 
Qreek, and of Virgil in Latin ; rime being no necessary adjunct 
or true ornament of poem or good Terse^ in longer works especially.' 
Coleridge also claims for Chriitabel that the Tariation in the number 
of syllables is ' not introduced wantonly • • • but in correspond- 
ence with some transition in the nature of the imagery or passion/ 
A like freedom was used by our old poets, who at times employed— 
as in the Caedmonian poems and in JkcIt^A— lengthy 'expanded' 
lines ; while eren in the shorter lines the system of alliteration is 
not always uniformly carried out. A atrophic arrangement is dear 
in one short poem, 1%« Lament of Tkor^ each strophe of which ends 
with the same refrain ; and conjectural strophie dlTisions haTebeen 
sought in various other poems. 

3. Tbe Bple Poetry. — ^The general character of Old English 
poetry is distinctly epic, but we have ' no epos in the strict sense ;' 
onr noblest old poem, Bwufulf^ is but a ' half-finished epos, as if 
benumbed in the midst of its growth.'f The word ' epic' incTit- 
ably suggests comparison with the works of Homer, Virgil, and 
Milton, and though the Old English poem £ills &r beneath these in 
iechflique, it still has much that is truly Homeric The style, 
indeed, has in one sense a severe directness ; the long spl^dour of 
the Homeric simile is wholly absent ; and abundant as this:£|[ure is 
in contemporary Celtic poetry, there are but four similes^in the three 
thousand }ittei'ert Beowulf f and these are brief and obvious. Com- 
pensation may be said to be sought in the abundant use of meta- 
l^horical or periphrastic speech, in which," f<v example, the sea 
becoi^es the * whale-road,' the 'swan-road,' the water^street^ ' a 
ship a ' foamy-necked floater ; ' the King; d * ring-<listributer,' &e,, 
or a speaker ' unlocks his word-hoard.' Such usage is common to 
other Teutonic Terse, and in Old English an example is found, on 
an average, in every nine or ten lines 4 In the later verse this 

• See Extract I. in Appendix A, and the preceding comment. 

t Ten Brink. 

t Of. W, Bode*8 interesting esm.y on the enbject, Die Kenningar in der An(fel' 
iSehsisdien Dichtunff, Darmstadt, 1886. Tbe technical name Eenning-ar is firom 
the Icelaudic plural of kenning, * that by which one knows.* 


became an unduly developed mannerism, a Enphuifitic poetical 
diction comparable to that against which Wordsworth protested in. 
his £Gimou8 preface of 1800. Cor poetic style was also marked by 
frequent repetition, similar in a way to the parallelism of Hebrew 
poetry, but often producing a disjoined, almost inteijectional, st^le* 
But, allowing for all this, Beowulf as a whole impresses the reader 
much as the 'Night' or the 'Dawn ' of the great Tuscan sculptor. 
*- Unfinished,' it is like the marbleof many of Michael Ajigelo'B noble... 
figures; but are we not still in the presence of power and d 
beauty? We have vivid life-like characters, simple indeed, buti 
clearly ccmceived and well sustained ; clear-cut pictures of olden, 
life with its mead hall, its feasts and song and loving-ctip^ 6a 
atmosphere thoroughly English : a love of the sea and a dose 
obsermtion of nature prophetic at times of Wordsworth 9nd 
Tennyson, while Beowulf himself is conceived in truly heroic style, 
A Geat» he sails from Sweden to Denmark to aid King Hrotbgar, 
who is terrorised by tha monster Grendel: without weapons he 
eneonnters the invulnerable fiend, and with his ' thirty-man grip ' 
tears an arm from its socket, so that the monster only retreats to 
die. A second portion tells of his conquest of Grendel's mother 
at the bottom of a mountain mere. This is weirdly imaginative. 
After fifty years of kingship, Beowulf at last fights and slays at 
desolating fire-dragon, the terror of his own land, but dies in the 
deed, j gie Hygelac, whom Beowulf succeeded, has been identified 
with a lung who was slain nn tha Vn^it lsh coasts about a.d. 520. so 
th at Beowulf may have been a real her o, about whose name existing 
my thical legends clustered, as they did fljtfr "^""^ **^ n'Zii^aal^^ 
Arthur and of Cha riemagne. M iilienboffs suggestion that Beowulf s 
advejiturefl are a H^m of the Beowa myth, originating in contests 
with the sea, has found much favour ; and criticism, following the 
lead of Wolfs discussion of the Homeric poems a hundred years 
ago, has long busied itself in trying to disintegrate and trace the 
development of the poem.* Brought from the mainland, these heathen 
legends were sung in northern England in the seventh century ; 
thence they passed to the south, where, modified by Christian 
touches, they, like other northern poems, assumed the West Saxon 
dress in which our eleventh century MS. preserves the poem. This 
was but the first of many ' translations,' for since Beowulf -wob first 
printed in 1815 it has donned many another garb. It has appeared 

• See Stopford Brockets Early English Literature^ 1893, i. : Motley's English 
'Writers^ 1887, 1., gives a summary of some views and a bibliography. Re^iders 
of German may consult R. P. WUlcker's invaluable Grundriss, 1885, and Teu 
Brink's Unlersuchungen Uber Btomil/;, 1888. 



ill Latin, Daniflh, Qerman, Fzench, Italian, and English, in profa 
and inTaricmi forma of .Terse : — seventeen translations in eighty 
years^ seven of vhich hare appeared in the last decade and a half 1 
The eighth English rendering in sixty years has been that of the 
author of I%e Ecurtkty Bsuradite, by whom it was ' done into English ' 
in 1896.* Few are the poems that can claim snch a history. 

Fifty lines are all that remain of the Fight at Finn$burff, which* 
like the Tale of Troy snDg before Ulysses at Seheria, forms the sub- 
ject of the song of Hrothgar^ssecfp in Pe(n(w{^(lL 1068.1169). Two 
fragments — sixty lines in all— of Waidere are the sole remains of an 
epos of Walther of Aqnitaine, which two hnndred years later was 
told in Latin hexameters by Ekkehard of St Gall (d. 973). These 
fragments also show signs of revisiou by a Christian hand. 

4. Tlie latrodoetloB of cnurlatlaiilty and &earaiac»— 
The arrival of Angostine in 697 ▲.n. and the advent of the Geltio 
missionaries in the North make an epooh in oor literature. The 
influence of Pope Gregory, who sent Angnstine, was, as we shall see, 
long felt both on prose and poetry, while centres of learning so«n 
sprang np in which the study of Greek and Latin was pursued with 
a seal comparable in its way to that of the Renaissance. Manu- 
scripts of classical authors, neglected through ignorance in other 
lands, were eagerly purchased by English pilgrims to be treasured 
in the libraries of VTessex and the North. Ladies shared in the 
enthusiasm. We have indeed no such vivid picture as that of the 
dxteenth-century Lady Jane Grey bending over her Plato^ but * the 
fomale correspondents of B<mi&oe wrote in Latin with as much ease 
as the ladies of the present day write in French,' f and for such 
ladies Aldhelm produced his Latin De lattde VvrginUaHs, Wilfred, 
the munificent Archbishop of York, may supply an instance of one 
form of zeal. His biographer Eddins Stephanus tells how he 
* caused the four Evangelists to be written of purest gold on purple- 
cobured parchments,' aimilar therefore to the famous Codex 
ArgenteuB at Upsala, and that 'he had a case made for them of 
gold adorned with precious stones.' Angnstine (d. 604) founded 
at Canterbury a school which under Theodore (Archbishop, 668- 
690) and his friend Abbot Adrian became a distinct power. Both 
of the latter were skilled in Greek and Latin ; Adrian, says William 

* Prof. Esrle's prose renderinft 17te Deeds qf BeomiTft appeared 1893 : thiB and 
the two Amerioan renderings in Terse by J. M.GUtfne<«t, lwS,and J. L. Hall, 1883, 
are cheap acoesstble editions. OoL Lomsden's translation in ballad metre was 
issued in 1881 and 1883. The Barlj Bnglish Text Society issaed a photographio 
fsoaimile of the HS. in 1883, edited by "mt. Zupitoa ; and in 1894 the Cambridge 
ed. of the text appeared, «dited t^ A. J. Wyatt* 

T T. Wright's fiiogro^ia LUtraria^ p. 83. 


of Malmesbiiiy, being ' a fountain of learning and ariyer of arts/ 
Their yeiy birthplaces are typical of the -wider influences now 
bionght to bear on England. Theodore came from Tarsus in Asia : 
Adrian from Africa. From the Canterbury school issued Ald]ieliii« 
who founded that of Malmesbury, where he was long Abbot, 
though he died as Bishop of Sherborne. His English Terse, some 
of which lingered among the people till the twelfUi century, is lost: 
hiB Latin works remain. Besides other works we haye 2,500 
hexameter lines in praise of Virginity, and a flowery affected prose 
treatise on the same subject, while his hundred Mnigmaia 
Influenced the later * Biddies ' ascribed to Gynewulf . In the North, 
Bisoop Baduking, better known by his ecclesiastical name of 
Benedict Biscop, founded the twin cloisters of Wearmouth and 
Jaixow, and his frequent foreign journeys senred to gather books 
for their libraries. As Aldhelm is the chief name in the South, so 
is that of B8Bda in the North. Bom at Wearmouth in 672, he was 
oneof Benedict's flrst pupils, and passed his quiet student life at 
Jazrow, where he died in 735. Of himself Bseda said, * I ever 
found it sweet to learn or to teach or to write ; * and like Bacon he 
might have added, * I haye taken all knowledge to be my proyince,* 
for his forty-flye works form an encyclopaedia of the learning of his 
day. During life he was known throughout Europe as the most 
fiimous of scholars, and his works were consulted till the late middle 
ages. His English yerse, except for a metrical L{f$ cf St, Cuthbert^ 
18 lost: his Latin yerse is not without taste. His Latin prose 
consists of Scripture commentaries and homilies, a martyrology, 
ft biography of Cuthbert, and works on cosmography, grammar, 
rhetoric and metre. But by far the most important of idl is our first 
critical history, the HUtoria eoclesioiUca geniis Anglorwn, up to a.d* 
731, in fiye books; dear, simple, truthful, the style of this yalu- 
able work is a great contrast to that of Aldhelm. Bseda's friend 
Archbishop Ecgbert founded the school at York from which 
Charlemagne took his < Minister of Public Instruction,' Aleuln 
(785-804), who has also left Latin works. It was of the famous 
York Library that Alcuin wrote : 

niio iiiTenies ▼etemm restigia patram, 
Qnidqiiid habet pro se Latio Bomaniis in orbe, 
QrsQoia rd qnidquid transmisit clara Latinla, 
Hebraicos yel quod popolaa biblt Imbre superna 

Jolm Bcotas Srigenftf 'the founder of Scholasticism,' also 
•pent much of his life abroad in the service of Charles the Bald, 
and there the works which called forth the papal condemnation. 


as ' abounding in the worms of heretical depravity,' were produced. 
He is said to haTO died at Malmesbmy about 884, ' pierced with the 
iron styles of the boys whom he was instructing, and was erett 
looked upon ss a martyr.' 

6. BeUffloiui Voetiy.^-The Pantheon at Borne is a heathen 
temple transfortted to a Christian church, and in later days when 
the Christians built their own edifices they did not hesitate ia 
many respects to adopt the earlier forms of building. Similarly 
BeomvJlf^ our heathen epic, became half transformed under the 
touch of a Christian poet, while the old epic spirit and warlike 
tone continued to find expression in the treatment of saintly legend 
or sacred history. The JSiroiiM' breathes the spirit of a war-song: 
the old heroic Uood pulsates in the fragment of Judith, That th^ 
body of our older religious verse should be comparatiTely laige is 
natural, for it was at the centres of religion that manuscripts were 
copied and preserved. One such centre at Whitby was fDunded in 
667* Bffida in an oft-quoted passage tells of the heavenly visiim 
which suddenly made of the Northumbrian Caedmonour first 
Christian poet, and how under Abbess Hilda (d. 680) learned men 
instructed him in Bible history, while he» ' like a clean animal 
ruminating it^ turned it to most sweet verse/ A manuscript dis« 
covered after the suppression of the monasteries was first published 
in 1655 as being Cadmon't Paraphrase, This was very natural 
owing to the apparent correspondeaee. between its contents and the 
description given by Bseda of the northern poet's work; to-dayi 
however, ' hardly any one feels justified in assigning even a part df 
it to the most andent Christian poet of Bngland.' Nine lines pre- 
served in a single manuscript of B«da's HUiorj are all that can .be 
confidently assigned to dsdmon. Professor Ten Brink, n^ose woids 
have just been quoted, would also coiyecturally assign to him 1^700* 
out of the 2,800 lines in the paraphrase of Gtnem ; the rest, of this 
poem, together with the Exodue, the Daniel, and the three fragmei^ 
dealing with New Testament subjects, are later works. As Francis 
DiQon, or Junius, who published the first edition of these poems 
twelve years before the appearance of Paradise Lost, was ac- 
quainted with Milton, it is most probable that the puritan poet 
would know of a work somewhat akin, in part, to his own. 

Oj-newulf (e, 720>«. 800) fiourished nearly a hundred years 
after Ceedmon, and probably, like him, was a Northumbrian. He is 

• This « dder * Genesis b technically called * Genesis A* while the later intcr- 
polatioB of SCO lines is spoken of as * Genesis B.' See Ten Brink's Earlif Ena, 
LU, Pt L (Kennedy's translation). Appendix A, pp. 371-386, for a discussion of 
the Caedmoniau poems. 


tbe <»il7 Old English poet Trho signed his vene, and he has in- 
geniously interwoyen his name inronie letters in fonr poems. These 
are : The Christ, a poem of 8,000 lines on the threefold coming of 
Ghrist^that to earth, or the Nativity, that to hearen, or the 
Ascension, and the last coming to jndge the maid ; tfao .EkM tails 
of the finding of the cross by St. Helena ; JMkana deals with the 
sufferings of a perhaps mythical saint ; while six years ago IVofiBSSor 
Napier discovered the same mnic signatare in the brief i^'o^es (^th$ 
Apostles, If the snggestion that this last forms part of the JMrtm 
be valid, this' poem also might be included among the signed verse.* 
pynewulf s work both in subject and style gives evidence of the 
Latin influence which came through the diuxch : one portion- of the 
Christ is based upon a homily by Pope Gregory, the others— one 
certainly, the other coigecturally — upon Latin hymns. Most of our 
existing Old English verse— even including Beovmlf\'^\aMS been at 
times assigned to Gynewulf^ and interesting attempts have been 
made in the very doubtful task of reconstructing his life from the 
poems. The 8& poetic Biddies after the style of those of * Symposius,' 
Aldbelm, and Archbishop Tatwine, are usually considered to be an 
early work of his, while the brief Vision of the OrossX has been held 
to mark a crisis in his life similar to that of the vision of Osedmon, 
and that of Beatrice to Bante. 2,000 lines on the Life oiSt, ChUhiae 
(d. 714), and the poem of \he Pkcmis6, based on th<r Latin of 
Lactautius, are also assigned to Cynewulf. -- -^ ^ 

The anonymous fragment of Judith preserves In 850 linetT'^the 
last three cantos of an epic on the' story of the Apocrypha. The 
Jewish heroine is transformed to a Christian * wiser and radiant 
maiden,' who slays the * heathen hound' Holofemes. Aside from 
its epic tone, the metre presents points of interest. Some brief 
venes on the Panther and the Whale are early examples of a taste 
for religious allegory also seen in the literature of other countries. 

6. Kyrie and Shorter Poems. — ne Lament of IVor has-been 
termed the 'Father of all English lyrics,' and some students even 
suppose that its date goes back to the days when the&glirik still 
lived: on the mainland. A scop^ like Widsi'2^, Deor laments that he 
has been superseded in the favour of his lord, and seeks consolation 
by recalling the fates of various heroes who have suffered and 
endured. Each of the six strophes of the little poem of 42 lines 
ends with * That was overcome, so may this be.' It has been said 

* See Mr. I. GoIIaboz's edition of tlie atrUtf 1892. 

t By Dr. Gregor Sarrazin. „ ^^^ ^ . 

i A rendering will be found in Morley's Englith Writerty H. 337-341* 


that ' with this BODg begins and ends the Old English lyric,' * for the 
other chief short poems are rather elegiac or epic in tone. Whether 
with Matthew Arnold we are to seek an expUnation of the note of 
sadness in English yerse in Celtic influence or not, it is certainly 
present from the first* 

listen I yon hear the grating roar 

Begin, and oease^ and then again begin 
With tremnloQS cadence dow, and bring 
The eternal note of sadneas in. 

The melancholy of these lines from * Dover Beach,' or of Thackeray's 
ballad of ' Bouillabaisse,' is already heard in the Wcmderer,^ the 
Seafarer, the Wif^e Complaint^ the Hushand^e Mes&age, and in the 
Buin of early days. like the frees of the seers in Dante's Inferno, 
the gaze of the poet in the finest of the Old EngUsh shorter poems is 
ever backward. 

Tennyson has given a modern rendering of the best of the five 
poems inserted in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, that on the BaJtth of 
JBrunanlntrhf gained by Athelstan in 9374 ^^^ ^^® noblest of the 
later poems is the truly epic fragment on the Battle of MaMon or the 
Death of Byrhtnoth, 991. It tells in 650 lines of the gallant fight of 
the East Saxon ealdorman Byrhtnoth against the Danes, and of his 
death. It is the last epic stniio, full of vigour, life, and feeliDg.§ 
Its excellence is the more noticeable as it was written at a time dT 
poetic decadence, when the laws of alliteration were loosely observed 
and when rhyme was becoming more common. Some may see a 
striking appropriateness in the fact that what might be termed the 
last note of Old English song is a poem called The Orave,^ Of this 
Longfellow has given a modem rendering. 

7. Prose IV^rltlnga. — *We possess a longer pedigree of prose 
literature than any other country in Europe ; ' f but it was not till the 
ninth century, under Sing Alflredf that our prose assumed any im- 
portance. This was owing to the invasions of the Danes. Our earliest 
vernacular prose is only seen in laws, charters, and brief chronicle 
entries, because, under the infiuence of the learning introduced with 
Christianity, scholars preferred to express their thoughts in Latin. 

* Stopford Brooke, Earljf English Literature, 

t Benderings of this fine poem will be found in Stopford Brooke's Earip 
English Literatttre, and in the Aeademf^ May 14, 1881, by Miss E. Hiokey. 
Professor Morley gives a rendering of the ' Seaterer ' in English Writers, iL 

t See Appendix A, Extract HI. 
i It is 

translated in prose in Oonybeare*8 Illustrations, and In vene by 
Lient.-OoL Lnmsden in Afaemaian''s Magaxine, 9£arch 1887. 
I See Appendix A, Extract I Y. 
T Professor Earle^ English Frose, 1895, p. 869. 

pBoic A.D. 600 TO Vne korman cokquest. 13 

The reli^oiis prose of Aldhelm, Bseda, Alcnin, and Erigena is in 
Latin ; this is the language of the History of Beda, of the Historia 
Britonum of Venaliis in which we have our earliest mention of 
King Arthur, and of the brief chronicle of Btbelward i our earliest, 
biography, the life of Wilfred by Bddins SteplianiiSp like that of 
Alfred attributed to Bishop Asser (d. 910), is in Latin. But the 
Danish invasions in sweeping away the centres of learning destroyed 
learning itself. Alfred looked longingly backward to earlier days, 
and lamented that there were * few on this side of the Humber who 
can undeistand the divine service, or even explain alAtin epistle in 
English • • • they are so few, that indeed I cannot remember one 
south of the Thames when I began to reign.' Politically, the in- 
vasions of the Danes assured the supremacy of Wessez and promoted 
national unity, while as regards literature it is to them that we owe 
our vernacular prose. Alfred ' found learning dead, and he restored 
it ; education neglected, and he revived it,' * but he was forced to 
provide for the lack of learning by translations. He is the first 
of our long line of translators. His work, however, possesses a 
distinct individuality on account of the free treatment of his original* 
Not an accurate scholar himself, he, like Pope in later days, waa 
obliged to render the sense of a passage rather than its exact 
meaning; while his thoroughly practical nature led him to omit, 
rearrange, or add to his original if he felt he could thus better meet 
the needs of his people. In his rendering of the General Hieiorycf 
Ororiue he supplied a fair manual of the world's history written by 
a Spanish presbyter about a.i>. 418, his own individuality being 
marked by the insertion of two accounts of sea voyages which 
might stimulate the enterprise of his own people. He tells of 
Othere's voyage to the White Sea, and that of Wulfrtan along the 
Baltic coasts. An English history was supplied by a translation of 
that of Bseda, but we can only regret that Alfred did not supplement 
this by additions dealing more fully with the history of the South 
of Eni^and with which the Northern historian had been somewhat 
unfluniliar. A book of philosophy was given in the De Consdatione 
PhUoaophuB by Boethius, famous throughout Europe, and destined to 
be englished in later days by Chaucer. It is the most interesting 
of Alfred's works on account of the freedom of its rendering, and 
the light this casts upon the king^s character. He also appears as 
a poet in the verse renderings of the metrical portions of this work; 
but^ to adopt a Miltonic phrase, he indeed made use of his * left hand * 

• From the iosoription on the monument ereoted at Wanta^ 18r7« 


when he ventared into vene. The inflnenee of Pope Oiegoiy if still 
seen after eentaries in the xendering of the Pastoral Care^ a work 
brought over hjAngnstine 300 yean befbie. This is the most 
aeennte and thus least interesting of the translations, but the puritj 
of the text which has come down to us makes it Tery yalnable to 
the phaologist. AlfM's Handbook, in which he inserted extracb^ 
notes, and obserrations, is unfortunately lost, bnt his inflnenee is 
traceable npon the AngUhSason Chronicle, Meagre entries had long 
been made by monks, and the Winchester Annals had been ertended 
and added to in 885, under JEthelwulf ; another revision was under- 
taken In Alftfed's reign in 891. This, the oldest Teutonio contem- 
porary record, extends as far as Stephen's reign in 115i,* and 
besides occasional Terse contains our noblest specimens of early prose. 
Br. Sweet has endorsed Ffofeesor Earle's eulogy on the entries ftom 
the years 894-897 : ' compared with this passage, every other piece 
of prose • • • throoghoat the whole range of extent Saxon literature 
must assume a secondary rank.*f It is 'a perfect model of Old 
English prose.' % 

The later prose, that of the tenth century, is chiefly religions, 
and is largely due to the religious revival of Dunstan and ^tfaeiwold* 
The nineteen anonymous BlJeHtnc HomiliesA so called from a 
manuscript dated 971 at Blickling Hall, a seat of the Idarquis of 
Lothian, are indirectly due to this. Their language is archaic, and 
the giammatical stmcture complex, so that the contrast is great 
between them and the BomUies of Abbot JBlfHc {c, 955—0. 1020), 
who has been called * in point of style, the Addison of Old English 
Htoratnre,' in spite of an undue use of alliteration, especially marked 
in his later prose. His mind was assimilative rather than original, 
and his works, classic in their purity of language, are chiefly 
translations. We have three series of Homilies, the third consist- 
ing of Lives of Saints.^ Bible translations were a feature of tenth- 
century literature, and iBlfric rendered portions of the Pentateuch, 
Joshua, Judges, and Jo6, into his alliterative prose. He made our 
first Dictionary, when he compiled his Latin-English Glossary ; and 
his Grammar and Colloquium, tklAtia discourse between teacher and 
scholar, are other educational works. Archbishop ^trnlfttain of 
York als o produced homilies, which Ftofessor Napier has reprinted; 

* S«e Appendix A, Extract Y. 

' ' Earle, Introdnotion to his edition of the Cftr<m{ele«, 1865. 
: : H. Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 
Edited by Bev. R. Horrls for the Early English Text Society. 
Hr. B. Thorpe published two series (85 homilies) in 1844-46 for the iBlftfo 
Boo etj. Professor Skeat has edited the MttrictH Lives </ Saintt for the Barlf 
Snglish Text Boolety, 1881, ^ • 


several of the fifty-three preserved, however, are by other handB. 
A translation of the late Greek story Apollonius of Tt/ re is interest- f 
ing as a specimen of the beginnings of the romance infltience npon 
England^ which under the Normans was to be so potent (see p. 19). 
It is also the first appearance of a story afterwards used by Gower 
in his Confessio Amantis, and by Shakespeare in Peru^, Prince cf 
7^fr9m A Letter of Alexander to Aristotle in verse, preserved in the 
manuscript of Beovmlf, is the first indication of any familiarity 
with the Alexander saga ; while a prose fragment in the same 
manuscript tells of the Wonders cf the East, 

These last-mentioned works are but farther in£cationB of widen- 
ing influences upon our early literature, one of the chief interests of 
which, it has been truly said, is not its originality, but ' that it reflects 
the process by which the native Teutonic civilisation of the English 
became metamorphosed by the intrusion of alien ideas, either Latin 
or transmitted through Latin/ Our older prose, as has been indi« 
eatedfhas little claim to originality ; and while the far nobler verse 
'may be compared even by temperate critics to the Homeric poetry 
of Greece, and the comparison need not be misleading^' yet it also 
is true that * it was not in England that the most wonderfal things 
were produced : there is nothing in Old English that takes hold 
of the mind with that masterful and subduing power which still 
belongs to the lyrical stanzas of the troubadours and minnesinger<i, 
to Welsh romances, or to the epic prose of the Icelandic histories/ * 
Sut if it would be wrong to over-estimate the literary value of our 
oldest literature, would it. not be far worse to undervalue it? 
We * speak the tongue that Shakespeare spake,' exclaims Words- 
worth in one of his noble sonnets; and ' sure, to neglect the be- 
ginnings of such an excellent tongue/ wrote one soon after the grave 
at Stratford had closed, ' will bring vpon vs the foule disgrace not 
onely of ignorance . • . but of extreme ingratitude toward our 
famous ancestors, who left vs so many goodly monuments in this 
their old dialect recorded/ f 

• Prof. W. P. Ker, from whom the above two quotations are also made. Ot his 
Introdaotion to H. Oraik's JSnglish Prose SeUetUnUt i. 1893. 
t Wm. L'Isle, Divert ancient Monumentt in the Saxvn tongue^ 1688^ 




8. Tbe &aia§niaire of tlie Kormaiift. — ^In tJid preceding chapter 
mention was made of the establishment in England of the Scandina- 
vians or Danes {see p. 13, s. 7). In the districts formerly comprised 
in the ancient Danelagh (Dane-law) which Alfred ceded to them» 
traces of their speech still linger in the names of localities, and in the 
dialects of the peasantry. But their arrival produced no marked or 
lasting influence upon tlie language spoken in the South.* They do 
not seem to have extended their limits ; and, speaking, as they did, 
a tongue differing little more than dialectically from that of those 
around them — for Old Korse, or Danish, and Old English, both 
belong to the Teutonic stock of the Aryan family — they easily 
relinquished it to adopt the language of their neighbours. By the 
time of the Norman Conquest a complete fusion of races and speech 
appears to have been effected. 

With the Norman Conquest, however, came another and a widely 
different language. It is true that the Northmen under Kollo, or 
Bolf the Ganger, who, in 912, had extorted the cession of Normandy 
from Charles the Simple, were Scandinavians, like those who, in 
878, had obtained the Danelagh from Alfred, and Scandinavians, 
moreover, who bad first endeavoured to find a settlement in Eng- 
land. But whereas, in the latter case, they had adopted a language 
derived from a Teutonic stock, and not materially differing from their 
own, in the former they had learned a Southern dialect of an entirely 
different descent, and issuing from the Classical or Greco-Latin 
group of the Aryan or Indo-European Family of Languages. 

• See SkeaVa Prinefylet qf Eng, Etfrnologp, I. 1887, oh. xUL for the Scandl- 
aavUm influence ; also hia metimuir^^ 2nd ed. p. 750, for a list of about 700 wotds» 



ThiB was the Bomance (Bamane or Ungtta Somana) toiigae of 
FzsDoe. In former times it was divided into two great dialects, 
taking their tiUes ftom their different modes of expressing assent^ 
the IiANaxTB d*Otl (Northern or Norman-French) and the Lanoub 
n*Oc (Occitanian or Pzoren9al), Oyl and Oc corresponding in either 
case to onr affirmative * Yes.' The former was spoken to the north, 
and the latter to the sonth, of the Kiver Loire. The French brought 
over by the Normans was, of course, a modification of the Langut 
^Oyl; bat when, in 1154, those portions of South- Western France 
which Henry II. had acquired with Eleanor of Gnienne were added 
to the English teiritories, the Langue d!Oc also became known in 
this ooontry, and Henry's son, the Troubadour King, Eichard I., is 
said to have written poems in the Southern Dialect. A Sirvente or 
Military poem, attributed to him, and said to have been composed 
in his German prison, has been preserved.* The following is the 
first verse in Provengal and Norman-French respectively : — 

LANOUE d'oc. 

J4 nuls bom prds non dirit sa razon 
JLdrecbament,8i com bom dolensnon; 
Mas per conort den bom f aixe canaon : 
Fro n'ay d'amls, mas p&tae son li don, 
Ancta Inr es^ si per ma xvzenson 
Soi sai dos yrers pres. 


La! nus boms pris ne dira sa raison 
Adroitcment, ee dolantement non, 
Hals por effort pttet-il f aire chanson ; 
Modt ai amis, mais poure sont li don, 
Honte i auront se por ma reans'on 
Sai ca dos yycrs pris. 

9. P rogress of tbe Bngrliab Xaiiflraaffo* — At first, the 
language of the conquerors proved stronger than that of the con- 
quered ; and although the Saxon Chronicle^ a work in the vernacular 
{see p. 14, s. 7), comes down as far as 1154, the English Language, 
for a long period after the date of the Norman Conquest, ceased to 
be employed in literature, or by the governing classes. Normans 
filled the Ecclesiastical, State, and Court offices ; Normans for the 
most part held the land ; and the military were Norman. Latin 
was the language of tbe laws and of the learned ; in popular lite- 
rature, the trouveres or minstrels of the Normans displaced the 
native ecdps or gleemen, and the elder English was for the time sup- 
pressed and ignored. Yet, to use the happy simile of Mr. Camp- 
bell,t ' the influence of the Norman Conquest upon the language of 
England was like that of a great inundation, which at first buries 
the £ice of the landscape under its waters, but whichj at last sub« 
siding, leaves behind it the elements of new beauty and fertility.* 
There still existed among the inferior classes an unquenchable 

• Sismondrs Lit. of (he South of Europe^ Bobn's od. i. 116. Tbe FroTen9al 
Verae bas been corrected from Raynouard, PoisUt dea Troubadours, iv. 199, 
t JKHoy on EnglUh iWry, 1848, 1. 


vernacnlar, vital and vigorous eoongh to xear itself against oppres- 
sion, to effect its own re-construction, to gather new strength from 
the very tongue of its oppressors, and finallj, simplified and 
renewed, to resume its ascendency. 

It may be well to describe, in filler detail, this transformation ol 
the language. Although continuing essentially English it under- 
went two material changes— 'the one acting upon its structure, the 
other upon its substance. To these phases in its history the names 
of FiBST and Sscond Gbsat Bbvoluhoks have been very sugges- 
tively applied. The fonner practically belongs to the present 
chapter ; the latter, partly to the present and partly to the next« 
Before the arrival of the Normans the language may be defined as 
' a highly-inflected language with a vocabulary of native growth,' 
and these characteristic features it retained until the Conquest. Sub- 
sequent to that period the disintegration or breaking-upof its inflec- 
tional system which constitutes its First Bevolution, was gradually 
effected. It became ' an illiterate patois,' to which various names 
have, at times, been applied ; of these, the term, ' Transition Old 
English/ employed by Mr. Sweet, would seem most appropriate. With 
the precise cause of this alteration we cannot deal, and although 
it can by no means be entirely attributed to the Norman invasion, 
it nevertheless practically coinrided with the new order of things, 
social and political, which ensued from that event . . 

During the third century after the Conquest, the struggle for 
supremacy between Norman-French and English began to decline ; 
the conquerors relinquished their attempts to impose their own 
tongue upon their subjects, and, on the contrary, began to learn 
and write English themselves. TJie English, upon their side, 
began to admit Norman words into their vocabulary. In this 
combination of a Komance, Norman, or French element with the 
Teatonic dialects the Second Eevolution consists. Its more active 
period belongs to the succeeding chapter. But its commencement 
may in a general way be said to correspond with the beginning of 
the Early ' Middle English ' stage, 1200>1300 {^e p. 3, n.). * For 
a long time the two languages, French and English, kept almost 
entirely apart. The English of 1200 is almost as free from French 
words as the English of 1050 ; and it is not till after 1300 that 
French words began to be adopted wholesale into English.' * 

10. Tbe &lteratare of tlie iiiiglo-irorinans. — ^With the 
peaceful accession of Edward the Confessor, it has been said, an 

* Sweet, New Eng. Orammar, 1892, $ 617. See also $$ 610^28. Skeat*9 
PHneiples qf Eng. Philology, Ft. II. 1891, chaps. i.-xli. deals with the philological 
sfde of the {^abject. Fitof. Lp\mBbiuy's HUt. tf the Eng. Lang. lSf94, pp. 48>114, 
gives a clear genieral accoadt. 



oppeitnnity appeared to have at last amred for the revival of 
£ngif6h Hterstore from the degradation into which it had fallen 
after the time of Alfred. Bat, practieally, Edward's ascent of the 
tlirone in 1042 only prepared the way for the change which the 
Korman Conquest subsequently effected, viz., the stifling of the ver- 
naoolar liteiature for nearly a century and a half. The new King 
was a middle-aged man, who had been educated in France.. He was 
nearly related to the Bakes of Kormandy, and his sympathies aad 
opinions were naturally French. In his reign the inroad of Normaa 
modes of thought and speech, so powerful under his immediate sue* 
cessors, had already commenced; and for nearly the whole of th« 
long period of which the present chapter tceatfi, Latin and Korman- 
French were the recognised vehicles of literature,. the former being 
employed in the graver work of history or science — ^for the records of 
the chronicler or the speculations of the scholastic philosopher, and 
the latter — ^until the voice of English was once more heazd^n the 
popular narratives of Bomance and Chivalry.. 

* The native tendencies of the Saxons,' says Prof. Masson, ' bad 
been rather to the practical and ethical.' Widely differing in cha- 
racter werA the lively fabliaux and chivalrous romances which the 
Norman minstrels and jongleurs made familiar in court aiid castle. 
The chief exponents of this lighter literature were the trouvhea or 
mmestrcU of Northern France. The lyric poetry of the Proven9al 
troubadour — the Langnedoeian equivalent for. trouvere — although 
naturalised to some extent in England after the accession of Henry II., 
never made any lasting impression upon our literature. As has 
been already implied (p. 12), the narrative predominated over the 
true lyric element even in earlier days, and so vigorously was it now 
reinforced by the Trouvere influence * that in the whole course of 
Fng^lish literature since, one can see the narrativO impulse ruling 
and the lyric subordinate.' * 

The Trouvere poetry may generally be classed under the two heads 
of fabliaux, or short, humorous and frequently malicious stories in 
verse ; and the longer and more ambitious rofnances of chivalry. 
The former, until the time of Chaucer, cannot be said to have greatly 
affected our literature. But an extraordinary impetus was given to 
the labours of the romancers by the appearance, by 1147, of the 
legends of Arthur and Merlin which Geoffrey of Monmouth had in- 
corporated in his semi-fabulous History of the Britons, Here was a 
new and unworked field, and the writers who had been contented with 
inventing fresh episodes in new narratives of Charlemagne and 
Al6':i&nder, turned eagerly to the majestic flguf e of ' mythic Uther's som' 

* Mafisod, irithh ifotttUU and their 8tyU\ 1869, 46-7. 



06offrej*e history became the germ of the vast cyde of Bomances, 
which, unexhausted even in our day, has fumiahed to the yezie of 
Ld. Tennyson the themes for those lofty lessons of nobility and 
courtesy which he has interworen with his LfyUs of the Kmg, 

11. Tbe Arttmriaii Romance*. — ^Whether the incidents of 
Geofi&ey's narrative were derived from Welsh originals or Breton 
traditions, or from both — ^and to what extent he has amplified or 
'romanced ' them, are enquiries of too lengthy and contradietozy a 
nature to be attempted here.* It is sufllcient to state that th^ im- 
mediately became popular and were at once reproduced in French, 
with considerable amplification, by Geoiftey Oaimar and Mestxe Waoe^ 
jMid^ liLfAip \%Y fJiA "RnyllRTi T^y^n^^p. who iutiodaced them into his 
Brut €P Angleterre, Meanwhile an extensive development of the 
Arthurian story seems to have taken place. Whether the additions 
are due to the vigorous fancy of the narrators, or to the discovery of 
other traditions, which the general interest in the subject had facili- 
tated, it is impossible to decide, but one thing is dear, viz., that at 
the end of the reign of Henry II. there were no less than five se pa- 
mte prose yiarmfriVfl ^ faRomam upon the subject T he first of these 
^—ih^^oman du 8amt Graal (sometimes called the Soman de 
Joseph tPArimathie), is the stozy of the holy vessel Qfraal, ffreal, 
greil^tk plate or dish) from which Our Lord ate at the Last 
Supper, and which Joseph of Arimathea employed to collect his 
blood, bringing both vessel and contents— so runs the tradition— 
ikfterwards into Britain f : — 

* Hither oame Joseph of Arimathy, 
Who brought with him tbe hoilf gnt^le, (they say,) 
And preaoht the truth ; but sinoe it greatly did decay.* 

(Spenier, Faaiy Queene^ Bk. IL z. 63.) 

^v^The second is the Soman of the Prophet Merlin. The third— the 
- . ^ Soman de Lanceiot du Lao — records Uie adventures of that knight 
V- and his love of Guenever; the Qu^ (or seeking) du Saint Graal, 
which had been lost, forms the subject of the fourth, while in the 
last — the SoTnan de la Mort Artue—\,)iQ death of the King is related. 
The manuscripts assign the last three of these to Walter Map, yet 
modem criticism has not allowed his claim to the works, as we now 
have them, to pass wholly unquestioned. Robert de Borron, to 
whom the other two are assigned, certainly wrote a verse rendering 
of the • Joseph ' legend, and the beginning of a * Merlin.* 

Another writer, Luces, Seigneur de Gast (xii. Cent.), appears to 
have invented or discovered the character of Tristram, the 'first 

* See M. A. Borderie'a VHUtoria BrUonum attribude it Nennius, 1883. 
t See A. Katt'B Studia on tAe Solp Grail, 18881 


part' of whose achioTements he recounted in the so-called Boman de 
TriOan, A second part was afterwards produced by Bobert de 
Bonon's brother or relathre — Hilie de Borron, to whom we also owe 
a supplementary hero, Gyron U Courtau, and *a fresh race of 
worthies.* To this list must be added, according to Sir Frederick 
Madden (&om whose preface to Sir Gawayne the foregoing informa- 
tion is derived*), the metrical romances composed between 1170 
and 1195, by the French poet, Chrestie a dfl ^'Vyf?, ati^ the prose 
of Rusticien de Pise, and other writers of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. fJTrfgtiim'g Ertt? tf .BhtWr, rs told in the Idylls of 
the Kinff, Perceval le Galloie ou le Cbnie du Grail, and the Chevalier 
au Lyon, re-appear in the collection of Welsh faiiy tales transhited 
by Lady CHiarlotte Guest firom ancient Welsh MSS., and published, 
in 1838-49, under the title of the Habinooion. Finally, in the reign 
of Edward IV., the Arthurian romances, nbiftfly i^^ba nf Map ^nH 
jRaTmw^ Aa "RAWiiQTi, 'wete re-compiled into one volume by a certain 
Sir Thomas Malorv. a nd given to the world, in 1485, from the press 
of William Oaxton. Malory's book is entitled Le morte Darihur, 
' Kotwithstondyng' (says the colophon) <it treateth of the byrth, 
lyf, and odes of the sayd kynge Arthur, of his noble knyghtes of 
the Tounde table, theyr meruayllous enquestes, and aduentures, 
thachyeuyng of the sangreal, and in thende the dolourous deth and 
departing out of thys world of them al/ The original edition of 
this 'prose epic * has been lately reprinted, together with a valuable 
study of the sources of the work.t 

12. IVHters In XAtlii. — By position and eminence, Kanfirano 
(1005 — 1089), a Lombard priest whom the Conqueror brought from 
his monastery of Bee in Caen to be Primate of England, is entitled 
to a prominent place among the Latin writers of this period. He 
is distinguished for his zealous encouragement of schools and 
scholars, and for his praiseworthy endeavours to cultivate the study 
of Latin in England, as already he had cultivated it in France. His 
literary reputation is based upon the logical acuteness with which, 
drea 1080, he defended the Beal Presence against Berengarius in 
a Treatise on the Eucharist* Commentaries on the Psalms and St. 
Paul's Epistles are included among his remaining writings. Anselm 
(1084-1109), a Lombard like Lanfiranc^ and his successor both at 
Bee and Canterbury, also greatly furthered the extension of know- 
ledge. But he is more famous fbr his dispute concerning the Trinity 

* Sir Gawaifne ; a CoUeetion o/Atteieni Romanee-Poenu, Baonatyne Olub, 1839. 
t By Mr. Natt, in 8 vols. 1889-91, ed. H. Oskar Sommer. Several coeap 
•ditloiu— e^^. the Olobe—tJao exist. 


with the fonnder of the sect of the Nominalists, Boaoelliiras ; and 
hgr his attodation with that great syatem for * conciliating faith with 
TWBou* — the Scholastic Philosophy, — to the ranks of whose 
thinkam EngUnd suooessirely oontribnted a — to nse the jargon of 
the sehoolmen-—I>oc^ /rr«/rtf^aMw( Aloxaader Bales, d. 1245); 
a Doctor Subtilis (Bqhs Bcotiia, d, 1308), perhaps the greatest 
master of the Art, and leader of the Scotists as opposed to the 
Thomists, or followers of Thomas Aquinas {d, 1274) ; and, lastly, a 
Doctor InvinoUfilis (William of Occam, d, 1347), from whose 
triumphant reviyal of Nominalism, which had declined during the 
temporary ascendency of Baalism in the thirteenth century, the final 
decay of Scholasticism takes its date. The Nominalists, it should 
be explained, held universal notions, or the genera and tpwies of 
things, to be nothing more than names, while the Realists, on the 
other hand, regarded them as expressive of real existences. In con- 
nection with Scholasticism must also be mentioned J^hn of Salia* 
iNUir (1120 — 1180), who, in his Policraticvs, de Nugit Curialium 
et VotiigiU Pkiloaophorwn, 'appeals to the nobler philosophy of 
Christiaa momlists against the vain array of logical formulas,' t and 
contrasts the frivolous ambitions of Court life with the worthier 
objects of the student 

The famous Franciscan and philosopher of Henry TTT/s reign, 
lU>ffor Bacon (1214 — 1292), also belongs to the Latin writers of 
the Anglo-Norman period by his Opua Hiqfua, Opus Mimis, and 
Opus Tertium, These works, pent in their writer's mind until Pope 
Clement IV. released him from the strict anti-litorary rule of his 
order, were composed, we are told, in eighteen months : an instance, 
says one of his editors, of ' application almost superhuman.' . They 
display an advanced knowledge of mathematical and physical 
scianoe ; but, better than this, a healthy hatred of what their author 
styles the four offendicula or stumbling blocks to truth — tradition, 
custom, the teaching of inexperience, and shame of ignorance. In 
some of Bacon's ingenious coi\]ectures, discoveries of a much later 
date, as, for example, gunpowder and the telescope, are popularly 
held to have been foreshadowed ; but, in the opinion of judges, too 
much importance has been attached to the question. 

Another distinguished Latin writer was VTaltcr Map or MEapcs 
(xii. Cent), Archdeacon of Oxford, who, upon the strength of the 
drinking song in rhyming Latin verse extracted from the humorous 
Coj{fe8sion of Golias, has, perhaps ui\iustly, acquired a traditional 
reputation for joviality. Several other satirical poems, directed 

• Q. H. Lewea, Hist, ofPhUotophy, ii Bl. 



like the Oonfesflion, against the vices of the clergy — the Cistercians 
especially — and having for their hero the same personage — ^a worth- 
less clerical sensualist and pot-companion —have been attributed to 
Map. His versions of the Arthurian Eomances {see p. 20, s. 11) 
have already been referred to. He also wrote a Latin book with a 
similar title to that of John of Salisbury — De Nugis Curialium, — a 
shrewd and chatty record of Court ana and recollections. Map was 
apparently a person of considerable wit and ability, and if he wrote 
all tlie poems printed in Mr. Wright's collection,* may lay fair claim 
to the title of * Anacreon of his Century ' bestowed upon him by 
Lord Lyttelton. As an example of Leonine verse, we print two of 
the less- cited quatrains of the 'drinking-song' above referred to;— 

* Unicuiqno proprinm dat natnra donnm : 
Ego versus faciens bibo Tinnm bonnm, 
et qnod habent mellas doUa canponum ; 
tale Tinum generat copia sermonum. 

< Tales Tersns f acio quale Tlnnm bibo : 
nihil possum scribcrc nisi sumpto cibo ; 
nihil Talet penitns quod jejunos sciibo, 
Nasonem post calicos carmine preeibo.' 

In some stricter forms of this measure there is a rhyme in the 
middle of the verse, as in the well-known epitaph of Bede : — 

* Hoc sunt in/assa, Beds Ycncrabilis ossa,* 

The remaining writers of this class are very numerous ; but they 
are chiefly historians or chroniclers. Among them may be men- 
tioned Badmer {d. 1124), a Benedictine of Cantcrbuiy, who wrote, 
among other works, a L?fe of Anselm; Orderious Vitalis (1Q75- 
1 142), author of an Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy ) 
'VTiUiam of Malmesbury (1095-1143), author of an English 
History — J)e Gestie Begum Avglorum; Oeottrey of Monmoutli 
(d, 1154), already mentioned ;t Benry of Buntinffdon {d. after 
1154) ; Josepb Zsoaniu or Josepb of Sxeter {d. 1195), author 
of The Antiocheis, a poem on the Third Crusade, and an epic in six 
books on the Trojan War; Geoffrey de Vinsauf (d. xii. Cent.), 
author of a treatise — De Nova Poctria ; Gervase of Tilbury (d, 
xii. Cent.), whose Oiia Imperialia were written to amuse the £m- 
peror Otho IV.; Hogrer of VTendover (d. 1237); Hoffer de 
Boveden (xii. and xiii. Cent.) ; the topographer and poet, Giraldus 

• Camden Society's publications : Poems attributeil to Walter MapeSf edited by 
Thomas Wright, F.S.A., 1841. The I>e Nugis alone is certainly his. 
t See p. 20, s. 11, 7%e Arthurian Itomances. 



Cambromis or Oerald da Bunrt (1147-1217 ?) ; ToM«lla da 

Bmkelonda (xii. and xiii. Gent.), iHioee *BosweUeaii Note-book' 
of the doings at St. EdmondBbuzy OoBTeot plays a considerable 
part in Garlyle's Past and Present ; * and Katttiew Varls (i. 
1269). As a rule these authors were little more than painstaking 
compilers of records making no pretensions to force, originality, 
or elegance of style. Some of them, however — ^for example, Wil* 
liam of Malmesbnry — far excel the rest in composition. Others — 
as Joseph of £xeter and GeoflTrey de Yinsanf —chose metre for the 
medium of their productions, and attained to respectable fltten<7 and 
proficiency as yersifiers. 

13. mrrlters in Freneb. — ^If we except the trouvhe, Taillefer, 
whom Wace represents as riding to his death at Hastings :— 

* Sur nn roossin qui tot alont 
Devant li das alout cantant 
De Kalcsrmaine e de Bolant 
E d'OUver at des yaasaU 
Ki monmrent il BonceraUi,* t 

the earliest French writer of any importance is a prot^g^ of Queen Ade- 
lais of Louvaine, Vbllippe de Tbaim {Ji, xii. Cent), who wrote an 
allegorical and chronological poem, De CreaturiSf and a JBestiarius, or 
Natural History, which he dedicated to the ' mtdt helefemiTiet his pro- 
tectress. Another is Sanson de Kantenil« who lired in the reign 
of Stephen, and translated the Proyerbs of Solomon into octosyllabic 
Norman-French, under the title of Bomam, thus illustrating the 
earlier meaning of the word, which at first signified nothing more 
than * liber Bomanus* a work in the Homance language. 

Of the Norman rhyming Chroniclers the chief are Gettnd Oalmar 
(fi. 1150), author of a rhymed chronicle entitled Estorie dee Engles 
(Angles), coming down to Uio death of Hufns ; the so-called *Mestre* 
^Vace {d, 1184), a canon of Bayeux, author of the Brut d^ AngUterret 
a history of England from the Brutus of fable to the death of Cadwal- 
lader (689), based mainly upon Geoffirey of Monmouth; and the 
Boman de Bou (or Rollo), a chronicle of the Bukes of Normandy, 
from the earliest period to the reign of Heniy II. ; Benott de 8t« 
IMCanr (fl, 1180), who, like Wace, wrote a Boman de Xformandie, 
which extended to 43,000 yerses, and also a Boman de Troyt ; and, 
lastly, Feter de Kanfftoft {fiw. 1300), Canon of the Priory of SU 
Augustine at Bridlington, in Yorkshire, who compiled a metrical 

• 9. book iL Th9 Awimt Monk, 

t Waoe, Raman de limit oited ia IMm^ Sitt, fif EnglUh Literature, Van Laim*f 
translation, Bk. I. otaap. it Dir. 2. 


History of England, translating and continuing Geoffroy of Mon« 
month to the reign of Edward L A life of Becket in French verse, 
from the Latin of Herbert de Bosham, Becket's secretary, has also 
been attributed to Langtofb ; it is not by him. 

The already mentioned Arthurian Bomancers — ^Walter Map* 
ftobert de Borroii«and &aees dn Gast| — ^Robert Oro«it6t6ff 
Bishop of Lincoln (1175-1253), an Englishman who wrote a reli- 
gious poem * upon the farourite subject of the fall and restoration of 
man,' sometimes called the Chastel or Chateau cT Amour (yiz. the 
Virgin Mary) ; and Barb of Butlaiad, a native of Cornwall, who, 
deserting the Arthurian legends, laid the scene of his lengthy metrical 
lomances, Ypomedon and ProtesUaus, in the south of Italy, con- 
clude our list of writers in Norman-French. There are, however, 
numerous French metrical romances, of which the authorship is 
unknown or uncertain. Such are the Lai de Aveloc, assigned to the 
first half of the twelfth century, the Bojnan du Boi Homy and others. 

14. mrrltem la Bnglisli* — ^Besides a few brief fragments attri- 
buted to the Durham Hermit, St. Ck>drio (e?. 1170), and five lines 
known as the Here Prophecy ^ 1189, the first English writings after 
the Conquest are those of Kasramon, a worthy priest of Emley- 
by-Sevem (assumed to be Areley-Begis, near Stourport, in Worces- 
tershire), who translated the Brut of Wace {see p. 24, s. 13); and, 
completing it from other sources, produced, about 1200, a Brut or 
Chronicle of Britain, * The language of Layamon,' says his editor, 
Sir Frederic Madden, ' belongs to that transition period in which the 
groundwork of Anglo-Saxon phraseology and grammar still existed, 
though gradually yielding to the influence of the popidar forms of 
speech.' The Chronicle extends to more than 14,000 long verses ; 
it holds loosely to the alliterative principle of the Old-English poems, 
and it also contains many rhymed couplets. A curious feature of 
the work is its 'nunnation,' or .employment of the letter n as the 
termination of certain words. It has also been remarked as 
characteristic of the writer's unwillingness to employ the language 
of the conquerors that, although he is translating irom a French 
original, and would naturally be tempted to employ French words, 
there are scarcely fifty such in the whole of his work. The specimen 
given in our Appendix of Extracts will afford some idea of the first- 
named peculiarity, and of the general character of the composition.* 
The Ormulum, a series of metrical homilies, attributed to Orm 
or Ormln, an Augustine monk, is usually placed after the Chroniclo 

• See Appendix A, Extract YL 


of Lftjamon ; the date is imcertain. Orm*s simple style is unpoetlc ; 
rejecting alliteration and rhyme he uses the septenar, which i$ 
divided into two halMinea of eight and seven syllables.* A purist 
in vocabulary — he has few French or Latin words — and spelling, 
bis poem is chiefly valuable for phonetic history. 

Two rhyming chroniclers, Hobert of Glouoe»ter {t&mp, 
Henry III., Edward I.), and aftobert of Bnumo or Robert 
BCMUiyiig (1260-1340), are the principal writers of this class after 
Layamon and Orm. The former, who has been styled by his editor, 
Ueame, the 'English Ennius,' wrote, about 1280, a Chronicle of Eng- 
land from Brutus to Henry III. (1272), the earlier portions of which 
are derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth. It is in rhymed lines of 
fourteen syllables ; and for its topographical accuracy was consulted 
by Selden when annotating Drayton's Polyolbion. Several lives of 
saints, a Martyrdom of Thomas a Bceket and a lAfe of 8i, Brandan 
also eame from his pen. ' As a relater of events,' says Mr. Campbell, 
' he is tolerably succinct and perspicuous, and wherever the fact is 
of liny importance he shows a watchful attention to keep the reader^s 
memory distinct with regard to chronology, by making the date of 
the year rhyme to somediing prominent in the relation of the fieu:t.' f 
The following lines, bearing upon the introduction of the French 
language into England, are taken from this chronicler's account of 
the reign of William I. : — 

* Thus com, lo I Engelond in-to Normandie's hond. 
And tLe Kormans ne couthe Bpeke tho {then] bote hor o%ve spcche, 
And speke French as hii dnde atom [tU homely and hor children dude also teche. 
8o that heiemen .[M^A-men] of this lond that of hor blod oome, 
Holdeth aUe thulke spedie that hii of horn nome [tooi]. 
Yor bote a man conne Frenss me telth of him lute ilUtle] f 
Ac lowe men holdeth to Engliss and to hor ovre speche yute Ipef^ 
Ich wene ther ne both in al the world oontreyes none, 
That ne holdeth to hor owe spcche, bote Engelond one ialone},* t 

The chronicle Of the second writer named above, Bobert of 
Brunne (Bourn in Lincolnshire), is said to have been finished in 
1338. It is in two parts, the first of which, in octo-sy liable rhyme, 
is translated from Wace (see p. 24, s. 13) ; the second, in Alexandrine 
verse^ from Peter deLangtoft (see p. 24, s. 13). Brunne is a smoother 
versifier than Kobert of Gloucester. It is notable too, tliat his work 

• See Appendix A, Extract YII. 
t JSssap on English Poetrp^ 1848, 18-9. 

t Specimen* oj: Earlg English, by Bev. B. Morris, LU>^ and Bev. W. W. 
8keat, M.A. (Clarendon Press Series), Part 11. 1891, 


has a popular purpose j-^-it is ' not for the lered (learned) but fbr the 
lewed (unleamed)y and made 

' — for the Inf llore] of symple menne 
That strange Inglls canne not kenne {know}/ 

Under the title of Handk/n^ Synne, he also prodveed, in 1303, a 
fieee paraphrase of the Manud de$ Plohiejs of a certain William of 
Wadington, enlirening it 'with numieroas anecdotes frequently illus« 
trattve of monkish morality. An extract from Branne's Chronicle 
Trill be found in Appendix A.^ 

Other writers in English are JHtn lUcliel of Vortlitrate* 
author of a prose tianslati<»i from the French, entitled the Ayenbiie 
of luwyt (Remorse of Conscience), 1340 ; Stcbard S^lle, styled 
the Hermit of Hampole {d, 1349), author of a dull JMcke of Con- 
science, 1340, in the Northumbrian dialect, which drags its slow 
length to nearly ten thousand lines; and XAurenee moot 
(]30S>13d2), to whom belongs the credit of haying quitted the 
beaten track of translation and adaptation to follow the bent of his 
invention. From Minot we hare eleven military ballads celebrating 
the Tictories of Edward IIL, from Halidon Hill (1333) to the Battle 
of Guisnes (1352).t 

Tke Aneren Biwle, or rule of Female Anchoritea, a pious prose 
treatise possibly compiled (c. 1210) by Sloliard 9oor (d, 1237)« 
is one of several works of unknown authorship. Another, the 
metrical Genesis and Exodus (ante 1800), is a humble attempt to 
follow in the wake of Csdmon (p. 10) ; while in the lengthy Cursor 
Mundi (c, 1320) the whole history of the world is passed in review, 
from the Creation onward. This, therefore^ has a distinct relation 
to our cydea of Miracle Plays. The skilful and artistic Owl and 
the Mffhtingale (e, 1250) narrates in dialogue a contest between the 
two birds as to their vocal merits, which they refer to Vloliolas 
of Guilford, sometimes doubtfully held to be the author. Examples 
of eailj fabliaux (see p. ID) are found in Dame Sirie (temp, Hy. III,)f 
which shows signs of Indian origin ; in The Fox and the Wolf, our 
earliest * animal' poem, prophetic of Chaucer's delightful Nun's 
Priest's Tale ; while the Land of Coehaygne is ' an allegorical satire 
on the luxury of the church, couched under the description of an 
imaginary piuadise '{— that of * Kitchen-land' 1 

Many English versions of the French Metrical Komances also 

• See Appendix A, Extract TIIL 

f 8ee Appendix A, Extract IX. 

X Campbell, Eisajf an English Poetry, 1848; IS, 


belong to this period. Such tianslation began under Henry IIL, and 
under Edward L and his snocessors it assnmed vast proportions : 
*The English seized at random the rich treasures of French poetry, 
bringing forth what was valuable or worthless, ancient or modem, 
popular or courtly, in order to adapt it for the home public/* The 
popular Arthurian cycle was extended by poems like Sir Tnstrenif 
formerly attributed to Thomas of Erceldoune (Earlston in Eirkud- 
bright, on the Scotch Border), called * the Rhymer ; ' by Ywaine and 
Gatnn, and the later Sir Qawaine and the Qreen Knight, The 
Alexander saga, of which we saw &int indications even before the 
Clonquest {see p. 15), now became popular in England as it was 
throughout Europe, and our oldest version, like that of Sir IHstrem, 
dates from the reign of Edward L Of the Charlemagne cyde we 
have about ten romances. Richard Oxur de lAon indicates a 
tendency to apply the extravagant romance treatment to a more 
* national ' hero ; Florie and Blanchefieur (temp. Henry III.) shows a 
late Greek and oriental influence due largely to the Crusades. 
Other poems are distinctly English or Anglo-Danish in origin, 
although the stories only survive in translations from the French. 
Such are Havehck and King Horn ; while the popular Qtty of War* 
wick, of which we have several translations, has its scene Laid in the 
days of King Athelstan, and Bevis of Hampton in those of King 
Edgar. Both the latter arose early in the fourteenth century. Most 
of these romances are in rhyming octosyllabic metre, but that French 
influence did not wholly destroy the taste for our older alliterative 
verse is seen in two Alexander fragments, in William ofPaUme or 
William the Werwolf (IZ5S), as well as in the poem by Langland 
which is dealt with in the next chapter. 

One fourteenth century poem stands apart from these Anglo- 
French romances. It is a rather £sinciAil medieval ' In Memoriam,' 
a difficnlt but interesting lament of a father over the death of his 
two-yeaxK>ld child. First edited thirty years ago by Dr. Morris, it 
was called by him the Pearl ; and its poetic value may be judged from 
the lines written by Lord Tennyson for a more recent edition : f 

*We lost you— for bow long a tiine^ 
Trne pearl of onr poetio prime t 
We found you, and you gleam reset 
In Britain's lyrio coronet* 

• Ten Brink. JSarlp Eng, Ziteraturey i. p. S34-5. 

t That of Hr. I. Gollanos, 1891, published by Hr. Kutt^ by whose joint permls- 
ilni the lines are reproduced. Mr. Gk>llancz has added a modem rendering. 


rsoM CBAvcas to avwatxr. 



15. Progress of tlie Bngllsli XAnffuaffe* — ^In fJie preceding 
chapter (see p. 17i s. 9) the progress of the 'written yemacalar 
tongue was traced &om Uie Norman Conquest to the middle of the 
fourteenth century. During that period it had undergone what 
has been styled its First G-reat Beyolution, i,e, the change of its 
structure by its conversion from an inflected into an un-inflected 
language; and commenced its Second Great Bevolution: i.e, the 
change of its substance by the admission into its vocabulary of 
numberless Norman-Prench words. During the period embraced 
in the present chapter — ^firom the middle of the fourteenth to the 
middle of the sixteenth century — this second revolution proceeded 
with accelerated vigour. It will be remembered that a prominent 
cause of the further alteration in the language was the gradual 
disuse of French. To this a new motive was now given by the 
Gallic wars of Edward III. By 1350 English had taken the place 
of French as a medium for teaching Latin in schools ; and, in 1362, 
it was enacted that all trials at law should henceforth be conducted 
in English, upon the plea that French was become unknown in the 
realm {est trop desconue en le dit realme). As the supremacy of 
Norman-French declined, the reviving English made amends for 
its long period of suppression and stagnation by recruiting and in* 
ci-easing its powers from the very language which, in its servitude, 
it had persistently declined to assimilate. Simplified in its grani* 


meXf enriched in its rocabulary, it becomes henceforth more TigoronSt 
more plastic, more fluent, and better fitted in everj respect for ex* 
pressing the yarieties of a literary style. 

That part of the second Great Eevolution included in the fore- 
going chapter extends half way through the 'Middle English' 
period, 1 200^-1 dOO. The present chapter takes us to the beginning 
of ' Modern English,' which Mr. Sweet (cf. p. 3, n,) would plac6 as 
early as 1500, while others prefer the date 1550. It embraces, we 
may remark, the whole ot the time occupied by the growth and 
progress of the great English Protestant Beformation, and by an- 
other moTement of no small importance to the advancement of our 
national literature, — the introduction into and establishment in 
England of the art of printing, to which, in its chronological order, 
a reference wilt hereafter be made. 

16. &aiiglanaf Ckiwer, Barbonr.^As the earlier works of 
Chaucer belong to the latter half of the reign of Edward HI., he 
might fairly precede the writers of this period. Bat before giving 
iny account of the * Father of English Poetry * (as Dryden calls him), 
it will be convenient to deal with the three chief poets of his day — 
Langland, Glower, and Barbour. This arrangement is the more 
justifiable in that the writings of none of them, Gower, perhaps, 
excepted, can be said to have been vitally influenced by the works of 
V Chaucer* The first on the list, WUUam Kangleyt^rKaiiglaad 
(1332 — 1400?), conjectured to have been a secular priest^ and a 
native of Gleobury Mortimer, in Shropshire, passes for the author 
of a remarkable allegorical poem entitled, The Vimon of_W ^liam 
concem%ng _ JPiera ih e Phwman, in alliterative unrhymed metre. 
From internal evidence tlie earliest form of this poem is believed to 
belong to the year 1362, and to have been partly composed by its 
author while wax^dering about the Malvern Hills. Subsequently he 
appears to have come to London, to a minute knowledge of which he 
testifies by numberless allusions. About 1377 and again about 
1393, he is supposed to have re-written or ro-cast his work, so that 
its composition extends over a number of years. It _consists of 
several fasma or sections^escribing a series of visions. One pro* 
logue and the first seven of t£ese pcs&us only refer to tbe vision 
of Piers the Plowman — ^the typical honest man (^t times identified 
with the human nature of Christ), after whom the entire collection 
has been named. The remaining thirteen of the twenty jmasim deal 
successively with the * visions of William' concerning certain 
abstraotiona ot virtues named respectively Do-well, Do^t [ter], and 


Ikhbesi.* A detailed analysis of the book is impossible in iSua plaee; 
But the foUowiog quotation will convey some idea of its chasactev 
and intention: — ' The Vision h^a little unity of plan, and indeed— 
consideredas^ j^bire against m any^ individual and not obviously ^ 
obnnecfed alraaes is <chureh and state — it needed nono. Bat its aim 
and purpose are one. . . It was [is] a calm , allegorical e^B agition 
o f the corruptions o f the.jtai,e, of the church, and_otjpcial life, 
designedi not to rouse the people to violent resistance or bloody 
vengeance, but to reveal to them the true causes of the evils under 
which they were suffering, and to secure the reformation of those 
grievous abuses, by a united exertion of the moral influence which 
generally accompanies the possession of superior physical strength.' f 
The popularity of Langland's satire gave rise, about 1394, to a 
shorter poem (with which it is sometimes confused) levelled against 
the Mars, and entitled Fierce the Tloughman^a Crede, Nothing is 
known of its author beyond the fact that he says he wrote the 
Fkwmav^s Tale, sometimes printed as C^ianccr's. 

The next great poetical contemporary of Chaucer, faintly (but 
perhaps discriminately) commended by him as * the morall Gower,* 
was a poet of a different and less original stamp than the author 
of Piers the Plowman, Like Langland, 7oliii Oower (1325 ? — "^ 
1408} also had a purpose; but its expression was impaired by the 
difiuseness of his style, and overpowered by his unmanageable 
erudition. The senior and survivor of Chaucer, he was of a knightly 
family in Kent, where he possessed considerable estates. Ho was 
well educated, where we know not, lived much in London, in close 
relations with the court, married at an advanced age, and was 
buried in St. Saviour's, Southwark, to which church, says his epitaph, 
he was 'a distinguished benefactor.' His principal works are • 
Balades, love-poems in the Proven9al manner, preserved in a copy 
presented by the author to Henry IV. ; the Speculum Meditantis, or 
Mirror of Man, written in French; the Vox Clamantis, in Latin 
elegiacs, and the Confessio Amantis, 1893, in English octosjllabic 
metre. Of the second of these, which is described by a contemporary X 
as seeking to teach * by a right path, the way whereby a trans- 
gressed sinner ought to return to the knowledge of his Creator,* no 
318. is known to exist. The Vox Clamaniis, to which was after- 

* The ' Crowley * or B. text of 1S77 is here referred to. 

t Marsh, qaoted by Bkeat, Fiert JPlouman, IL xliz. 1886. See Marley*« JSnff, 
Writers, iv. 1889, for an analysis of the whole ; also Miss E. M. Warren's prost 
rendering, 1895 ; J. J. Jusserand's study of the * mystical* side of the potent, 
1894 ; and Appendix A, Extract XI/'^'-^ 

X Qaoted in Morley, ^nglUh WrUert, yph iv. p. 171, ed. 1888. 


wuxU added a supplement known as the Tri^rtUe Chronic, ireato 
the insnirection of Wat Tyler (1881) allegorically, and then deriates 
Into ' a didactic argument on the condition of society in Gower's time, 
prompted by the significant outbreak described in the first book/* 
k/ The Confessio Amanita is a dialogue of more than 30,000 lines be- 
tween Genius, a pries!: or clerk of Venus, and the poet himself (he 
was then over sixty years of age), in the character of an unhappy 
lorer. Genius subjects him to a minute and searching interrogatoiy 
as to the nature of his ofiences against Love, taking the sins in turn, 
and exemplifying each by apposite stories from different sources. 
Thus Chiding, a sub-sin of Anger, is illustrated by accounts of the 
patience of Socrates, the blinding of Tiresias, the White Crow turned 
black (cf, the Mauncipl^a Tide in Chaucer, Appendix B), and so 
forth. The patient prolixity and power of barren detail which are 
expended upon this leisurely performance would make it intole- 
rable to a modem reader, and have indeed extorted from students 
and editors such epithets as * petrifying * and ' tedious.' Neverthe- 
less, Gtower, says Mr. Hallam, indulgently, * though not like 
Chaucer, a poet of nature^s growth, had some effect in rendering the 
language less rude, and exciting a taste for verse ; if he never rises, 
he never sinks low; he is always sensible, polished, perspicuous, 
and not prosaic in the worst sense of the word.' f 

The remaining great poet of Chaucer's time, 7oliii Barbour 
(1316? — 1395), Archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1367, is the author of 
an ' animated and picturesque ' metrical chronicle, or romaunt as he 
terms it, entitled The Bna . compiled about 1375, and relating the 
history of Scotland from 1286 to 1329, t.0., from the death of 
Alexander the Third to that of Bobert Bruce, of whose life and ad- 
ventures it principally treats. The author, in his introductory lines, 
prays God tJiat he may ' say nought but suthfast thing ; ' and his 
work has always been regarded as reliable from an historical point 
of view. Barbour has also been doubtfully credited with two frag* 
ments on the Trqjan War found in two MSS. of Lydgate's work 
(^eee p. 41, s. 19), and with fifty metrical Legends of 8aint8,X 

17. Cbancer. — ^The researches of later scholars, and the valu- 
able Six-text and other issues of the Society founded by Dr. F. J. 
Fumivall in 1868 § (a good work, to which all lovers of Chaucer 

• Morley, £ng. Writers, iv. 183, 1889. f Lit. HUtory, Pt. I. ch. i. % 61. 

1 See Bkeat's G^otThe Brut (E. B. Text Soo. 1870-1889), zlv.-Ui. 

$ The results of the noble work of this Society— its issaes of parallel texts, 
analogues and originals of tales, dec— are embodied in Prof. W.W. Skeat's edition 
of Ohaucer {Clarendon Press, 1894, 6 vols.), the text of which has been issued 
in a cheap one-volume edition (1895). Mr. A. W. PoIlard*s excellent Frimer 


are deeply indebted), have thrown much additional light upon the 
life and works of OeoJfrey Cliavicer (1340?-1400), and many 
once unsuspected biographical particulars respecting him hare not 
suryiyed the test of rigid cross-questioning. Belying on the poet's 
own deposition made at Westminster in October 1386, to the effect 
that he was at that date forty years of age and upwards {dd age de xl, 
ana etphu), it is now held tlmt he must have been bom about 1340, 
instead of in 1328, as had been formerly supposed. No authority, 
indeed, still inclines to the old date, but the exact year cannot be 
regarded as finally settled. Neither is there any satisfactory evi- 
dence that he studied at either university, as some of his earlier 
biographers^ basing their belief upon a passage in The Court of Love 
(of which the authenticity is now rejected), have inferred. It is, 
however, perfectly clear that, in 1357, he was employed in the 
household of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third son of Edward III., 
'probably as a page ; ' * that he served in France with Edward III. 
in 1359, was made prisoner, and released (it is likely) before the 
treaty of Bretigni (1360); that he received a pension of 20 marks 
fi:t)m the King, in 1367, as VaUUus nosier ; that he was married 
about the same time to a maid of honour to Edward's Queen ; 
that he was frequently employed from 1370 to 1380, in diplomatic 
missions to Italy, France, and the Netherlands ; that he was suc- 
cessively Comptroller of the Customs and Subsidy of Wools, Skins 
and tanned Hides for the Port of London (1374-86), Knight of the 
Shire for Kent (1386), and Clerk of the King's Works (1389-91) ;. 
that he received small pensions from Bichard XI. and Heniy IV. ; 
that he finally died, probably at his house in the garden of the 
Chapel of St. Mary, Westminster, on the 25th October, 1400, and 
was buried in the Abbey. Brief as they are, these particulars suffice 
to show that the life of the great poet of the fourteenth century was 
—to use the words of M. Taine, ' from end to end that of a man of 
the world, and a man of action.' f -^dd to these that he was 
' learned and versed in all branches of scholastic knowledge,' familiar 
with Norman and Provencal literature, a diligent student of Dante, 
Petrarch, Boccaccio especially, and some of the Latin poets, and it 
wiU be seen with what qualifications and advantages he was endowed. 
For his personal appearance, we have the well-known coloured 
half-length portrait, painted from memory after his death by his 

C&tax;miUau*s Series), 1894, briefly summarises the results of recent research. 
Trot Lounsbury's Studies in Chaucer^ 8 vols. 1892, is full of helpful work ; e.g. 
cL the chapter on the * Ohaucer legend ' in connection with what is referred to 
In our tert. See also Prof. Ten Brink's Chaucer Studien^ 1870. 

• Ascertained by Mr. B. A. Bond, v. Fortnightly Review, Aug. 15. 1866. 

t Mist, qf English Liter at wre^ Van Laun*8 translatioD, Bk. I. ch. ill. DiT. 1* 



difldpla Ocdere, which is preserred in the margin of a MS. of the 
1)6 Begimne PHncipum of that writer (Harleian MS. 4»866). It 
was drawn when the poet was no longer yonng, for the beard (which 
is bi-forked) and the hair are gray ; bat it accords generally, by the 
downcast eyes and jother chaoraetensttes, with the Host's account of 
the reserred and portly stranger, who looked upon the ground as 
though he would ' find a hare/ and who seemed 

* — Elvlich (weird) by Ma conntCTiawnce, 
Toe unto DO wii^t doth he dalUninoe.* * 

To the Hostfs picture, some of the poet's critics would add (and 
apparently without any great straining of probability), as appHcable 
to Chaucer himself, the following lines from his description of the 
Clerk of Oxenford in the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales; — 

< For him was lever hare at his beddca heodo 
Twenty bookes, clad in bUk or reede, 
Of Aristotle and his philoflopbie, 
Then robes ziohe, or flthel, or gay sawtrie. 
Bat al be that he was a philosoxihre, 
Yet hadde he but litel gold in cofre ; . . • 
Of stodifi took he most core and most heede. 
Kot 00 word spak he mors than was neede, 
And that was seid in forme and revecenoe 
And sohcnrt and quyk, and fol of high sontence* 
Bownynge in moral vertn was his speche. 
And ffiadly volde h€ leme^ and gladly tedte* 

Besides the Canterbury Tales, there are twenty-three poems yary- 
ing in length and importance from the four lines of the Proverbs to 
the 8,000 of TroUusand Criseyde; several poems are lost, while 
numerous others — forty-three in all, comprising about 17,000 lines 
^-have been uncritically attributed to him.f Like Dryden and 
Cowper, Chaucer illustrates the remark that 'great poets are not 
sudden prodigies, but slow results,' j: for he produced little of value 
befoiQ he was forty. ' Grand translateur, noble Geoffrey Chaucer,' a 
contemporary poet termed him, and his work, like that of Shake* 
speare, is indeed marked by a very free use of the labours of others, 
T7p to 1372 he wrote largely under French influence, to which the 

* Prologue to Riuie of Sir Thopas ; Canterbury TaUi, 

t Bee Lounsbury's StudieSy 1. ; also Skeat's Chancery i. SO-48. Only five' need 
mention. The ComplaiHl of the Black Knight is noy/knovrn to he bs'Lyds9,t6, Th» 
Fl<ywer and the Leaf was written, probably by a lady, as it states, e. 1460 ; The 
Cmart eflMte most be dated c. IMX) : Chamxr^t Dream is even later. Only one— 
The CuekoQ and the Nightingale (?ziy. cent Wean be considered 'doobtfol;' 
and Prof. Lonnsbnry rejects It on internal evidenoe. Mr, Skeat will issue these 
poems in a seventh volume. He and some others attribute seven lately 
discovered little poems to Chaucer. 

X Mr. Lowell, J/V Study Windows: Chiucer, 


employment of bis familiar seven-line stanza and the. deca- 
syllabic couplet bave botb been attributed ' Cbaucer Chronology' 
is distinctly uncertain, but bis first poem (? 1366) is usually 
considered to be a free rendering in 184 lines of the JBUerinage 
da la Vie humaine of Gutllaume de Beguilleville, called The 
A^.C, because each verse begins with a new letter of the alphabet. 
The CoJnpUynte unto PUe, in which the seven-line stanza first 
aj^ars, is often held to be his first original poem. The most im- 
portant, however, of these early works was a translation of the 
famous Soman, de la Boee of Gnillaume de* Lorris and Jean de 
Heung, although sdiolars are still divided as to how much, if any, 
of the existing version is by Chaucer.* The Book of the Buchesse, 
a rather conventional lament over the death of Duchess Blanche of 
Lancaster (i. Sept. 12, 1369), is the first poem — and one of few — 
of certain date. The Compleynt of Ma/re (298 lines) may also be an 
early work. 

Chaucer's eleven months' visit to Italy (1372>3), while Petrarch 
{d, 1374) and Boccaccio (d, 137^) were still living, ushers in the 
second period of his work. Henceforth it is the infiuence of these 
and of Dante that is predominant, though Chaucer's work becomes 
increasingly individual. TroUm and Cnseyde, his longest poem 
(1380-3), is based upon the FHlostraio of Boccaccio, but nearly three 
lines out of four are his own,f while the atmosphere is purified, the 
characters are conceived in his own way, and treated with a psycho- 
logical skill which makes this early novel in verse, in spite of blemishes, 
one of our finest poems. The unfinished Hous of Fame{\ZSZ-i} 
afifords the most striking illustration — sometimes unduly magnified — 
of the infiuence of Dante. The allegorical Parlement ofFoules (1882) 
and the incomplete Legend of Good Women (1385) again show Italian 
infiuence. This last poem is the earliest in which Chaucer is known 
to have used the heroic couplet, and we may thus connect with it 
two fragmentary metrical experiments, Anelida and Arcite and 
the Com^nt to hie Lady (bothc. 1380), in the latter of which the 
difficult terza rima of Dante is attempted. The seven lines to 
Adam Scfiomer (see p. 39) and a balade to Bosemounde also belong 
^to this period. 

To Chaucer's third period, from 1386 onward, belong most of the 
Canterbury Tales, and a few short poems, such as the Compleynt of 

» Ten Brink says none ; LounsbniyCii. 166) says the whole ; Skeat, after reject- 
ing it, now claims 11. 1-1706 for Chaucer, and sees (too other hands ia 
UL 1706-7698. See Pollard's Primer^ $ 86. 

t 5688 out of 8246, according to Mr. W. M. Iloiisctti*8 careful estimate. Boo- 
eaooio has only 5704 lines, and of these Chaucer rejectv one half. 


Venm (1898 ?), ihb Envoy to Sooga» (1393), and tiuib to Bukton 
(1396), and the oft-qnoted Lines to his Futh (1399). With these we 
may associate an earlier gioup of five little poems — including the 
noble lines on Truths partly suggested by the poet's translation of 
Boetkhu (1380-3), which is one of his four prose works : the others 
being the Treatise on the AstrMbe (1391), for *litell Lowys my 
sone,' a boy of ten, and two Ganterbnry Tales, that of Mdibeus and 
the Parson* 8 Tale. 

The Camterbury Tales, which open a new era in,--or rather inau- 
gurate, — modem English literatnret were chiefly written after 1886. 
They may be broadly dated at 1390. The main idea of connecting 
a variety of tales by a common thread was probably suggested by 
Soccacdo's Decameron, In Boccaccio's work the tales are told by ten 
fashionable fugitives from florence, who, during the * Black Death ' 
of 1348, have sought an asylum in a country villa. The plan of 
Chaucer is much more pleasing and natural, besides allowing far 
larger scope. His tale-tellers are a number of pilgrims, selected 
from all classes of society, but united by a common object — ^a 
pilgrimage to the shrioe of ' the holy blisful martir,' St. Thomas 
k Becket, at Canterbury. To this end they have assembled, in the 
month of April, at the * Old Tabard Inn,' Southwark, which, pre- 
vious to its destruction by fire in 1676, stood on the site of the 
more modem building (The Talbot) in the Borough High Street, 
which was pulled down twenty-two years ago, in 1874.* The 
pilgriois are Chaucer himself (1), a Knight (2), a Squire, his son (3), 
a Miller (4), a Beeve or Steward (6), and a Cook (6) ; a Seigeant 
of Law (7), a Shipman f or Mariner (8), a Prioress (9), a Nun's 
Priest (10), a Monk (11), a Doctor of Physic (12), a Pardoner or 
Seller of Indulgences (13). a Wife of Bath (14), a Friar (15), a 
Summoner to the Ecclesiastical Courts (16), a Clerk of Oxford (17), 
a Merchant (18), a Nun (19), a Franklin or Freeholder (20), a 
Manciple or Victualler (21), a Poor Parson (22), and a Canon's 
Yeoman (23), who joins the cavalcade at Broughton-under-Blean, 
eeven miles from Canterbury. Tales by all these are preserved. 
But besides these there are the Knight's Yeoman (24), other Priests 
(25, 26), a Haberdasher (27), a Carpenter (28), a Weaver (29), a 
Dyer (30), a Tapestry Maker (31), a Pl^hman (32), and Harry 
Bailly, the Host of the * Tabard ' (33), whose tales, if written, do 
not remain to us« 

• The present bnfldiner (No. 85 Borough High Street) is called 'The Old 
Tabard,' while the adjoining Talbot Yard retains the corrupted form of the 

t See Appendix A, Extract ZY. 


How wide a range of society and how great a variety of por- 
traiture his scheme afibrded to the poet, the preceding list will show. 
The Tigour and originality with which he has sketched his characters, 
and the skill with which, in the several links of the subseqiient 
tales, they are made to nnfold their personality,* place him, at one 
bonnd, fur beyond the painstaking, plain*sailing chroniclers and 
translators, his predecessors and contemporaries. It was an excar- 
sion into the delineation of real life such as they, trammelled by 
convention and tradition, had never contemplated. The following 
quotation will testify how naturally the device for telling the stories 
originates. The Host, of whom we are told that he was — 

' A semely man . . • « 
For to han been a manchal in an halle ; 
▲ lai]ge man he was with eyghen stepe, 
A fatrexe bnigeys was there noon in Chepe,* 

mirthful at the goodly company assembled, after remarking that 

' — trewely comfort ne mlrthe is noon 
To ryde by the weye domb as a stoon {stone},* 

announces that he has a proposal to make to them if they will fall 
in with it. They assent : — 

* " Lozdynges," qnoth he, " now herkneth for the beste ; 
Bat taketh it not, I praye yon, in disdayn ; 
This 13 the poynt, to speken schort and playn, 
That ech of yow to schorte with yonre weie 
In this viage, scJuil telle tales tieepey 
To Oannterburi-ward, I mene it so, 
And horn- ward he schal tellen othere tuOf 
Of aventures that tehilom han bi/atte. 
And which of yow that bereth him best of alio. 
That is to seyn, that telleth in this caas 
Tales of best sentence and most solas, 
Schal han a soper at yonre alther oast 
Here in this place sittynge by this post, 
Whan that we come ag^n from CantnrbDry. 
And for to maken you the more mery, 
I wol myseWen gladly with yon ryde. 
Bight at my owen cost, and be yoor gyde. 
And whoso wole my jnggement withseie 
Bchal paye al that we spenden by the weye.*' ' f 

The guests then draw lots as to who shall begin. The duty 
devolves upon thscKnigbf^who leads off .with a tale of chivalry. 
The drunken "MiSSc, — ^you may know it * by his soun,' — ^breaks in 
next with a characteristically coarse story; the Beeve follows, and 

* See Appendix A, Extract XV. 
t Prologue to the (kaUerlmry Tatet, 



the others in their turn tell tales suited to their respective ranlm 
and aTOOiitions. '^ There are only twenty-four tales, and it will be evi* 
dent from the outline of the Host, that a much larger number would 
be required to complete his plan. In all probability, death oyertook 
the poet at the work which he had designed as the labour of his old 

Still, unfinished though they be, the Canterhuri/ Tales stand out 
prominently in English literature. As there had been nothing like 
them before they were written, so for years after there was nothing 
to compare with them. Indeed, Shakespeare excepted, *no other 
poet has yet arisen to rival the author of the Canterbury Tales in 
the entire assemblage .of his various powers. Spensei's is a more 
aerial, Milton's a loftier, song; but neither possesses the wonderful 
combination of contrasted and almost opposite characteristics which 
we have in Chaucer : the sportive fancy, painting and gilding every- 
thing, with the keen, observant, matter-of-fact spirit that looks 
through whatever it glances at ; the soaring and creative imagina- 
tion, with the homely sagacity, and healthy relish fbr all the realities 
of things ; the unrivalled tenderness and pathos, with the quiuntest 
humour and the most exuberant merriment; the wisdom at once, 
and the wit ; . the all that is best, in short, both in poetry and prose, 
at the sai^e time.' The same writer further says that in none of our 
poetry is there ' either a more abounding or a more bounding spirit 
of life, a truer or fuller natural inspiration. He [Chaucer] may be 
said to verify, in another sense, the remark of Bacon, that what we 
commonly call antiquity was really the youth of the world: his 
poetry seems to breathe of a time when humanity was younger and 
more joyous-hearted than it now is.'t 

As compared with that of Langland, the language of Chaucer 
is of the court and city rather than of the provinces. His dialect 
is mainly the East Midland, and this he may be said to have made 
national, giving it at once 'in compass, flexibility, expressiveness, 
grace, and all the higher qualities of poetical diction .... the 
utmost perfection which the materials at his hand would admit of.* | 
He was, in truth, what his imitator Lydgate styles him : — 

' Of our langage . • • the lode stexre.* $ 

Into the still debated question of his metre and versification our 
space win not allow us to enter. Posterity has not endorsed Diyden's 

. • See Appendix B : Note to the Canterlmry Talet, 

' t Oralk, Eng. JM. and Language, 1871, 1. 818, 291. ^ _ 

t Marsh, Lectures on the EnglUh Language, 186S, iz. 881 ; «. alao Skeat'a Chmieer^ 
vol vL and Prof. T. B. Loansbury's Studin^ ML chap. vl. p» 439, Ac, ad. 189S. 

% Fall* of Princes, 


sneer at his ' unequal numbers.' On the contrary, if due regard bo 
taken to contemporarj habits of accentuation, often diametricallj 
opposed to our own, he -will certainly be found a most highly com* 
petent and cultivated metrist. Bather than attribute to Chaucer 
the fault of what we cannot «zplain, it will surely be preferable to 
lay it to the addition, omission, or mistranscription of some long- 
locked and long-eared 'Adam Scrivener', like him whoso 'necligence 
and rape ' the poet so pathetically bewails : — 

< Ad&m ScriTiener, if ever it tbee iMftalte, 
Boece or Tn^og for to write iiawe. 
Under thy longe loekes maist thou have the scolle^ 
Bnt after my making thon write more trewe ! 
So oft a day I mote thy werke renewe, 
It to correct and eke to mbbe and scrape ; 
And all is thcnrow thy ne<digenco and rape.* * 

These verses may stand as an example of the seven-line stanaa so 
popular with Chancer and hisfoUowors. It was a modification of the 
oitava Hma, first used by Soccaccio in his Teseide^ being in fact that 
measure with the fifth line omitted. As giving some faint idea of 
the changes of pronunciation above referred to, the following lines 
from the beginning of the prologue to the Canterbury Tales, written 
by Mr. A. J. Ellis as they would have been spoken in ChaHcei's 
time, may prove of service ; but, lest the reader should fail to 
recognise them in their phonetic form, the corresponding verses are 
subjoined:— » 

* BeefeV dhat, in dhat sai'zoon' on a dahy, 
At Boothwerk at dhS Tab'ard' as Ee lahy, 
Bedee toh wenden on mee pilgrimaVjS 
Toh Kan'tert>er*ee with f fil devoot' ko|iXHh,'j9, 
Atnikht was koom in'toh* dhat ostelree*^ 
Well necn and twentee in a kCmpanee'S, 
Of sUndree folk, bee ah'Ten'tuir" ifaVS 
In feValiw'aheep', and pilgrims walr dhaby allS, 
Bbat tobwerd Kau'terber*ee wolden reedS ; 
J)h<i cbahmbrez and dbS stahb'lz wairen weedS 
And wel wal wairen aized atS bestiJ.* 

[Byfel that, in that sesomi on a day, : 
At Sontbwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 
Bedy to wenden on my pilgrimage 
To Canturbnry with fnl devout coragc. 
At night was oome into that hoatelrie 
Wel nyne and twenty in a companye. 

• Ten^ Briak'fl Ckatteen ^ai^ und Verskumt, 1834, deals elaborately with the 
poet*8 metres ; of. also Lounsbury IL, and Skeat vL Ten Brink ($ 347) traces the 
seven-line stanza to Provencal poets ; Skeat to the direct influence of Maohaolt, 


Of sondry foUc, by ayentttre i-falle 
In felawschipe, and pilgryms were tihei allep 
That toward Oantnrbttry wolden ryde ; 
The chambres and the stables weren wyde 
And wel we weren eaed atte beste.]* 

18. BEandevllle, mricllf, TrevlMu—Chaacer also finds a 
place among prose writers by reason of the works already referred 
to (p. 36, s. 17} ; but by far the most popular prose work of the 
century was that of a writer known as ' Sir 7olui BEanaevUle ' 
(1300 ?-1372), reputed a natiye of St. Albans. A wanderer in the 
East for thirty-four years, he is said to have returned in 1356-7f 
and to have then written an account of his travels in Latin, French, 
and finally in English, * that every Man of my Nadoun may under- 
stand it/ This ingenious, if not ingenuous, writer has, after the vein 
of Qeoffrey of Molimouth, mingled with what seems to be the record 
of real travels * monsters out of Pliny, miracles out of Legends^ and 
strange stories out of ... . Bomances,' f to quote Mr. Halliwell ; 
while with a Befoe-like realism he boldly writes in the first person 
of travels he had only made through the pages of other authors. 
The English knight's name seems but a mask, and the original work 
— ^perhaps that of De Bourgogne, a Flemish doctor — ^was in French, 
our version being a xv. century translation, of which 'the terseness, 
the simplicity, the quaintness, together with the curiosity of the 
subject-matter, will always make delightful reading, but the title 
"Father of English prose'*. . . must . • . be now transferred [from 
Mandeville] to Wiclif ' % a writer whose influence upon his time is not 
to be measured by his literary productions alone. Jobn ^RTlclifp 
the Eeformer (1324-1384), besides writing many treatises and ser- 
mons in Latin and £nglish| undertook, in his retirement at Lutter- 
worth, the first English version of the entire Scriptures, said to 
have been completed the year before his death. In this labour he 
was assisted by a priest named WlelioUui Berefora. Hereford 
translated from Genesis to Baruch, Widif the remidnder. Wiclif 's 
translation, intended for the people, and couched ' in the familiar 
speech of the English heart in the reign of Edward III.,* § is of the 
highest importance both to literature and religion, and may be 
regarded as the basis of all subsequent versions || (see p. 45, s. 26). 
Jobn of Trewlsa (d» 1412?), Vicar of Berkeley, is the only other 
prose writer of any importance during Chaucer's time. His chief 

• Clar, Prest edition of the Prologue. See dUo Appendix A, Extract ZIY. 
Ske Appendix A, Extract Z. 

Encf. Briton, 9th ed. An article t^ B. B. Kicholson and OoL Yule. 
Marsh, Lectures on the EngliMh Language^ 1863, v* p. 112. 
See Appendix A, Extract XII. 


work was a translation,* executed circa 1387, of the Latin Polychfo* 
nican, or Universal History, of Xalpb Bidden (died 1364), a 
Benedictine monk of Chester (^see also p. 43, s. 23.) 

19. Ocolevey Xyd^ate.— Whether it be attributed to the dis* 
turbing influence of the Wars of the Boses or to the absorbing 
interest of the Reformation, it is certain that, notwithstanding the 
invention of printing, for more than a century after the death of 
Chaucer a barren interval occurs in the history of English litera- 
ture. Allegorists, such as Hawes and Barklay, satirists of the 
Skelton typo, sonneteers like Surrey and Wyatt, prose writers like 
Pecock and More, are all we have to oppose to Chaucer and Wicliff. 
Scotland, indeed, had her Dunbar and Lyndsay, the former a poet of 
no mean order. In England, however, the poets succeeding Chaucer 
were distinctly of inferior class. His two immediate imitators never 
rose above fluent mediocrity. They had acquired from their master 
the mechanism of verse ; bat poetical genius was denied to them. 
The first of these, TtaomM Ocdeve (1370?-1450?), aderk of the 
Privy Seal, was the author of a long poem, in the seven-line stanza, 
entitled De Begimine PrifunpuMf compiled from a book of that 
name by Guido de Colonna, from Aristotle, and from the Game of 
Chess ef Jacobus de Cessolis. The second, 7oliii Kydgrate (1370?- 
1451?), styled the 'Monk of Bury,' was a learned and indefatigable, 
if not imaginative, writer. His chief works are the Falls of Princes, 
a translation, through a French medium, of Boccaccio*s De Casibus 
Virarum Illuitrium; the Troy Book, a version of the Historia 
Trojana of Colonna; and the Storie of Thebes, a supplementary 
Canterbury Tale based upon the ITiebais of Statins. To Lydgate 
is also ascribed the Complaint of the Black Knight, long printed as 

20. James of Sootland.— To the son of Robert III. (1394- 
1487). we owe a poem, which, apart from the creative merit which 
raises it above the labours of mere translators like Lydgate and 
Occleve, possesses a somewhat romantic interest. The King's 
Quhair (Quire or Book), written by the ill-fated monarch while a 
prisoner in the Eound Tower of Windsor CasUe, relates (allegori* 
cally) his love for the daughter of the Earl of Somerset, Jane 
Beaufort, whom he afterwards married, and whom he had first seen 
much as, in Chaucer's Knights Tale, Palamon sees Emelye, from the 
window of his prison. The poem is in the seven-line stanza, hence- 
forth known as rhyme Boyal (see p. 39, s. 17). Two shorter 

• See Appendix .A« Extract Xni. 


hnmoroiis poems, Peebles to the Plajf, and ChrUtis Kirk of the Grene, 
hare aLso been attributed to King James. An Orygynale CronykU 
of Scotland^ finished about 1420, by Andrew de IVyutoaii (xv. 
cent.), Prior of St. Serfs Monastery in Loch Leven^ also belongs 
to this period. Another Northern poet, -who comes between James 
and Danbar {tee p. 45, s. 25), is Benry tbe BUnstrel {d, after 
1492), author of a life of Wallace, produced about 1460. 

21. Peoocky Fortescne. — Though poetry may be said to have 
languished in the hands of the disciples of Chaucer, prose, on the 
contrary, -was not unworthily supported by the successors of Mande- 
Tilleand Wiclif, The S^essor of over-much blaming of dergy^ 
written in 1449, by Xeglnald Pecook (1395?-1460?), sometime 
Bishop of St. Asaph and Chichester, has been described by one of 
its editors as * the earliest piece of good philosophical disquisition 
the language can boast,' and its author has been styled * the pre- 
cursor of Hooker • • as the expositor of the province of reason in 
matters of religion.' Thi s, Peco cKs chief work, was imdertaken to 
vindicate the clergy agamsTtheWiclifites or * Bible-men,* and *its 
historical value consists in this, that it preserves to ns the best 
arguments of the Lollards against existing practices which he was 
able to find, together with such answers as a very acute opponent 
was able to give.' * Ultimately Pecock * fell upon evil days and 
tongues : ' his books were condemned, and he had to choose between 
recantation and the stake. He did not choose the latter, but died 
in confinement at Thomey Abbey. Sir Jobn Fortescne (1395 ?- 
1485 ?), Chief Justice of the King's Bench, also wrote, in Latin, a 
valuable work, De Laudibus Legum AngluB, and, in English, a trea- 
tise, in the same spirit, on the Difference between Absolute and 
Limited Monarchy.^ A staunch adherent of Henry VI., he fied with 
him to Scotland after the battle of Towton (1461), was attainted of 
high treason, and forfeited his estates. It was about 1470, when 
exiled in France with Margaret of Anjou, that he composed the first 
of the above-mentioned works for the instruction of Prince Edward, 
murdered after Tewkesbury (1 471). He, too, like Pecock, ' recanted ' 
— by withdrawing his objections to Edward I V.'s succession— and 
his attainder was consequently reversed. 

22. The ' Patton Xetters ' (1422-1509). To the period of the 
Wars of the Boses, upon which we have now entered, belongs a 
curious collection of family letters chiefly by, or addressed to, the 

« Babington's Repreii(rrf 1863, Intro, zxz. xzr. zxir. Bee Appendix A^ 
Extract XVI. 
t Excelteotly edited, for the Clarendon Press, 1885, by Ch. Flummer, 


membeis of ' a wealthy and respectable, bnt not noble ' Norfolk 
family — ^the Fastons. The correspondence extends from 1422 to 
1509, and includes oyer 1,000 letters, written daring the reigns of 
Henry VI., Edward IV. and V., Bichard III., and Henry VIL, 
'containing,Mn the words of the original editor. Sir John fenn,* 
who printed the first series of them in 1787> 'many curious 
Anecdotes relating to that turbulent, bloody, but hitherto dark 
period of oja history ; and elucidating not only public matters of 
state, but likewise the pnyate manners of the age . .' 

. 23. Tbe Introdnotlon of Printing. — ^In 1455, the year of the 
fint battle in the Wars of the Boses, the invention of printing had 
progressed £rom wood blocks to moTeable type, and the famous^ 
Maearin Bible had been printed at Ments by John Gutenberg 
(1400-1468). In 1477, six years after Tewkesbury, IViUiam 
Cazton (1422?-1491),.a London mercer, who had acquired the 
art of printing abroad, whilst liying in the household of Margaret 
of Burgundy, set up a press in the Almonry at Westminster, under 
the protection of Antbony IxroodvUle. Earl Bikers, whose Dictes 
or aayengis of the philosaphres (1477) was the first book actually 
printed in England. Caxton, however, had three years earliev 
printed abroad his own translation of The Reauydl of t}te Hiitaryes 
of Trope (1474.?), this being the first English book ever printed.f 
One of the most remarkable of the many works that iiubsequently 
came (1485) from the Westminster press — Le morte Darlhur of Sir 
Thomas MCftlorj' (Jl, 1470) — ^has already been referred to as an 
inaxhaustiUe mine to modem poets, and is styled by Scott 
* indisputably the best Prose Bomance our language can boast.']: 
It was completed in 1469-70, and the sources of its material have 
already been indicated (aee p. 20, s. 11). Caxton also printed in 
1482 the Pofychronieon of Treyisa {see p. 41, s. 18), with a con- 
tinuation from 1357 to 1460; and it is characteristic of the rapid 
alteration of the language that, in order to make it intelligible, he 
felt bound to modernise the phraseology of its author. The book, 
says the title, is 'Imprinted by William Caxton, after haying some- 
what changed the rude and old English [i.e, of 1887], that is to wit, 
certain words which in these days be neither used nor understanden.'§ 

24. Hawes, Barklay, flkelton.— The reigns of Henry VU. 
and VIII. produced no great English poet. Steplieii Bawes 
{fl, 1509), Groom of the Priyy Chamber to the first-named King, 

* Fenn*8 ed. had 486 letters ; that of Mr. Jas. Qalrdner, 8 toIs, 187S-5, has 1006. 

t The BfoiifeU has been exquisitely reprinted by Wm. Morris at the Kelmscott 
Press, 1898 ; also edited hj H. Oskar Sommer, 1894. Elliot Stock facsimiled the 
Dietet, 1877, % JSssap en Bomanee. $ See Appendix A, Extract XYII. 


wrote an allegorical, and not very interesting, poem called 2%e Pa9» 
tyme ofPUasuret or the Historie cf Grande Amour and La Bel Facd, 
lo09. Scott calls him ' a bad imitator of Lydgate, and ten times 
more tedious than his original.' Alexander Barklay {d, 1552) 
is eyen below Hawes. Under the title of the 8hyp of FoU/s, 1509, 
he translated Sebastian Brant's Narrmschiff (1404) * out of Laten, 
Frenche, and Doche/ incorporating with it his own remarks upon 
the manners and customs of his contemporaries. He was also the 
author of five Eoloffuea, the earliest in the English language. 
John Skelton* a priest (1460 ?-1529)i if not great, was certainly 
a far more Tigorous and original writer than either of the last-men- 
tioned poets. His name is chiefly associated with the short-footed 
headlong metre which he used in his roluble and almost Babdaisian 
invectiTes against Henry VIII.'s great Cardinal. ' His attempts in 
serious poetry/ says Mr. Hallam, 'are utterly contemptible; but 
the satirical lines on Cardinal Wolsey were probably not ineffec- 
tive.'* They were, at all events, effectual in obliging the audacious 
satirist to fly from Wolsey's anger into sanctuary at Westminster, 
where, in 1529, he died. His principal works are Phyllyp Sparowe, 
a humorous and fanciful dirge over a tame bird killed by a cat in 
the Nunnery of Carow, near Norwich, and including a commendation 
of the 'goodly maid,' its mistress, a certain Joanna Scroop; the 
Timning ofMynour Bumwyng^ a portrait in the Butch taste of a 
noted Leatherhead alewife, celebrated for her liquor; and three 
satires, mainly directed against Wolsey, entitled respectively : — Why 
come ye not to Courte, Speake Parot (in Chaucer's stanza), and 
Colyn Clouie, How Skelton could hit off the imperious favourite 
may be judged from the following sketch of Wolsey in the Star 
Chamber. The spelling, in this instance, has been modernised:— • 

* He is set so high. 
In his hierarchy 
Of frantic frenzy 
And foolish fantasy. 

That in the chamber of stars 
AU matters there he mars ; 
Clapping his rod on the board, 
No man dare speak a word, 
For he hath all the saying. 
Without any renayiug. 
He rolleth in his records, 
He saith, how say ye, my lords t 
Is not my reason good ? . . • 
Some say, Yes. And some 

• Lit, History, Pt. I. chap. iv. } 76. 


Sit stUl as they were dumb ; 
Thus thwarting over thumb, 
He mleth all the roast 
With bragging and with boast/ &o. 

iWhjf come ytf ifot to Courte.") 

25. Tbe Seototi Poets. — ^In the temporary declension of Eng- 
land, Scotland gave birth to a poet who has been styled her Chaucer-^ 
her greatest before Bums. This -was IVllliain Dunbar (1460 ?- 
1530?), who commenced life as a Franciscan friar, bnt early be- 
came attached to the Scotch Court Employed in London daring 
the negotiations for the marriage of his king, James IV., with 
Margaret Tudor, he celebrated the union in his ThrissU and the 
Bats, 1503. Another courtly allegory is the Goldyn Targe, an 
ornate love-poem. He also wrote a tender Lament for the 
Makarie {i.e, poets), and a Tlyting^ or metrical contest, with 
Walter Kennedy, a fellow poet ; while his highest level is reached 
in The Dance of the Sevin Deidly Synnia, a vivid Callutesque 
conception. Dunbar's range was a wide one. He essayed allegory, 
morality, and humorous poetry — e.g. The Freirs of Berwick* 
— ^with nearly equal success ; but his comic verse, as in the Tua 
Maryii Wemen and the Wedo, is, like Chaucer*s, decidedly open to 
the chaige of coarseness. Gavin Donglas (1474-1522), Bishop 
of Dunkeld, translated the JEneid, producing < the first metrical 
version of any ancient classic that had yet appeared in the dialect of 
either kingdom.' He also wrote The Palace of Honour, an apologue 
for the conduct of James IV., and King Hart, a poem on human life. 
Sir David Syndsay, of the Mount (1490-1555), the favourite of 
James V., and a rigorous assailant of the clergy, was rather a pun- 
gent and plain-spoken satirist than a poet. The Breme, The Com* 
playnt of the Kin^e Ba$ingo (peacock). The Hay (or Satire) of the 
Three Estates (King, Barons, and Clergy), The History of Squire 
Meldrum, and The Monarchic, all written between 1528 and 1554, 
are his best known works. ' The antiquated dialect, prolix narrative, 
and frequent indelicacy of Lyndsay*s writings, have thrown them 
into the shade; but they abound in racy pictures of the times, 
in humorous and. burlesque description, and in keen and cutting 
satire.' f Last in importance, but preceding the foregoing in point 
of time, comes Sobert Benryson (d, before 1 508), author of the 
Tistament of Cresyde, a sequel to Cliaucer*s poom (see p. 35, s. 17). 

26. Translations of tbe Sible. — The first of these in point of 
date after Widif s {see p. 40, s. 1 8), was tihe New Testament of ISHliam 

* The authorship is considered doubtfal. 

t Chambert*t Cifclop, qf Eng* Lit.^ by Carruthere, 1858^ i. 55. 


Tjmdale (148i?-1636), printed, in 1525,* partly at Cologne and 
partly at Worms, for which he ultimately paid the penalty of his life, 
being strangled and afterward^ burnt at Vilvorde, near Brussels, 
by imperial decree. It was re-issued in 1534; and has been de- 
scribed by Hr. Marsh as ' the most important philological monument 
• • of the whole period between Chaucer and Shakespeare . • 
haying more than anything else contributed to shape and fix the 
sacred dialect, and establish the form which the Bible must per- 
manently assume in an English dress/ 1 In 1530, Tyndale printed 
a translation of the Pentateuch. While abroad, he is said to 
hare been assisted in his labours for a short time, in 1532, by 
MUas Coverdale (1488^1568), later Bishop of Exeter, who after- 
wards published, in 1535, a translation of the Old and New Testa* 
ment ' out of the Doutche and Latyn,' memorable as the first English 
Bible allowed by royal authority. By royal proclamation copies 
were ordered to be placed in the quires of parish churches for com- 
mon use. The Bibles of Tyndale' and Corerdale were followed, in 
1537 and 1540, by the translation's known respectively as Matthew* 8 
and Cranmei^s Bibles* 

27. 8emen« More. — ^It is as contemporaries only that it is 
conyenient to link these names, for, in respect of literary excellence, 
they cannot be compared. 9*01111 Bourobiery Xiord Bemers 
(1469-1533), GoTemor of Calais, was, however, a translator of the 
highest rank ; and he has given us an admirably faithful and chaiac* 
teristic rendering of the picturesque pages of ^b John EBoissAnt 
(1337-1410), the *Livy of France,* who, as resident in England 
from 1361 to 1366, and writing inter alia of English History, might 
almost be claimed as a national author. H'ti Chronicle, embracing 
the affiiirs of England, Scotland, France, and the Low Countries, 
extends over the /'reigns of Edward III. and Kichard II. (1827-^ 
1400) ; the translation of it by Lord Berne5:s, published in 1523-5, 
was undertaken at the request of Henry YIII. Sir Tbomaa 
acore (1478-1535), a zealous Eoman Catholic, and Lord Chancellor 
in 1529, was beheaded for denying the legality of Henry VIII/s 
marriage with Anne Boleyn. His two principal works are the Lije 
and Reign of Edward V.y printed in 1557, and his Happy RepMie^ or 
Utopia (o&, no, rciiros, place; in Latin, NuaqtiaTiia)* The latter, 
first published at Lou vain, in Latin, in 1516, and not translated into 

* V. Arbor's Facsimile (1871) of the unique fragment of Tyndale's Testament 
111 the Qrenville Collection. 

t Ledum on the English Language. 1863, v. p. 118. Bee Appendix A« Extract 


English by Ralph Bobinson until 1551 » or some years after the 
aathoi^s death, purports to be an account of a ' neyre yle * as taken 
from the yerbal narrative of one Baphael Hythlodaye, described as 
a sea-faring man ' well stricken in age, with a blacke sonne-burned 
face.' It is, in reality, ' a philosophic exposition of Mere's own views 
respecting the C(mstitution and economy of a state, and of his 
opinions on education, marriage, the military system, and the like.* 
The idea was, perhaps, suggested by the BepuJUio of Plato, whose 
influence, or that of More, may be traced in many subsequent works 
of a somewhat similar character, e,g. Hall's Hfundus JUer et Idem, 
1605 ; Barclay's Jrgenia, 1621 ; Bacon's New Atlantis, 1627 ; Gh)dwin 
of Llandaff*8 Man in the Moon, 1638 ; and Harrington's Oce<ma, 
1656. It should be noted that More's title has given rise to the 
adjective 'Utopian,' now commonly used to qualify any fanciful 
or chimerical project.f 

28. Slyot, XAtlmer, Ctaeke.— The first of these, Sir Thomas 
Blyot (1490 ?-1546), was a physician, and the friend of More. He 
wrote several works, of which The Governor, 1631, and a profes- 
sional Castle of Health, 1 534, are the best remembered. The former, 
a treatise on education, is said to have been a favourite book with 
Henry VIII. Bn^h &atimer (1485 ?-1555), the martyr-Bishop of / 
Worcester, and the fervent advocate of the Keformation doctrines, 
has left a number of sermons, mostly preached before Edward VI., 
which, for their popular style, homely wit, and courageous utterances, 
are models, in their way, of a certain school of pulpit eloquence. 
They are * still read for their honest zeal and lively delineation of 
manners.' Latimer's Sermon on the Ploughers and Sermons before 
Edward VI., 1549, and the Governor of Elyot, are both included in 
Mr. Arbei^s series of English Beprints^X B\r Jolrn Cbeke (1514- 
1557), memorable in Milton's verso as the advanced scholar who 

* taught CaiDbridge and King Edward Greek,* siirvives in English 
by the Hurt of Sedition, 1549, on the subject of the rising in 
Norfolk in that year. 

29. ^XTyatt, Surrey* — ^These *firstreformersof our English meetre ^ 
and stile,' as they have been called by Futtenham,§ stand upon the 
threshold of the school of Sidney and Spenser. Both had formed 
themselves upon * the sweete and stately measure of the Italians,' 
and both * as nouices newly crept out of the schooles of Dante, 
Arioste and Petrarch,' considerably advanced the poetic art in 

* Masson, Britiih Novelists and their Styles, 1859, p. (19. 

t Se» Appendix A, Extract XIX. 

X £^0App«QdijcA,BxfcractXX. 

S Art* ^English P^etU, 1689, p. 74 (Arber'e Heprint, 1869). 



England. The priarity, in point of culture, belongs perhaps to the 
amrl of Snrrer (1517?-47% 'an English Petrarch ' M. Taine calls 
him, who is regarded as the introducer of blank Terse, in which 
measure he produced a translation of the second and fourth books of 
the JEneid, The numbers of Sir Thomas IXTyatt (1503-42), 
usually called the Elder, to distinguish him from the unfortunate 
noble who raised an insurrection in Mary's reign^are not so correct 
as those of Surrey, but the sentiment of his poetry is sometimes 
deeper. The yerses of both, consisting chiefly of sonnets and 
amorous poems, were first published in 15d7> together with those of 
aridholas Orimald (1519-62), Tbomao &ord Vauz (1511-62), 
and some other minor poets, in ThtteTs MUoellany^ now easily acces- 
sible to all as one of Mr. Arber's excellent English Reprints (1870). 
From this collection we transcribe one of Surrey's sonnets as an 
example of the sonnet-form at this period. The lady celebrated is. 
Surrey's * Laura * — * fair G^eraldine * : — 

* From Tnskane came my Ladies worthy race : 

Fairs Florence was sometyme her anncient seate : 
The Western yle, whose pleasannt shore dothe face 

Wilde Cambers clif s, did gene her linely heate : 
Fostered she was with milke of Irishe brest : 

Her sire, an Erie : her dame, of princes blood. 
From tender yeres, in Britain she doth rest. 

With kinges childe, where she tastcth costly food. 
Honsdon did first present her to mine yien : 

Bright is her hewe, and Geraldine she hight. 
Hampton me taught to wishe her first for mine : 

And Windsor, alas, dothe chase me from her sight. 
Her beauty of kind [,] her vertues from aboue. 
Happy is he, that can obtalne her loac* 

30. XUurly Dramatic ^iTrlten. — As the drama attained its 
most splendid development under Elizabeth and James, its earlier 
history may fitly be relegated to the succeeding chapter (see p. 57i 
8. 37» et seq.). It is proper, however, to note that the first two 
dramatic writers belong to the period of which the present chapter 
treats. One is Wlcbolas Vdall, M.A. (1504-56), soiiietimes styled 
* the father of EngfishComedy,^ and JCaster in succession of Eton and 
Westminster Schools, who wrote not later than 1551, and probably 
to be acted by the Eton boys, a boiidjide fiyp-acicomedj of London 
manners^ j^ the title of Roister Boister, The other, Joba 
Heywood (d, 1680 ?)', XJourt Jester to Henry Vlil. and Mary, and 
author of a dreary allegory entitled The Spider and the Flie (Pro- 
testant and Catholic), produced, chiefly by 1531, six dramatic 
compositions or Interludes, — of no great literary value. Of these, 


mOU CHAtCES to SUilB£r» 49 

tlie best known, 'which may serve as a sample of the somewhat gross 
satirical hnmonr of the rest, tarns upon a dispute between the 
Four Ps of its title, — a Palmer, a Pardoner, a Toticary, and * 
Pedlar— as to who can tell the greatest falsehood. The Palmer, 
following in his torn, and commenting npon some prerions statement 
unfayonrable to women, asserts, as if accidentally, that 

* Kat one good cyiye, towne nor boroqgh 
In crfrtendom, but I haye ben thocongii. 
And this I irdde ye shnlde nnderstande, 
I haTe seen women v bnndred thonsande : 
And oft with them haTe k»ge tyme tuied* 
Yet in all plaoee where I have ben. 
Of all the women that I have aene, 
I never sawe nor knewe in my oonaqrens 
Any one yramBu oat of padena.' 

It is needless to add that the speaker is at once^held to have attained 
the maximum of mendacity. 

31. Ballad Poetr3r.~-In his description of the * Seven Deadly 
Sins,' the author of Piers the Plowman makes the priest, Sloth, 
confess his ignorance of his paternoster, * as the prest it eyngeth,' 
but acknowledge his familiarity with * lymes of Bobyn hood and 
Bandolf erle of Chestre.' * Kumbers of such ' zymes* or ballads, 
chanted or recited from house to house by minstrels of the humbler 
order, were current during this period, though the majority of them 
are lost to us. But, even now, those collected by Bitson with re- 
ference to the Sherwood outlaw (so popular even in Bishop Latimer^s 
day as to make the good prelate compUin bitterly that his sermons 
were neglected for the * traytoure' Bobyn Hood f), make a book by 
themselves. For Chevy Chace, Sir Patrick Spence, The Gaberluneie 
Man, The Not-Brottme Mayde, and the remainder of those which 
Time has spared, the student is referred to the Seliques of Bishop 
Percy, the Border Minstrelsy of Scott^ the Ballad Book of 'William 
Allingham, and the collections of Motherwell, Jamieson, Bell* 
Aytoun, and others* 

* Plert (he Plowman, Edited by Bkeat, 188a : B-text, Amiui v. Am the 
entire passage in Appendix A, Extoact XI. 

t atxOk Sermon btfore Edward VL, 1M9, 178-4 (Arber*8 lepiint, 1869). Set also 
Appendix A, Extract XX% 






32. Bninmarj' of tbe Period. — By th« end of the first half 
of the sixteenth centuiy, if not a little earlier (see p. 3, n.), the days 
of ' Middle English ' may be considered as past^ for certainly with 
the advent of Spenser, Bacon, and Shakespeare — all bom soon after 
1 550— the period of 'Modern English' had already begun. This con- 
tinues to the present day ; for, generally speaking, the English of 
the Victorians does not essentially differ from that of the Elisabe- 
thans. The more material alterations in the grammar and vocabulary 
of the language had been effected when the two great rerolntions had 
done their work. It must, however, be once more repeated that the 
dates here given for the commencement and termination of these 
suocessiye stages of transition are at the best approximate. During 
the second revolution, that breaking-up of the grammar which is the 
main characteristic of the first, would still proceed, though less ap- 
preciably ; and, if it be asserted that no so-called linguistic rerolu- 
tion has taken place since 1550, it does not by any means follow 
that our language has undergone no changes in structure or substance 
during the period that intervenes. The dates used simply denote or 
limit the epochs during which the two great movements were in most 
noticeable activity. Time, says one of the great writers of this era 
(Lord Bacon), *Innovateth ^atly, but quietly, and by degreeai 


scarce to be perceiyed;'* and the alterations of a language are 
effected in the same imperceptible yet resistless manner. 

The foregoing chapter extended oyer two centuries ; the present 
includes seyentj-fiye years only. Bat these seyenty-fiye years consti- 
tute the most prolific period in our literature. Keyer, in England at 
least, has been witnessed so magnificent an outburst of the creatiye 
faculty, so rare an assembling of splendid anddiyerse powers. Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Bacon — the luminous names alone out-dazzle all 
azound them. Yet the plays of Webster and .Marlowe (to take a 
pair at random), the yerse of Sackyille and Sidney, the prose of 
Hooker and Baleigh, might well haye sufficed to make a time illus- 
trious ; and behind these again there is a host of contemporaries 
scarcely less gifted. 

The three great writers of this * golden age ' of English history — 
for, be it remembered, it was also the age of Drake, of Cecil, and of 
Walsingham — ^serye to centralize the different groups of poets, play- 
wrights, wdprose-writers. Spenser^s brief life ended in 1699, and 
the majority of his poems were produced in the latter half of the 
reign of Elizabeth. To the dose of the same period, and the early 
years of James, belong the plays of Shakespeare; while Bacon's 
works are confined, almost exdusiyely, to James^ reign. Bomantic "^ 
poetry may therefore be said to haye reached its zenith first, dra- 
matic poetry next, and prose last. Hence, the writers of the period 
under consideration fell easily into the succession adopted in this 
chapter. If a classification be desirable, s. 83 to s. 87 may be said 

fA frftftf. nf < ^pftnymy Ati^ t.^^ft P"<^W ^' 37 tO S. 42 of < ShlJ^SpfiaXa-^UXd 

the Dramatis ts * and s. 42 to 8. 48 of * Bacon and the Prose Writers ' 
But such an arrangement can be adopted "solely for oonyenience ^ 
0ake, as some of the so-called poets wrote plays and prose, and 
many of the dramatists are famous by works that are purely 

88. THe Poets I Oaaoolgiie, flaekvUle.— The Siede GUu, a 
by-no-means 'toothless satire,' in blank yerse, on contemporary 
fashions and follies, is the most important of the poetical works of 
itoorre aaseolrae (1525 ?-1577)> who, after a life yaried by law 
studies, foreign trayel, parliamentary duties, insolyency, soldiering, 
eontribnted, by his Princelye Pleasures at Kendworth, to the enter- 
tainment giyen by Leicester to Queen Elizabeth in 1575 {tee also p. 
61,.s. 88). The literary reputation of TbomM SaclLVlUef Bart 
pf Dorset (1586-1608), Lord High Treasurer of England, resU 

• Emyei or dnmseUt CiviU and Uwnai, 1625, p. 927 (Arbor*8 xepriat, 1871). 


chiefly upon his connection with the Myrroure for Magistm tes^ the 
plan of which he had himself originated, a series of metrical narrft- 
tires of the lives of illustrious and unfortunate persons — Boccaccio's 
Be CaMbus Virorum lUttstrium oyer again, in fact (jsee p. 41, s. 19). 
The first edition of the Myrroure by "Vmilam Baldwla (>f. xri. 
cent.) and Oeorgre Ferrers (1500 ?-79) was published in 1559 ; to 
the second, Sackville contributed an Induction or prologue in the 
seven-line stanza, and the (hm^int of Henry^ Dtihe of Buokmgham 
—the Buckingham of Shakespeare's Bichard 111, {d, 1483). It 
was subsequently continued by ' various hands ' — ^niomas PlUMrf 
who translated the Mneidt and Tbonuui COmrOliyard (1620- 
1604), a multifarious poet, among others; but Sackville's portions 
alone have saved the work from comparative oblivion. The scene 
of the Induction is laid in Hell, where, at the gates of Elysium, the 
characters relate their stories, and it includes a number of sombre 
and powerful personifications of Bemor&e, Avarice, and so forth, 
which will bear a comparison with Spenser^s delineations. ' But^' 
says Campbell, 'though the Induction to Tke Mirror for Mayis- 
traies displays some potent sketches, it bears the complenon of a 
saturnine genius, and resembles a bold and gloomy landscape on 
which the sun never shines* (see also p. 61, s. 88). 

34. Sidney. — ^Having regard to his historical eminence, the 
works of Sir Pliillp Sidney (1554-86) are scarcely equal to his 
fame. One is almost disconcerted to find that the literary claims 
of the noble soldier of Zutphen, — the ' Lumen famUia sua,* and 
* Jewell of his times,' — ^the candid courtier and the precocious ambas- 
sadors-are based upon a lengthy (yet unfinished) < pastoral romance,' 
a few fashionable love-poems, and a not very extensive essay. Yet 
it should be remembered that these were, at best, but recreations, not 
destined for the public eye.t The Jrcadia , 1590 (first referred to), 
was composed in retirement at Wilton ten years previously to amuse 
the poet's sister, Hary, Countess of Pembroke, Ben Jonson's * sub- 
ject of all verse;' and its author is said to have expressed his decdre 
that it should be destroyed; the Asiro jM a nd Stella are sonnets 
to Penelope Devereux, afterwards LadylHcEyiand^e Apologief or 
Poetrie, though undoubtedly prompted by the strictures upon poets 
in the Schoole ofAbuee, and its sequel, published in 1579 by Stepbea 
OeMon (1555-1624), remained in HS. until 1595. The poems 
and the essay are the most memorable of his productions. Charlea 
XAmb (there can be no more competent judge of £lizabethai| 

• Euag en EnglUh Poetry, 1848, p. ISli, 

t Th^ were all pablisbed after Sidaey^i dwtli* 


trork) praises the sonnets highlj ; * and the reader maybe especially 
referred to the one beginning, With how sad steps, Moon, thou 
clmb*st the skies; and to the Highway, since you my chief Parnassus 
be — ^which even Hazlitt, who fSsiiled to admire the author, conld not 
refrain from qnoting.f Longfellow has called the Apologie * a golden 
little Yolnme, which the scholar may lay beneath his pillow.' But, 
despite its exalted chivalry and elaborate eloquence, — for, be it 
remarked, Sidney's prose is, artistically, far in advance of that of 
preceding writers, — ^the tedionsness of the Couaitess of Fembroke^s 
Jrcadia will always to some extent neutralise the beauties that it 
undoubtedly contains. 

35. Spenser. — ^Under his pseudonym of Astrophd, Sidney was 
mourned by a more illustrious contemporary — Bdrnund Spenser 
(1552 ?-99), whose beautiful monody upon the death of his friend 
was published in 1596, inscribed to Sidney's widow, then Countess 
of Essex. The record of Spenser's life is as scant as that of Chaucer 
or Shakespeare. Bom in London in 1652, he was educated at Cam- 
bridge, where he formed a friendship with that Oabrlel Barvey 
(1545-1630), who desired that he might * be epitaphed the inventor of 
the [not yet naturalised] English hexameter,' and by whom he was 
later {circa 1578) introduced to Sidney. To Sidney, * as most worthie 
of all titles both of learning and chivaliy,' he inscribed his first 
published work — the Shepheards Calen der — in which his friend 
Harvey figures as *Hobbinol.' In 1580 he went to Ireland as 
Lord Wilton's secretary. Four years after this, Elizabeth pre- 
sented him with the estate of Kilcolman, the obligation by patent 
to cultivate which, determined his residence in Ireland. Here he 
designed and wrote the commencement of the Faery Qu eens, Ealeigh 
— * the Shepherd of the Ocean' — (as Spenser afterwards styles him 
in a poetical account of the occurrence),^ visited him at this period, 
and urged him to present his poem to Elizabeth. The Queen re- 
ceived it graciously, and granted the poet a pension of 50^. per 
annum, from which it has been inferred that he was, virtually, the , 
first of the Laureates. In 1594, he was married, at Cork, to tlielady } 
whose wooing and winning he has celebrated in his Jmoret ti and 
EpUhalamion. During Tyrone's Bebellion, in 1598, the Irish insur- 
gents burned his castle of Kilcolman, and one of his children 
perished in the flames. The poet himself escaped to London, and 
died shortly after in King Street, Westminster, certainly in 

* Latt JKuaif* <ifEHa, 

t Letturu on the Literature qf the Age qf ElixaUth, 1870| vi. 212* See also 
Appendix A, Extract XXV. 
X (Min Cknat come home againe. 


Btrftitenod circnmstances ; but not— let it be hoped — actually * fop 
lake of bread/ as Ben Jonson puts it.^ At his own desire, he was 
buried in Westminster Abbey by the side of Chaucer — the revered 
Tityrus of his Aeglogue9, 
y The Faery Queene, Spenser's longest and most ambitious poem, is 
an unfinished allegory. Its plali is sufficiently described in the ex- 
planatory letter to Raleigh, prefixed to the first three books published 
in 1590. * The generall e nde .... of all the booke/ says the 
author* ' is to fashion a gen tleman or noble ^rson in vertuous and 
gentle discipline/ Of this, King Arthu r is his exem plar, and he 
strives * to pourtraict * in him, ' before he was king, the image of a 
brave knight, perfected in the twelve private morall vertues, as 
Aristotle hath devised/ Each * morall vertue/ if the work had been 
finished, would have had its special book and patron knight, whost 
indi^dual adventure is laid upon him by the Faery Queene. Thus 
Holinesse hiis its patron in the Bedcrosse Knight (Bk. i.) ; Tempe' 
raunce in Sir Guyon (Bk. ii.) ; and Chastiiiet in the * lady knight/ 
Britomartis (Bk* iii.). Arthur, to whom no special virtue is allotted, 
represents Magnificence, which includes all, and he assists in eveiy 
book, sncconring the rest f when in need. The origin of the several 
adventures was to have been revealed in the concluding book, 
* where/ says the author, ' I devise that the Faery Queene kept her 
annuall feast twelve daies, uppon which twelve severall dayes, the 
occasions of the twelve severall adventures hapened, which being 
undertaken by xii. severall knights, are in these twelve books 
seTerally handled and discoursed/ ^ ^ /' 

In addition to the virtues which they typified, many Of Spenser's 
characters figured some special contemporary. < Th6 original of 
every knight/ says Dryden, * was then living in the*'8burt of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and he attributed to each of them that Virtue, which he 
thought was most conspicuous ' in them; an ingenious piece of 
flattery, though it turned not much to his account.' § The Queen 
herself sufficed to the two characters of Gloriana and Belphcebe ; 
Leicester and Sidney are both at times identified with Arthur, to 
whom, in the twelfth book, Gloriana was to be united. But the 
judicious modern reader will probably set aside such ' c6ntinued 
Allegorie ' altogether, and surrender himself entirely to the poet's 
lofty morality and splendid descriptions, — to the inexhaustible 
succession of images that, * like the vapours which rise ceaselessly 
from the ocean, ascend, sparkle, commingle their scrolls of snow and 

• As reported by Drummond of Hawthomden. 

J Except Britomart, Bk. iii. X See also Appendix A, Extract XXH^ 
JHscourte on Satire, Drjden's Works, 1867*, S56. 

» . 


gold, whilst belov them new mists and yet new mists again arise 
in nndimmed and nndjing procession.' * He will be thankful that 
the absence of six books (for only fragments of the seventh remain) 
has not materially affected what time has preserved. 

Spenser's greatest work leaves little space for any detailed ac« 
eoont of his lesser pieces. Thg 8h&>hemr^s C alendtr, 1^79^1 which i^ 
preceded it» w^ a ^ eripfl of twelve A^g lo^ueSf 6r which the defects 
ara that they are ' framed (in Sidney's words) to an old rustick Ian* 
goage/ and mured by a warp of ecclesiastical allegory. Mother 
KubbertPs Tale, 1j591, or the. adventures of a foix and an ape, is * a 
sharp and shrewd' satire upon the common method of rising in 
Church and State.' Colin Chufs come home again, 1595, the 
Amoretii, abd the splendid EpUhoJUmion on his own courtship and 
maniage'; the Pfothalamiofi in honour of th^ double marriage of the 
ladies Katherine and Elisabeth Somerset^ 1506, and the Fowre 
HywnB in praise of Love, of Beauty, of Heavenly Love and Heavenly 
Beauty, 1596, are some of his more important minor pieces. His 
sole remaining prose work, A View qf the State of Ireland, written 
dialogue'Wise between Eudoxue and Brenaue, was first published in 
1633, after his death. 

The language of Spenser's poetry is .designedly archaic, and \y 
rather resembles that of Chaucer (' For hee of'Tityrus his songs did 
lere ') than that of his own time. The stanza of the Fa ery^^ueene^ 
now known as the Spenserian stanza, is the eight-line meaaure of 
Ariosto, another of the poet's models, with the addition of an Alex* 
andrine line. An example will be better than a formula :«> . 

• And more, to Inlle him in his slumber soft, "^ 

A trickling streune from high rock tombling downe. 
And ever-drialing ndne npon the loft, Uky\ 
lUxt ^th a mnrmuring winde, much like the sowne 
Of swarming bees, did cast hiln in a swownet 
KootIi&nit>yse)B<nrpeoido8troabloaJfci9^, • v 

V 'V** A» Btittvre wont f annoy the,waUM towne, S. ,. 

^ . Higljlf Jihere b^heardi: but carelesse Quiet lyes 
Wn^ in etemall silence D farre from enemyes.' 
"■ /; " - {Faery Qwene, Bk. 1. Canto 1. 41.) 

In. the last line, the csesura, for the sake of yariety, is placed at 
the serenth syllable. Spenser more usually puts it in tha middle 
of the Terse, as in the last line of the stanza which immediately 
precedes the one above quoted :— 

' And unto Morpheus comes, whom drowned deepe 
In drowsie fit he Andes | of nothing he takes keepe.' 

* J L I 

• Taine, IlUt, of Cng. Lit.^ Lk. ii. chap. i. Div. 2, § 6. 


The Spenflerian stanza is a faronte with Englkh T«nifier8. 
Thomson, Campbell, Byron, and others hare used it suecessf^Uj; 
and it was employed by the late Mr. Worsley with happy effect in 
his translations of the Iliad and Odysseyt the latter poem especially 

86. Tlie MlBor Poets. — ^The minor poets of the Elizabethan 
age axe reiy nnmeroos ; and, for the most part, well worthy of more 
than a passing notice. The scope of this volume, howerer, restricts 
US to a brief 8election.t The first to be named is attehmel 
Pr aytaa (1668-.1681), whose most funons work, the iWy-(X6jofi, 
1613-22, is a metrical and topographical description of England, 
extending to 80 books, and * illustrated with a prodigality of 
historical and legendary erudition.' It is said to beaoeorate. 
Drayton also wrote an 'elegant and lirely little poem,' entitled 
Nympkidia, or, the Cowrt of Faery, Samiiel Banlel (1662>1619), 
Haster of the Queen's Beyels under James, and Laureate after 
Spenser, was the author of a metrical history of the wars of Lan- 
caster and York ; MiuophUw^ a dialogue containing a defence of 
learning ; and a collection of 64 sonnets entitled Bdia — ^perhaps the 
most poetical, though the first-named is undoubtedly the most impor- 
tant, of his productions. Sir Joba Bawlea (1569-1626), Soli- 
citor-General and Attorney-General under James I., wrote a 
metaphysical poem in the heroic quatrains afterwards employed in 
Biyden's JnnuB MtratnUs, under the title of No»ce JHpsum: Two 
EUffia, L Cf Human Knowledge; II. ty the Soul of Man and the 
ImmortalUy thereof,! 599, which is praised by Hallam for its doseness 
of thought and uniformity of power. ^^bB Bonne (1578-1631), 
sometime Bean of St Paul's, and, as a preacher, tamed for his elo- 
quence, is known as a poet by a number of songs, sonnets, marriage 
pieces, fimeral pieces, and satires, chiefly of a metaphysical cast, the 
inherent poetry of which is frequently disfigured by harsh metres 
and whimsical conceits, which haye given rise to contradictory 
opinions as to his merits (see p. 77» s. 50). Ollea Vletidier (1588- 
1628) and Pbineaa rietelier (1582-1650) were imitators of 
Spenser, and allegorical poets. Chrisfs Victory and Triumph in 
Heaven and Earth over and efter Death, 161 0, is the chief work of the 
former ; and the Purple Island, 1638, — under which tropical title the 
reader will hardly diyine * an anatomical lecture in yerse on the human 
frame ' progressing to the intellectual and moral faculties of the soul 

* <Sm Appendix A, Extract XXXV. 

t For aome aooonnt of Arthnr Brooke, Browne, Ohnroihyaid, Constabku 
Bdwaxds, Southwell, SylTester, Taylor the Water Poet, Wataon, Warner, ana 
ethers, the reader is refexred to otn: Dictionary Appendix (B). 


»-tIiat of the latter, who, chronologically, belongs more stzictljr to thd 
next chapter. To the first-named work Milton is said to hare been 
indebted for certain passages of ^wraSAxe Brained, IVUUam 
Hmmmond, of Hawthomden (1585-1649),— condndes our list of 
onginal minor poets. He is the * son-in-the Muses' of Surrey and 
Sidney, whose efforts 'in the Italian meetre and stile' he has 
xiTalled, if not excelled, in his sonnets. The reader may compare 
the following, addressed To a Nightingale^ with that of Milton upon 
A similar theme (see p. 83, s. 57) : — 

* Sweet bird, that slng'st away tbe early howres, 

Of winters past, or comming, Toid of care, 

Wen pleasM with delights which present are, 

Faire soasones, budding sprayes, sweetHnnelling flowers ; 

To rocb, to springs, to rils, from teany bowres 

Thou thy Creator's goodnesse dost dedare 

And what deare gifts on thoe bee did not spai^ 

A staine to homan aenoe in ainne that lowres. 

What Boale can be so sicke, which by thy songs, 

Attir'd in sweetnesse, sweetly is not driaen 

Quite to forget earth's turmoilea, spights and wrongs, 

And lift a reaerend eye and thonght to beanen f 
Sweet arUesse songstarre, thou my minde dost raise 
To ayres of spheares, yes and to angels* layes.' * 

By a version of the Biad and Odyssey characterised by Pope, for 
Its * daring fiery spirit,' as < something like what one might imagine 
Homer himself woold have writ before he arrired At years of dis- 
cretion,' f Oeorsre Cliapman (1659 ?-l 634) takes precedence of 
the other metrical translators. He also produced renderings of 
Henod's Wbrla and Days, and Juvenal's Fifth Satire, and he com- 
pleted Marlowe's translation of the Hero and Leander of Musseus. 
Tha Ofid's Metamorphoses of Arthur Ooldlngr {d. 1605 ? ) ; the 
JSneid of Tbomas Pbaer (d, 15 SO) and Tbomas Twyne 
(d, 1613) ; the Orlando Furioso, 1591, of Sir John Harringrton 
(1561-1612), and the Becoverie of Jerusalem, 1600, of Bdward 
Valrftkx (<{. 1685) — the last two especially — also deserve notice. 

87. Tlie Urowtli of the angllah llrama. — ^The germ of the 
Kngliwh Drama is to be found in those rude and primitive repre- 
sentations of events in Scriptural history which, as they generally 
involved the exhibition ofsupematural power, were, on this account, 
known to our forefathers as Mnt Acu Plats or M tstbbies. When 
they were introduced into Enghmd is uncertaini Sraitt^obability 

* Dmmmond's Poems, 1883, p. 172 (ICaitland Clab).' 


they first came to us from France, and were, perhaps, first acted 
here in French. The earliest recorded performanod is that of a 
Hiracle Playacted at Donstahle about 1110. It was written by 
Oeofirey, afterwards Abbot of St, Albans, and w^'s based upon the 
legend of St. Catberina* Later we learn from Fitz-Stephen, 
Becket's biographer, that, during the life or soon after the death of 
that martyr, religious plays were freqaently performed in London. 
Later still they bfeeame comm<»i in most large cities ; and the three 
series of 42 Coventry , 25 Chester, with the 32 Towneley or Wood' 
kirk plays have long been in print. In 1885, the 48 York plays, dating 
from 1430-40, were first published. 
The brief Harrowing ofHeU {temp, Edw. IE.) may fairly claim to 
V be our oldest Miracle Play.* ^t first these w ere acted during divine 
service by the priests to convey religious iiistruction to the people ; 
but ultimately they passed from the hands of the clergy into those of 
the laity, the craftsmen of the different guilds becoming their chief 
exponents, — occasionally with much propriety, as, .for example, 
when NodKs Flood, one of the Chester series, was entrusted to the 
Water-Drawers of the Bee. Jbi many cases, the Scri pture characters 
represented wore the costume of the fraternity to which the actors 
belonged. This homely and familiar rendering of the sacred stories 
was often accompanied by grotesque and even profane incongrui- 
ties. A scene from the last-named mystery, in which Noah and his 
insubordinate wife come to blows because she obstinately refdses to 
enter the Ark, is a frequently-cited instance of the former character- 
istic. The same unfavourable view of the disposition of the patri- 
arch's helpmate pirevails in the Woodkirk play of the Career of 
Noah, where she persists in continuing her spinning until the rising 
waters have all but submerged the seat she sits on. In the Coventry 
piece, however, which treifts the same subject, she is pictured aa 
amiable and devoted* / 
\y The personages ot^the first Mysteriea were confined exclusively 
to stock charactenkturawn from Holy Writ and the Legends of the 
Saints. As th^e lost novelty, it became necessary to revive the 
fading interest of the audience by the addition of allegorical embo- 
diments of vices, virtues, conditions of life, &c. ; and out of this 
necessity grew the second stage of the drama — the Morality, or 
Moral E tay. From the Moral Play, with its abstract ideas personi- 
fied, to the modern drama, the transition was natural and inevitable. 

« This is printed in A. "W. PoUard's Eng. Miracle Plags, pp. 166-9, ed.l896. 
This work has a good IntroducUon. Cf, also Kath. L. Bates, The Eng, Religious 
Drame^ 1893. 


This transition was materially hastened owing to the stady of the 
Latin drama. , Our yery first regular tragedy, QorbodtfC t shows the 
influence of Sen eca, from whom a little later the popular 'ghost' 
was to be borrowed ; our first comedy, Salph Roister Doisiert is 
based on a play by Plautns. 

The stage for the clerical actors, in the days of the earlier 
Miracle Plays, was usually erected in the church itself. From the 
church it was transferred to the churchyard, and thence, as the 
representations passed out of the hands of the clergy, to moyable 
pageants or «cafiS>lds ' dragged through the town, and stopped for 
the performance at certain places designated by an announcement 
made a day or two before.' From these it was again transferred 
to bams and halls, lasUy to inn yards, * where windows, and galle- 
ries, and verandas commanded a view of a couH round which the 
house was built.' The yards of the Bull, in Bishopsgate Street, the 
Cross KeySfin Gracechurch Street, the Bell Savage, onLudgate Hill, 
were regularly used for this purpose when Shakespeare arriyed in 

The Elizabetiian Theatre was an extension of, or improvement on, 
the inn yard. It was commonly of wood and plaster, circular in 
form, and, in the so-called public theatres, open at the top. A flag, 
bearing the name of the house, was hoisted on the roof. Inside 
were boxes, galleries, and a pit or yard without seats. In the 
covered buildings cressets, or large rude chandeliers, iBupplied the 
place of daylight. Upon the stage, which was generally strewn with 
rushes, the critics, wits, and gallants lay, and sat on stools, and read, 
gamed, cracked nuts, and smoked, during the performance. This 
players' wardrobe was costly enough, but the properties were of the 
rudest kind, and to denote localities and change of scene the simplest 
expedients were adopted. At the back of the stage was a perma- 
nent balcony in which were represented incidents supposed to lake 
place on towenr or upper chambers. The musicians occupie'd^^ 
second balc<J$iy projecting from the proscenium. The price o^ adm^- 
sion to the pit ranged from a penny to sixpence; that to the boxes 
from one shilling to half-a-crown. The female parts were played 
by boys. The performance took place in the afternoon. 

With three flourishes of trumpets the proceedings began. The 
curtain was drawn {i?om side to side ; a player in a black cloak and 
wreath, of bays spoke a prologue, and then with — 

* — three nxsty swordg. 
And help of some few foot and half -foot words,' 



Uie Barbages and Alleynes of the period would 

* Fight OTer York and Lancaster's long jars,' * 


* Tear a passion to tatters • • • to split the ears of the groundlings 'f 

in the pit Between the acts there was dancing ; after the plaj, a 
jig by the clown. Finally, the Queen was prayed for by all the 
actors, on their knees. The 'jig/ it must be added, was something 
more than .is implied by our modem acceptation of the term. It is 
described as ' a farcical rhyming composition of considerable length, 
sung or said by the clown, and accompanied with dancing or playing 
on the pipe and tabor.* I 

The following are the names, as giyen by Mr. I>yce,§ of the chief 
theatres during Shakespeare's time : — ' 7%e I%eatre (so called by dis- 
tinction) and The Curtain^ in Shoreditch ; JParia Garden, The Globe, 
The Rose, The Hope, The Swan, on the Bankside, Southwark ; The 
Blaokfriars, near the present site of Apothecaries' HaU; 77/0 
Whitrfriars, The Fortune, in Golden or Golding Lane, St Giles's 
Gripplegate; and The Red Bull, at the upper end of St. John 
Street. There was also The Newington Butte Theatre, frequented 
by the citizens during summer.' 

38. Barly SngrUali Playi.— The oldest English Moral- Play that 
exists in MS. bears the title of The Castle of Perseverance, and was 
written about 1450. There are also two moralities by Skelton 
{eee p. 44, s. 24), — the Nigramansir and Magnificence, the former of 
which was acted before Heniy VII., at Woodstock, in 1504. Of 
the Nigramansir no copy is known to exist. The following is 
Warton's summary of the latter, which may give some idea of the 
substance of these entertainments: — 'Magnificence becomes a dupe 
to his servants and feiTourites Fathsy, Counierfet Counienamee, Crafty 
Conveyance, Clohyd Cdusion, Courtly Abusion and Fdy, At length 
he is seized and robbed by Adversyte, by whom he is given up as a 
prisoner to Poverte, He is next delivered to Despare and Mischefe, 
who^>ffer him a knife and a halter. He snatches the knife to end 
his miseries by stabbing himself ; when Good Hope and Redresse 
^ appear, and persuade him to take the " rubarbe of repentance," with 
some *' gostly gummes " and a few *' drammes of devocyon." He be- 
comes acquainted with Circumspeccyon and Perseverance, follows 

• B. Jonson, Prologue to Every Man in his Hvmour, t Samlet, TIL ii. 

X Dyce's Shakespeare, i. 40. Also cf. Staunton, I. ; Grant White's Euay in his 
first voL ; and Appendix A, Extract XXV. A unique contemporary sketch (1698) 
of the interior ox the ^i«an, together with an account of its history, will be found 
in the New Shalt. Soe, TrantaeHons, 1887-92, pp. 214-225. 

$ YoL i. 41-6. qf, also F. Q, Fleay's Chronicle IlUt. q/ the London Stage, 1891, 



iheir directions, and seeks for happiness in a state of penitence and 
contrition.' * 

One of the latest of the Moral Plays — The Three Lords and 
Three Ladies of London^ printed in 1590, must be dated after 1588, 
and may almost be regarded as a comedy. Jolin Bejwood*s 
Interludes, or farces, hare already been noticed ; as also ITdall** 
Bolster JDoister (see p. 48, s, 30). The Qammer Gv** f^^^ iVff^^^^ 
of 7olm 8tiU (1543-1608), Bishop of Bath and Wells, a comedy 
taming npon the loss and ignoble recovery of an old-wife's 
needle, is the next in point of date (1566). T he first tragedy extan t 
is the Ferrex and_ Porr£jp (sometimes called Gorhoduc) of 8aek- ^ 
▼ille (see p. 51, s. 33) and Tbomas Worton (1532-1584), a frigid 
production in blank verse, which was acted by the gentlemen of the 
Inner Temple^ in 1561. Next, as the first play extant in prose, 
comes the Supposes of Caseoi^rne (see p. 51, s. 33), an adaptation 
from Ariosto, acted in 1566, and his blank verse Joca^ta, a tragedy 
from Euripides. With these the Elizabethan Drama may be fairly 
said to have commenced its career. 

39. Xbe Preenrsors of Bliakespeare. — ^Lyly, Feele, Greene, 
Marlowe, Kyd and Nash are the most distinguished of the dramatists 
who immediately preceded Shakespeare. As a detailed list of their 
plays cannot be attempted here, we must content. ourselves with 
simply naming their principal works, ^olm iMjlJt the Euphuist ^ 
(1554 ?-1606), whom we shall hereafter notice under the Elizabethan 
prose-writers, was the author of Campaspe, Endymion, and several 
other plays on mythological subjects, mostly in prose, and, as a 
rule, cold and artificial in style, but containing some beautiful 
lyrics, notably the well-known lines beginning Cupid and my Cam- 
paspe played. The Love of King David and fair JSeihsabe is the most 
celebrated drama of Georflre Peele (1552-1598). In another of 
his — ^the Old Wives* Tale, on account of some coincidences, Milton is 
said to have found hints for Comus, — a suggestion which, if valid» 
is of no great importance. Aobert Greene (1560-1592), a vo- 
luminous pamphleteer, and ultimately-repentant Bohemian, wrote 
a number of pieces for the stage, of which the most pleasing are his 
comedies of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, and George-a- Greene, 
the Pinner of Wakefield, Tbomas Kya (xvi. cent) is chiefly - 
known in connection with a play called Jeronimo, the authorship^of 
which is doubtful. To this, under the title of The Spanish Tragedy, 
or Hieronimo is mad again, Kyd wrote a sequel, which, deducting a 
certain fustian for which the author was ' proverbial even in his owo 

• BM. ofEng, Pottrjf, ed, by "W. Carew Hazlltt, 1871, Ui. 2^9, 


day/ contains some depth of thought and passion. 8ummer*a last 
Will and Testament is the one conspicuous dramatic effort of Tliomas 
iraali (1657-1601), perhaps more famous as a caustic pamph- 
leteer and an tmscrupulous satirist — ^witness his baiting of poor 
Gabriel Harvey (see p. 53, s. 35), and his battle with the contro- 
Tersialist Hydra of the Puritans, * Martin Mar-prelate.' But 
Obrtotoplier M ylowe (1564*1593), already mentioned as the 
translator of Musaus (see p. 57» s. 36), was undoubtedly the greatest 
of the pre-Shakesperian writers, and ' the true founder of the dra- 
matic school ; ' — * 

' For that fine madness still he did retain 
Which rightly should poeaesB a poet's brain.* 


* In delineating character, he reaches a degree of truth to which 
they [the predecessors of Shakespeare] make comparatively slight 
approaches ; and in Faustus and Edward the Second he attains to 
Teal grandeur and pathos. Even in his earlier tragedy, Tamhur' 
laine, amid all its extravagance of incident and inflation of style, we 
recognise a power which none of its contemporaries possessed.' f 
Besides the above-named plays, Marlowe wrote 77ie Jew of Malta, 
and he is also the author of the beautiful lyric, — Cofne live with me^ 
and be my love^ to which Sir Walter Haleigh wrote the almost 
equally celebrated answer, — IfaUthe world and love were young, 
Marlowe died at thirty, by a thrust from his own dagger, 
which had been turned against him in a tavern brawl. Indeed, 
misfortunes or excesses appear to have been the fate and portion of 
most of the earlier Elizabethan playwrights. Of those already men- 
tioned : — ^Lyly, in one of his latest petitions to the Queen, speaks of 

* patience to his creditors, melancholy without measure to his 
friends, and beggarie without shame to his family,' as the only 
legacies he has to leave ; Kyd died miserably; Nash wrote for bare 
existence, — to use his own words, ' contending with the cold and 
conversing with scarcity ; ' Fcele, again, was poor and dissolute, and 
Greene, after a life of follies and contritions, ended at last ignobly 
of an illness brought on by a surfeit. 

40. Sliaketpeare.— The brief paragraphs which can be given 
in these pages to unuiam Sliakespeare (1564-1616) must, of 
necessity, be inadequate to the subject It is easy enough, in the 
spirit of the words of Chaucer's Man of Law, to make a ' short tale' 
of the * chaf ' and * stro',' but it is impossible to do justice to the 

• Taine, Eng. Literature (Van Lann*8 trans.), Bk. II. ch« U. Div. ^ 
fDyce, Shakesfeare'i IPorto, 1866, i. 47, 


*ooni.' In so far, Kowerer, as the life proper of our greatest writer 
18 concemed, a limited space mil suffice for the slender collection of 
facts which haye been established respecting it ; for, even at this 
date, a centur/s curiosity; has added little to the well-wom and 
well-known summary, setting forth that, — ' All that is known with any 
certainty concerning Shakespeare is— that he was bom at Stiatford- 
upon-Aron — ^married and- had children there— went to London, 
where he commenced actor, and wrote poems and plays — returned ' 
to Stratford, made his will, died, and was buried/ * 

The parents of Shakespeare were John Shakespeare, of Stratford, 
and Mary Arden. He was bom in 1564, and christened on the 26th 
April, in that year; acquired, it is supposed, his * small Latin and 
less Greek 'at the Stratford grammar-school; perhaps ~ might we 
so interpret a passage in a contemporary writer ,f--passed some time 
in an attorney's office ; and was married, in 1582, to Anne Hathaway, 
the daughter of a-yeoman in an adjoining hamlet. Shortly after- 
wards, for unknown reasons, he quitted his natiye town, left his wife 
and children at Stratford,, came up to London, and joined B. Biir- 
bage's company. of players. From this date (1586?) to 1592, nothing 
is known of his movements. In the latter year, as would appear 
from the Groatswarih of Witts of Kobert Greene {see p. 61, s. 39), 
he had become sufficiently expert as an author and adapter to have 
excited the envy of rival dramatists :—* There is an upstart crow,* 
says the above-mentioned writer, * beautified with our feathers, that, 
with his T^ffres heart wrapt in a placet's hyde [a parody of a line in 
Henry VI., Third Part, Act 1. sc. 4], supposes hee is as well able to 
bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you ; and beeing an abso- 
lute Johannes Fac-totnm, is, in his own conceyte, the only Shake- 
sooni in a countrey.' In 1593, he published his Venus and Adonis, 
styled in its preface 'the first heir of his invention,' and, in 
1694, lAkCfteeSy — ^both dedicated to Heniy Wriothesly, third Earl of 
Southampton. In 1597> from his purchase of a large house in his 
native town, it may be assumed that his career had been sufficiently 
prosperous; and, in 1598, another and less equivocal allusion is 
made to his literary reputation^ In his PaUadis Tamia: Wits Trea- 
sury, [Francis Heres writes as follows : — ' As the soule of Euphorbiis 
was thought to live in Pythagoras, so the sweete wittie soule of 
Ovid lives in mellifluous and hony-tongued Shakespeare ; witnes his 
Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugred Sonnets among his private 
friends, &c • • As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the best for 
comedy and tragedy among the Latines, so Shakespeare among th« 

• Gcorgo Stccveus, 1780 t Nash*^ words rather apply to Kyd, 


English is the modt excellent in both kinds for the stage ; ' and hd 
goes on to ennmerate some of his tragedies and comedies. Omitting 
a few interyening facts relating to his family, the next thing of im- 
portance concerning the poet is his remoral to Stratford about 1610« 
Here, occupying himself in agricoltural porsoits, he liyed in retire- 
ment until his death, which took place on the 23rd of April, 1616, 
at the age of 52. The record of his life, it will be seen, affords 
little or no information with regard to his personal character. But 
there is no reason to suppose that it was not in consonance with his 
literary eminence. Behind that ' liyelong monument' which he has 
built for himself, to use Milton^s words, * in our wonder and astonish- 
ment,' the placid figure of the poet may be discerned dimly, — a 
kindly, noble, and equal-minded man. * I loVd him,' says his riyal, 
Ben Jonson, * and doe honour his memory (on this side Idolatry) 
as much as any. Hee was (indeed) honest, and of an open, and 
free nature : had an excellent phantsie ; braye notions, and gentle 
expressions : wherein hee flowed with that facility, that sometime it 
was necessary he should be stop'd. « • But hee redeemed his 
rices \i.e. his literary vices], with his yertues. There was ever more 
in him to be praysed, then to be pardoned.' * 

As a detailed list of the dramatic works of Shakespeare, with the 
approximate dates of their production, is giyen in the note to this 
chapter,! it is not necessary to particularise them here. It may be 
stilted, however, that quarto editions of the following plays were 
issued during the author's lifetime : — (1) Biohard IT,, 1597 ; (2) 
Richard IIL, 1597 ; (3) Romeo and Juliet, 1597 ; (4) Low^e Labour*s 
Ij>8t, 1598; (6) Henry /T., Part 1, 1598 ; (6) Henry IF., Part 2, 
1600; {7) Much Ado About Nothing, 1600; (8) Henry V,, 1600; 
(9) The Merchant qf Venice, 1600 ; (10) TUus Andronicus, 1600 ; 
(11) Midsummer Nighfs Dream, 1600; (12) The Merry Wives of 
Windsor, 1602; (13) Hamlet, 1603; (14) King Lear, 1608; (15) 
I^oUus and Cressida, 1609 ; and (16) Pericles, 1609. In 1622, 
Othello was published ; and in 1623 appeared the first complete 
FOLJO edition of the author's Comedies^ Histories, f Tragedies x 
Published according to the True OriginaU Copies, which included 
all the foregoing plays (with the exception of Pericles) and 
tnoeniy others. The collectors were John Heminge and Henry 
Condell, Shakespeare's fellow-actors and co^partners in the Globe 
Theatre; the printers were Isaac Jaggard and Edward Blount, 
and the volume contained a portrait by Droeshout, with lines by 

* Timber: De Shalctspeare nodrat. 1641. 
\ Sue Appendix G ; Th^ Flayt qf Shakesj^eare* 


Ben Jonson. The Sputters forth' claimed to have used the 'true 
originall copies,* but it is more than probable that their real sonrees 
were the above-mentioned guartos, or imperfect transcripts of the 
author's MSS. A second folio edition, memorable as containing 
Milton's first published English poem {see p. 82, s. 57), followed in 
1G32 ; and a third in 1664, to which the seven following plays were 
added:— (1) Pericles, PHnce of Tyre-, (2) The London ProdigdU-, 
(3) The History of Thonuu Lord CromweU; (4) Sir John Oldcastle, 
Lord Cfobham; (6) The Puritan Widow; (6) A York-shire Tragedy; 
and (7) The Tragedy of Locrine, Of these the first alone has been 
retained. The earliest annotated Edition of Shakespeare's plays was 
that of Nicholas Eowe, 1709-10. Since that date commentators 
hare been innumerable. 

Of Shakespeare's minor works, two have already been mentioned 
{see p. 63,. s. 40). To Vemis and Adonis and Lucrece most be added 
a part of the collection entitled The Passionate Pilgrime, 169% 
and the *sTigred Sonnets' referred to by Meres, 1609. Beyond 
recording the opinion of Mr. Staunton * tiiat although these [last- 
mentioned] poems are written in the poet^s own name, and are, 
apparently, grounded on actual incidents in his career, they are, for 
the most part, if not wholly, poeti^l fictions,' we cannot touch upon 
the vexed question of their intention or the person to whom they 
were addressed. Ample information will be found in the edition by 

Prof. Dowden, 1881, and some new theories in that of Mr. Thos. s^ 

Tyler, 1890. 

To select a suitable testimony to Shakespeare's genius is fax more 
difficult than to find one. His prime and all-inclusive characteristic 
was the perfection of his imaginative faculty : — * He was of imagina- 
tion all compact,' as he says of his own poet. * He had a complete 
imagination — in this his genius lay,' says M. Taine ; and the defini- 
tion might content us. But a few words at hand may be quoted, 
because they cany this idea a little further. * His great merit is, 
that he had no peculiar or prominent merit. His mind was so well 
constituted, so justly and admirably balanced, that it had nothing in 
excess. It was the harmonious combination, the well-adjusted powers, 
aiding and answering to each other, as occasion required, that pro- 
duced bis completeness, and constituted the secret of his great 
intellectual strength.'* 

As regards his work (we here borrow the words of a master of 
literary style), ' In the gravest sense it may be a£Qrmed of Shake- 
speare, that he is among the modem luxuries of life ; that life, in 

* Memoir tf JvMxms by Barry Cornwall, in Mozon*8 Edt^* 1849, p. zzzT« 

66 ^Ain>BOOK OF ENaLisn literature. 

fact, is a new thing, and one more to be coveted, since Shakespeaie 
has extended the domains of human conscionsness, and pushed its 
dark frontiers into regions not so much as dimly descried or eren 
snspected before his time, far less illuminated (as now they are) by 
beauty and tropical luxuriance of life • ... In Shakespeare all is 
presented in the concrete ; that is to say, not brought forward in re- 
lief, or by some effort of an anatomical artist^ bnt embodied and 
imbedded, so to speak, as by the force of a creatine nature, in the 
eomplex system of a human life ; a life in which all the elements 
more and play simultaneously, and with something more than mere 
simultaneity or co-existence, acting and re-acting each npon the 
other, — nay, eyen acting by each other and through each other. In 
Shakespeare's characters is felt for ever a real organic life, where 
each is for the whole and in the whole, and where the whole is for 
each and in each. They only are real incarnations .... From 
his works alone might be gathered a golden bead-roll of thoughts 
the deepest^ subtlest^ most pathetic, and yet most catholic and 
nniyersally intelligible ; the most characteristic, also, and appro- 
priate to the particular person, the situation, and the case ; yet, at 
the same time, applicable to the circumstances of every human 
being, under all the accidents of life, and all vicissitudes of fortune.' * 
41. Tlie Contemporaries of Sliakeapeare. — ^The dramatist 
with whom we propose to head this class is generally admitted 
to hold the second place in' the Elizabethan School. If Shake- 
^ speare had little learning, his contemporary, Ben Jonson (1573^ 
1636), was perhaps unwieldily equipped with erudition, although-^ 
to use Mr. Campbell's figure — it does not impair his activity. Ex- 
panding this, M. Taine compares him to * the war elephants which 
used to be&r towers, taien, weapons, machines, on their backs, and ran as 
swiftly under tbe freight as a nimble steed.' Jonson, like the scholar 
he was, sou ght his models among the ancients, and endeavoured 
to construct his pieces- in accordance with classical precepts. Un- 
fortunately, it is the defect of Sefantu, 1603, and CaiUine, 1611, 
that these * labored and understanding works ' can claim no loftier 
praise than that of being excellent mosaic. XJ^n_ his Comedies 
of Manners and Character (or rather characteristics^for he does 
not so much depict character as personify abstract qualities), f — 
upon Etfery Man in his Humour, Volpone, The Silent Woman, and 
the Alchemist, his reputation principally rests. Nevertheless, in 
CyfUhuie Bevels and other Masques (of which class of composition 

• De QiUncey, Worls^ 18C2-8, xy, 71, 72, 82. 
t HaUam, Taino. 


h« hfts been called the creator), in the beantifal pastoral of the Sad 
Shepherd, and in nnmerons ezqiusite lyrics, he exhibits a delicate 
vein of poetry distinct from, and of a higher rank than classic re- 
production or the portraiture of humours. From the literary note* 
book which he quaintly entitled Timber; or, Discoveries made upon 
Men and Matter, a quotation has already been made (see-p, 64, s. 40). 
His life iras a chequered one. He began as a bricklayer, — turned 
soldier, actor, and dramatist successively, — ^became laureate and 
pensioner under James and Charle|i,— died poor, like most of his 
brethren, and was buried in Wesbninster Abbey, under the simple 
epitaph, *0 rare Ben Jonson!' cut — so runs the stozy — ^at the in- 
stance and charges of a passer-by. 

. After Ben Jonson, the leading contemporaries of Shakespeare are 
Hiddleton, Marston, Chapman, Heywood, and Dekker, who began 
to write plays in the latter years of Elizabeth ; and Webster, Ford, 
Beaumont and Fletcher, and Hassinger, who belong more exclu- 
sively to the reign of James. I%e Witch is the chief work of 
TliomMi Bliddl«tOB {d, 1627), but it probably owes its vitality 
more to its alleged affinity to Macbeth than to any intrinsic merit 
of its own. Eight plays are assigned to 9ohn Bfantpn (died 
1634), a collaborator of Jonson and Chapman; whose Scourge of 
Villainy — a collection of vigorous ' Juvenalian Satires ' — ^also shows 
him to advantage. George Cliapman (1569 ?-1634), who, with 
Marston and Jooson, wrote the lively comedy of Eastward Hoe/ 
(said by Hazlitt to contain 'the first idea of Hogarth's Idle and 
Industrious Apprentices '), is better remembered in connection with 
the translations already mentioned (see p. 57, s. 86). His chief 
tragedy is Bi$ssy tCAmbois, Of the pieces of untiring, indefatigable 
Tliomae Heywood (died about 1650), who had, by his own show- 
ing, an * entire hand, or at least a main finger,' in some two hundred 
plays — ^whom Charles Lamb styles ' a sort of prose Shakespeare,' and 
Professor Craik, ' a poetical Richardson,' — the Woman Killed vnth 
Kindness is most vital, while Tlioinas Bekker (d, 1641 ?), a 
writer of facile and pleasing fancy, is chiefly remembered by For^ 
tunaius,or the Wishing-Ckp and The Honest ^Aor«, written with Mid* 
dleton (t^. supra). In his Satiro-mastix, Bekker entered the lists with 
Jonson, as one of the poets attacked in the latter's Poetaster, He 
also wrote a number of pamphlets, among them the characteristic 
Seven Deadly Sins of London, 1606, and The CruWs Horn-hook, 1609, 
the latter being a curious repertory of seventeenth-century middle* 
elasfl manners, said to have assisted Scott in the Fortunes ofNigd. 

The remaining dramatists — t.«.those assigned above more exclusively 



to Jamdi^ reign— Tose to a far greater height than their contempo* 
raries of the preceding paragraph. In his own walk, the sombre^ 
aepnldire-haiinting genius of ^olm Vfeihrntmr (XVIIth centory) 
has not an eqnal ; and The Duchess of McXfy and Vittoria Coram' 
bona afford ample evidence of that 'power of moving a horror skil- 
folly — of touching a soul to the quick' * with which he could inform 
and energise the * perilous incidents ' of Italian crime. 9c9uk Ford 
(1586-1639), author, with Bekker and another, of the Witch of Ed- 
monton, had a mind of a cast as melancholy as Webstei's, and in 
The Brother and Sister, the Broken Heart, mA Love's Sacrifice, 
worked upon themes as gloomy and painful. But he had a pathos 
especially his own, and a verse singularly fluent and beautiful. The 
6olleagues — Vnuiels Seanmont (1584-1616) and ^olin 
netelior (1579-1625)— the first a lawyer^s, the second a bishop's 
8on« deserve, perhaps, the next place to Jonson. * Taking them all 
in all, they have left us the richest and most magnificent drama we 
possessafter that of Shakespeare; the most instinct and alive both 
with the tma dramatic spirit, and with that of general poetic beauty 
and power, [and] the most brilliantly lighted up with wit and hu- 
mour. • . .'t It is difficult to make a selection from their fifty- 
two plays i—The Maid^s Tragedy, Philaster, The Two Noble Kinsmen 
(in the composition of which last tradition has associated Shake- 
speare) ;X and Fletcher's comedies of Side a Wife and have a Wife, 
The Sjpanish Curate, Beggar's Bush, and the Elder Brother, are -some 
of the best known of their productions. To Fletcher^s pen alone 
belongs also the pastoral of the Faithful Shepherdess, by which 
Jonson's Sad Shepherd was excelled and Milton's Comus antici- 
pated. After Beaumont and Fletcher comes PhU ip Maaatnger 
(1583-1640), an eloquent and musical writer. For tragic power, 
Hallam ranks him next to Shakespeare, and in the higher corned/ 
near to Jonson ; but he was deficient in wit. His biographer, 
Hartley Coleridge, has defined his excellence aa consisting * in the 
ezpreasion of virtue in its probation, its strife, [and] its victory.' His 
«hief plays are The Virgin Martyr (with Bekker), and the comedies 
of The City Madam, and A New Way to Bay Old Debts,— the last 
conspicuous for its popular character of * Sir Giles Oveneach.' Mas- 
singer closes our list of the Hizabethan dramatists for the present.} 

* Oharles Lamb, Speeiment of English Dramatic Poets who Uteet about the titne 
^Shakespeare, Temple editioD, 1893, ii. 42 note. 

t Craii, Eng, £4t, and Language, 1871, i. 603. 

t ^he beantifol aong of Roses, their sharp ^nes being gone. In this play, Is 
certainly Shakespearean. 

% For I^ge, Ohettle^ Taylor, Wilson, Bowley, Mnnday, Cyril Toumetir, and 
■ome other play wriffhts of this period (1550-1636), the reader is referred to the 
Dictionary i^pendix(B). *^ ^ '» 


.Shirley, the last of ihe race, belongs to the snceeeding diapter. 
(See p. 101, 8. 72.) 

42. Tbe Vrose UTritenii A^efiam,-— After Bemers* 2Va9M/a- 
iion o/Froissart and Sir Thomas More's HUtory qf Edward F., the 
next English prose irorks of importance are the ToxophUue, 1646, 
and Scholemaster, 1670, of Bo^er ABOham (1616-68), sncoessiTelj 
Tutor to the Princess (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth, Secretary of 
Embassy under Edward YI., and Latin Secretary to Queen D£ary 
and her successor. The former work, sub-titled 7%e Schdle of Shoiing^ 
is a treatise written ' dialogue-wise ' between Tozophilus and Fhilo- 
logos— lovers of archery and learning — ^upon the English long-bow, 
the use of which had been extended and enforced by statutes of 
Henry VUI. ; but the ostensible purpose of the book is often aban- 
doned for moral digressions. The SchoUmaeter is further defined 
as a ' plaine and perfite way of teachyng children to understand, 
write, and speake, in Latin tong,' specially designed for private 
tuition. A third work, the Cockpitte^ a defence of that pastime, 
if ever written, is now lost. One of Ascham's first merits lies 
in this that, deserting the learned languages, he chose to discuss an 
< EngUshe matter in the Englishe tongue, for Englishe men.' * 

43. &ylr.--The name of 7o]in Kyly (1664 ?-1606)has abready 
been mentioned among Shakespeare's predecessors {eee p. 61, 
8. 39). It must be recalled now as one, if not eminent, at least note- 
worthy among the Elizabethan prose-writers. The ' high fantastical ' 
conceits and < gallant tropes * of Eupkuee ; The Anatomy of Witt 
1579, and its BeqViel Euphues and hie England^ 1680, have passed 
80 completely out of date that their great contemporary popularity 
can be explained now only by a supposition that they led a fashion. 
To the gallants and Court beauties, whose accomplishment and 
merit it was to 'parley Euphueisme,' not differing greatly from the 
language of Don Adrian de Armado in Lov^e Laboui'e Lost, or Fas- 
tidious Brisk in Etfery Man out of hie Humour (the * Sir Fiercie 
Shafton ' of Scott being an acknowledged caricature), Lyl/s Euphuee 
was the breviary and text-book. But when the fashion passed away, 
tbe text-book fell into disuse so complete, that^ for a long period, it 
has seldom been mentioned without ridicule. This it has not 
entirely deserved. *In spite of occasional tediousness and pedantry,' 
says Canon Bangsley, it is * as brave, righteous, and pious a hookas 
a man may look into, and [I] wish for no better proof of the nobler 
neas and virtue of the Elizabethan age, than the fact that Euphue9 

• «. TMWf!Miiu and The Sdwltmaster, Arber*8 Reprints, See Appendix 1« 
Sztract znia 

70 hak^bbook of ekglish mtbrature. 

and the Arcadia [ne p. 52, s. 34] were the two popular romoncee of 
the day.'* Euphues has been reprinted by Mr. Arber. 

44. Booker, Saleiffli. — ^To the already mentioned prose-writers 
of the fiizteenth century must now be added the illastriotis author 
of those famous Ei^ht Bookt of the Laws of Ecclestastical Fotity^ for 
which the antagonism of Anglicanism and Puritanism that agitated 
the latter half of Elizabeth's reign furnished the motive. A poor 
man's son, the boyish abilities of Blcliara Booker (1554 ?-1600) 
acquired for him the protection of Bishop Jewel, of Salisbury, at 
whose charges, and those of a rich uncle, he was sent, about 15679 
to Oxford. In 1577 he became M.A. and Fellow of his College. In 
1584--5 he was appointed Master of the Temple, his colleague being 
a certain Travers, who inclined to the Calyinistie tenets which 
Hooker disapproved. Consequently, * the pulpit of the Temple,* says 
Fuller, ' spake pure Canterbury in the morning, and Geneva in the 
afternoon ;'t and this conflict of opinion originated the above- 
mentioned weighty and vigorous defence of the ritual and ceremonies 
of the English Church — a work unrivalled in our prose for its sonor- 
ous amplitude and dignity, and worthy, in all other respects, ' of the 
sweetest and most conciliatory of men, [and] the most solid and 
persuasive of logicians.'l To finish and elaborate this great work, 
Hooker relinquished his Mastership, in 1501, for the living of 
Boscombe, whence, in 1595, he removed to Bishopsborne, where ho 
died. Five only of the ' Eight Sooks ' came complete from their 
authoi^B hand. The first four, finished at Boscombe, were published 
in 1593-4 ; the fifth in 1597. What are called the remaining books 
were not given to the world until years after his death. 

Sir Egerton Bridges collected (in 1813) some of the poems of 
the ill-&ted Sir TTalter Balelgrli (1552-1618), praised by 
Futtenham {4rt of English Poesie) for their * most loftie, insolent 
[untt8ual]t and passionate vayne' ; but his literary glory rests more 
securely upon the History of the World Ui the end of the Macedonian 
Empire, 1614, which he composed during his thirteen years* im- 
prisonment in the Tower after the discovery of the Main Plot. * The 
Greek and Homan Blovy* says Mr. Hallam, ' is [here] told more 
fully and exactly than by any earlier English author, and with a 
plain eloquence which has given this book a classical reputation in 
our language, though from its length, and the want of that critical 
sifting of facts which we now justly demand, it is not greatly read.' § 
Another^f Baleigh's prose works is his Discovery of the larye, rich^ 

• Westward Bo ! chap. vlii. f WoHhiet, 1840, L 423. 

X Taine, Jiiig. Liferafuye (Van Laun'd trans.), Bk H, chap. v. Div. 4. 
 5 Lit, History; Pt. III. chap Vii. %Z2, 


and heautifvl Empire of Guiana, 1596, a personal xecozd of his 
SonUx-Amerioan experiences. 

45. Baoon.— The remarks which prefaced the account of Shake- 
speare in this' chapter (see p. 62, s. 40) apply equally to VraneU 
Bacon (1561-1626). He^as the youngest son of Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, to which dignity he himself 
afterwards succeeded,—* 

< the dostined bdr. 
In his soft cradle, to his father's chair,** 

as Ben Jonson writes, referring to the youthful precocity and TiTa« 
city which attracted to the boy from 'greatest Gloriana* herself the 
title of *the young Lord-keeper/ In 1573, he went to Cambridge. 
After leaving college he visited France, in the train of Sir Amyas 
Paulet — * Ambassador Lieger.' ' Being returned from travel,* says 
his chaplain Kawley, * he applied himself to the study of the Common 
Law, which he took upon him to be his profession.' f In 1598, he 
sat as member for Middlesex; in 1G03, he was knighted by King 
James ; and then became successively King's Counsel (1604), Soli- 
citor-General (1607), Attornev-General (1613), Counsellor of State 
(1616), Lord Keeper (1617), Baron of Vcrulam (1619), Lord Chan- 
cellor (1619), and Viscount St. Alban (1621). Then came the check 
to this rapid progression. In 1621, he was charged with taking 
presents from suitors in Chancery. He pleaded guilty, was sen- 
tenced to a heavy fine and other punishments, from which he was 
afterwards released. ' The ]last five years of his life,' says Eawley, 
'being withdrawn from civil affairs and from an active life, he 
employed wholly in contemplation and studies.' | 

As a man, Bacon has been equally censured and excused ; and the 
vexed question of his conduct towards his protector, Essex, or the 
exact amount of his culpability in the case above referred to, are not 
likely to be settled satisfactorily. Meanwhile — to use the mild ver- 
dict of one writer— ho was, probably, * not without weaknesses of 
character.' But, considered from a literary point of view, there can 
be little doubt of his pre-eminence. * Heo seem'd to mee ever, by 
his worke' — say Jonson's loving words — *one of the greatest men, 
and most worthy of admiration, that had beene in many Ages. In 
his adversity I ever prayed, that God would give him strength : for 
Greatnesse hee could not want.' § 

The prevailing philosophy at Uie beginning of the Elizabethan era 

• Undenccods : Lord Bacon's Birthday, X Bawley in Bpeddlng, I. 8. 

t Bawley in Bpedding, i. 6. $' Tinttter : Lord St, Albant. 


-was that of Aristotle. To this, or rather to the degradation of thlfl, 
Bacon had early conceiyed a dislike — ' not for the worthlessness of the 
author, to irhom he would ever ascribe all high attributes, but for 
.the unfroitfulness of the way ; being a philosophy, • . . only strong 
for disputations and contentions, but barren. of the production of 
works for the benefit of the life of man.' * And indeed, in Bacon's 
day, its infertility — ^in the form of scholasticism — ^had become mani- 
fest It was perishing for lack of yitality, powerless to cope with 
progressive forces and independent thought For the outworn pro- 
cedures of & priori reasoning, Bacon suggested the substitution of 
another method, that of h posteriori inyestigation by observation and 
experiment. His merit lies in his indication of this, now generally 
denominated the Baconian or /Tiductive Method, as opposed to the 
l^uctire Method of Aristotle. 'He raised experience, which 
hitherto had been only matter of chancA, into a separate and inde- 
pendent object of thought ; ' and * he awoke a general consciousness of 
its indispensable necessity.' f It has been said that he did not so 
much apply the principles of the new Philosophy as propose them. 
Nevertheless, like Moses on Mount Pisgah— to use the illustration of 
Cowley — it was his privilege first to behold the Promised Ijand ; and, 
this being so, it seems profitless to inquire, at this date, whether, 
without a Bacon, the Inductive Method would have originated in 

The outline of the new Philosophy has been sketched by its pro- 
jector in a grand group of works, to which he gave the general title 
of Instauratio Magna — or ' Great Institution ' of the Sciences. Of 
this, the six sections, given in tho DistribuHo Opens prefixed to the 
Novum Organumt \ are as follow : — 

I. Partitiones Scientiarum. — This was to be a survey of then 
existing knowledge, and to it belongs the treatise Ik Augmentis 
Scientxarum, of which nine books were published in 1623. It is a 
iranslation, with large additions, of the author's previous work in 
English On (he Advancement of Learning^ 1605. 

IL Novum Organum, or Indicia de Interpretatione Naturee, — ^This 
so-called * New Instrument of Philosophy ' is an exposition of the 
Inductive Method, in two books, first published in 1620. It was 
valued by its author above all his other works, and was revised, 
altered, and corrected no less than twelve times. But even this is 

• BAwIey In Spedding, !. 4. 

t Schweglcr's Hitt, nf PhUomphy, by Stirllncr, 1868, 152. 

X Bemn'9 Worktf EUis ui4 l^pedding, i. 71, 134. preCaoe to ilTovtim Org^mum 


HL Phanomena Universi, or Historia Ndiuralis et Experimentali§ 
ad condendamFMotophiam, — These were to be the materials for tho 
newmethod. Histories of the Windsi 1622,'^of Life and Death, 1623, 
—of Dexisity and Barity, 1658 ; the treatise called 8ylva Bylvarum^ 
1627» and a few prefaces, are the only works extant which can be 
properly classed in this section of the Instauraiio, 

IV. Scala Intdledua, — ^This was to contain examples of the opera- 
tion and results of the method. Nothing exists of it but a preface. 

v. jProdromi, or Anticipaiiones Philosophia Secunda, — This was to 
contain 'anticipations of the now philosophy,' i.e., facts established 
without the aid of the Baconian method, by which they were subse- 
quently to be tested. Kothing remains of this section but a 

VI. PhUosophia Becunda^ or Scieniia Aciiva. — ^This was to be ' the 
result of the application of the new method to all the phenomena of 
the universe.' [Ellis.] 

Such is this great conception, the importance and significance of 
which are evident. That it was only a half-executed conception, as 
the preceding list will show, is not surprising. If one man only 
could have sketched the plan, it was not in one man's power (even 
though that man were Bacon) to bring it to completion. He him- 
self speaks of Sect. vi. as a task beyond his strength and hopea^— 
* ef supra vires et ultra spes nostras collocata;** and, in the most 
finished work of the series — ^the Novum Organum, he reached but 
the threshold of his theme. 

The chief of Bacon's remaining works, in the order of their publi- 
cation, are his Essayes, or Counsels, CmU and MordU (1597-1625), 
compressed extracts of experience, the depth and suggestiveness of 
which are too well known for further comment ; the Wisdom of the 
AncientSf 1609, in which the author endeavours to explain the alle- 
gory which he believes to be concealed in many of the ancient fables ; f 
the Book of ApophthegmSy 1 625 ; the Elements of the Laws of England, 
1636; the History of Henry VII. i and the unfinished fiible of the 
New Atlantis, 1635, to which Rawley refers, as devised by its 
author ' to the end that he might exhibit therein a model or descrip- 
tion of a College, instituted for the interpreting of Nature, and the 
producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit of man.' 
(See also p. 46, s. 27). 

46. Bmton, Selden, Xiord Herbert. — A writer, who, accord- 
ing to his epitaph at Oxford, consecrated his life to the gloomiest 
of all sciences, has left a singular tribute to his ruling'passion in the 
• JHstrOmtio Opei-U,  r. Preface, 


to-called Anatomy of Mdancholif, 1621, a systematic examination 
of the nature and treatment of hypochondria. Its author, Robert 
■mtoa (1577-1640), vas rector of Scagrave, in Leicestershire. 
BoBpite the methodical diyisions and subdivisions of the book, quota- 
tions of a jtaost mnlti&rions character make up its body and sub- 
stance. Barton himself terms it a cento. It is certainly a oento 
unparalleled. Sterne was notoriously indebted to it, as also (it is 
said) were the wits of the Augustan and G-eoigian eras ; and since 
Thackeray makes it the entire library of one of his literaiy charac- 
ters, it may be inferred that its use, as a convenient storehouse of 
out-of-the-way erudition, is not» even now, unknown. 

Two other writers, although they cannot be said to belong more 
exclusively to the reign of James than to that of his successor, 
nevertheless produced some of their most important works within 
the period comprised in this chapter. One was Kord Herbert of 
Cberbnrj (1583-1648), the author of two deistical works, entitled 
respectively De Veritate and De Iteligione Geniilium, the first of 
which was published in 1624 ; of a valuable, if partial, History of 
the lAfe and JSeiyn of Henry VIII, ; and a singularly direct and can- 
did autobiography. The other is John Seldea (1584-1654), a 
man of a learning as vast as, but better disciplined than, Burton's, 
author of numerous works, of which the Treatiseof Titles of Honour, 
1614, his largest English work, and the History of Tithes, 1618, 
belong to this period. After his death was published his Table-Talk, 
1689, reprinted in Mr. Arber^s series. 

47. Tbe Minor Prose ^UTtiters. — Foremost among the minor 
writers comes the unfortunate Sir Tbomas Overbnrj (1581- 
1613)^ poisoned on account of his opposition to the marriage of Ca^, 
James' favourite, with the Coxmtess of Essex. . Overbury was the 
author of the poem of The Wife, and of Characters or Witty Descrip- 
tions of the Properties of sundry Persons, 1614, pieces characterised 
by the prevailing taste for conceit and epigram. A valuable and 
original Historic of the Turks, 1603, was written by Blobard 
SLnoUes (1550 ?-1610). Among the chroniclers must be mentioned 
Siobard Graftoa {d. after 1572); Sapbael HoUnsbed 
{d, 1580?), to whose Chronicles of England, Ireland, and Scotland 
Shakespeare was indebted for some of his raw material ; Joba 
Stowe (1525-1605), author of the well-known Survey of London, 
1598; Vobn Speed (1552-1629), author of a History of Great 
Britain, 1611. In his Britannia, 1586, 'VTilUam Camden (1551- 
1623) described the country topographically ; and the achievements 
of the Elizabethan navigators were carefully commemorated in the 


collections of Voyages and Travels compiled by Haklayti PurcliaSf 
and others.* For Jewelf XtThit^ttt Cartwrigrlit, and the other 
theological writers of the period the reader is referred to the Die* 
tionary Appendix at the end of this volume. 

Two prose translations also claim onr notice. These are the 
Montaigne* 8 Essays of 7olin Florlo (d. 1625), who by his cen- 
sures on the contemporary drama has also been said to eijoy the 
doubtful distinction of being the original f of Holofemes in Lovers 
Labour*8 Lost; while the Plutarch (1579) of Sir Tbomas Vortla 
(1536 ?-po8t 1600), from the French of Amyot, was used by Shake- 
speare for his Boman plays just as Holinshed had been for the 
English * Histories.' 

48. Tbe Aatborlscd Version.— The account of the prose 
writings of the Shakespearean ago is fittingly brought to an end by the 
Authorised lirandaiion of the Scriptures, which, originating with the 
Hampton Court Conference of 1 604, was commenced in 1607> and 
was published in 1611. •The basis of this was the so-called Bi8hop8\ 
or Archbishop Parser's Bibte, 1568, which was to be followed as closely, 
as possible. The Bishop^ Bible^rss based uponCranmer*s, which again 
may be said to derive from Tyndale's version. (See p. 45, s. 26.) To 
this literary descent, and to the careful collation of the new transla- 
tion with the earlier ones, must be attributed that mellow archaism 
of phraseology which apparently removes thfi language of our pre- 
sent Bible to a period far more remote than the reign in which the 
translation was actually executed. ' The English of the Authorised 
Version represents, not the language of 161 1 in its integrity, but the 
language which prevailed from time to time during the previous 
century. J 

* See Dictionary Appendix (£). 

t See BotwelVs * Malone^ ir. 479-483, for some of the arguments for and 
against this. Warburton and Farmer held this view : few now do. 
X Eastwood and Wright, Preface to Bible Word-BooJt, 1886. 


Aum or an&Toar aitb bbtb: 

. 1626-1700. 


49. Smnmary of tbe Period. — ^The period embraced by the last 
chapter came to an end with the death of James I., in 1625. The 
present chapter extends from that date to the close of the seven- 
teenth centnry. It includes the reign of Charles I., the Common- 
wealth, the Protectorates, the reigns of Charles II. and James II., 
and (two years only excepted) the reign of William and Mary. 
Taking the commencement of the Civil War as one point of 
division, and the Bestoration in 1660 as another, this epoch of 
English literary history may be arranged in three stages — the first 
from 1625 to 1640, the second from 1640 to 1660, and the third 
from 1660 to 1700,— the date of the death of Dryden. 

During the first of these stages the great school of dramatists, 
which had thrown a lustre over tbe two previous reigns of Elizabeth 
and James, was slowly dying out. Of the major prose writers of 
James* reign, only Selden and Lord Herbert were still active. Bacon 
having died in 1626. A hush preceded the coming struggle, and 
literature flourished chiefly in the hands of a little group of poets, of 
whom Jonson, in his minor pieces, and Donne ( see p. 56, s. 36), who 
lived until 1631, may be said to be the leaders. Of these, Cowley, 
Wither, Herbert, Crashaw, Habington, Quarles, Suckling, and 
Garew had all publbhed poems before 1640, and in that year Den- 
ham's masterpiece was written. Kothing had been printed of 


Milton's earlier poetry, some of which belongs to this school, bnt 
the Epitaph On Shdkespear, Comua, and L^fcidast — the first two 
anonymously, the last with the writer*s initials only. L* Allegro and 
// Penseroao ; seten or eight of the Sonnets, and most of the shorter 
pieces, however, are all supposed to have been eon^sed before the 
last-mentioned date. 

During the whole of the second stage (1640-1660) the great poet 
practically laid by his ' singing robes' for controyersial prose, and« 
with some few exceptions, the bulk of the little literature was of this 
kind. As, after Chancer, the Wars of the Boses and the Eeformation 
were succeeded by a literary dearth, so now the Civil Wars and the 
Puritan Reyolution gave rise to a temporary suspension of works of 
imagination. The closing of the theatres in 1642 put an end to plays. 
Most of the lesser minstrels were silent during the storm, or, if they 
sang at all, their song was changed. * Either the time of their 
literary activity did not coincide with the period of struggle, bub 
came before it, or after it, or lay on both sides of it ; or what they 
did write of a purely literary character during this period was^ 
written in exile.** 

With the Eestoration the third stage began, and the drama, con- 
siderably modified by French influences, became at once the popular 
form of literature. If Paradise Lost, Paradise Begained, and Samson 
Affonistes were produced during the reign of Charles II.,. they must 
be regarded as produced in spite of their surroundings. The years 
from 1660 to 1700 belong, above all, to Bavenant and Dryden, to 
Otway, Southeme, the Comic Dramatists and their congeners. In 
the present chapter we shall take the poets first in order (s. 50 to 
s. 60), the prose writers next (s. 61 to s. 71), and the dramatists 
last (s. 72 to s. 77). 

50. Tbe ' Metaplisrslcal Sebool ' of Poets. — ^To the majority 
of the verse-writers referred to above as following the fashion of 
Donne, Johnsou,t perhaps taking a hint from* Dryden, applies the 
adjective * metaphysical.* The qualification has been demurred to 
by Southey, who, nevertheless, refrains from proposing a better. By 
Hallam it is held to be more exactly applicable to writers like Sir 
John Davies (see p. 56, s. 36) j but, correct or incorrect, it will pro- 
bably continue to be used in describing this particular group of 
poets. Perpetual striving after novelty, intricacy of conceit, and a 
certain lettered quibbling are their chief characteristics. Wit and 

* Maason : JSmifs, Biographical and Critieal, 1856, 98. 
t Livet </ the J^lkt : Covltjf, Gurningham's ed. i. IS&I, 


learning they liad undoubtedly ; but Jolinson denies to tliem pathos 
or sublimity. He allo^vrs, however, that, in the pursuit of fanciful 
analogies, they 'sometimes struck out unexpected truths,' and, 
ftlling into a conceit himself, admits that if their conceits were far- 
fetched, they were often wortli the cairiage. And, indeed, although 
some of them may be found on occasion to compare ' eyes to burn- 
ing-glasses, and tears to terrestrial globes, coyness toanenthymeme, 
alwenoe to a pair of compasses, and an unrequited passion to the for- 
tieth remainder-man in an entail,' * they have nevertheless left us 
many dainty lyrics (not to mention some longer pieces) which could 
ill be spared from our anthologies. Such are, for example : — ^Love- 
lace's Ihll me notf Sweety lam unkind^ and the lines, To Althea,from 
prison ; Wither^s 8k4xH /, wasting in despair 1 — Suckling's Why so pale 
and wan, fond lover? Caxew^B He that loves a rosy cheek; Wallei^s 
Go lovely Boeel and the verses On a Girdle ; or, the Gather ye rose" 
huds while ye may, and others by Herrick. 

61. Cowley. — ^The most illustrious representative of the meta* 
physical school, after Donne {see p. 56, s. 86), is Abrabam Cow- 
ley (1618-1667). On this account chiefly he is entitled to priority 
of place, as more than one of the writers named subsequently had 
produced mature works when Cowley had put forth nothing but the 
Poetical Blossoms (1633) of his boyhood. His father was a Cheapside 
tradesman. Set on fire by the study of Spenser, he began to write 
early, publishing the above-mentioned volume of verses while still 
at Westminster School. From Cambridge he was ejected in 1643 
for his Koyalist tendencies. He afterwards became Secretary to the 
Earl of St. Albans, and was for some time employed as a medium 
of communication between Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. Neg- 
lected at the Bcstoration, in spite of his hopes, he retired to Chert- 
sey, where he died. His principal works are a collection of love 
verses, entitled 7 ^ Mistress; Pindaric Odes: an unfinished epic, The 
Bavideis, and the comedy of the Cutter of Coleman Street (produced in 
1661, and first called The Guardian), to the frank portraiture of 
Cavalier humours in which, his disfavour with Charles II. has been 
attributed. Of his Essays mention will be made in their place. 
Cowley's reputation has faded since Milton ranked him next after 
Spenser and Shakespeare. Professor Craik considers him much 
inferior to Donne, ' less deep, strong, and genuine,' — ^substituting 
gilding and word-catching for the gold and meditative quaintness of 
the elder poet, although he sometimes exhibits dignity and a playful 

. 4 XTacaulay, MisceUaneous Writings: John l>rifclm% 


52. Herb ert, Crasl&aw. — ^The first of the pair whom we haye 
Urns linkedtoge£her,-i-Oeorgre Herbert (1593-1633), a younger 
brother of Lord Herhert of Cherbury {see p. 74, s. 46), was, during 
the last two years of his life, Hector of Bemerton, in Wiltshire. His 
poems entitled The Temple ; or, Sacred Poems and Private Ejacula ' 
tiona, 1683, appeared shortly after his death, and a prose work 
styled A Priest to the Temple; or, the Country Parson, not until 
1662. The second, Bieliard CrauOiaw (d. 1649), was at first elo- 
quent as a Protestant preacher. He subsequently became a Eoman 
Catholic, went to France, and finally died canon of the church of 
Loretto. His English poems were issued, in 1646, under the title of 
/Steps tothe Temple. Sacred Poems^with other Delights of the Muse s, 

* Holy Mr. Herbert,* as he has been called, is the greater of the 
two. His poems hare, in exeess, the obliquities of his friend Donne ; 
but they are informed with an unaffected atid exalted piety, and 
have afforded to many that solace which, * Gothic and uncouth as 
they were * — ^to use Cowper's words — they afforded to that unhappy 
poet in his periods of dejection. Crashaw's style was influenced by 
tliat of the Italian Maxini, whose Sospetto di Herode he translated ; 
and he was also an ardent admirer of St. Theresa, not, it has been 
said, to the advantage of his work, which displays considerable power 
of imagination. He is the author of the well-known Wishes to a 
supposed Mistress, and among his Latin poems, 1634, occurs the 
famous line on the water turned into wine : — 

* Nymplia pudiea Deum vidit et erubuU ' 
(The modest water saw its God, and blnshed) 

sometimes attributed to Dryden. 

53. ^saxlfifiaJCI^er.— Although Francis Qnarles (1592« 
1644) and Oeorgre IVlther (1588>1667) wrotfi much, it is now 
chiefly by the Divine Emblems , 1635, of the one and the Emblems of the 
other-quaint, allegorical conceits in the taste of the Low Country 
moralists, that they are remembered. Quarles was cup-bearer to 
Elizabeth of Bohemia, Secretary to Archbishop Usher, and Chro- 
nicler to the City of Jjondon. TVither, whose works number more 
than one hundred, served first on the Boyalist and then on the Bound- 
head side in the Great Civil War. Many of his shorter poems are 

• exceedingly beautiful. The volume of satirical verse entitled Abttses 
Stript and Whdpt, 1613, which procured his imprisonment by the 
ftrivy Council for its alleged offensive tone to certain persons in 
authority; a manly Satire to the King, said to have effected hiis 
release ; a coUectiou of Eclogues entitled the Shepherds Hunting, 

80 HAki)B00k of ENOtlStt LltEUATURE.-. 

1615, and the pastoral entitled the MUtress of PhUareie, 1622, are 
some of his better-known productions. ' He has left/ says Professor 
Masson, * along with some real poetiy, a sea of the flattest Terse 
known in our language, hut his influence was as healthy as his style 
was plain and apprehensible/* 

54. HeiTiokf Hablngton. — Like Herbert and Crashaw, 
Robert Heniek (1591-1674) was a clergyman, and published 
WbrkSf Human and JDivin e, which, although his lively (and some- 
times licentious) Anacreontic muse has graver moments, have more 
of the former than the latter attribute. But many of the lyrics in 
BiMperidea^ 1648, — ^for such is the first title of Herrick's book^-are 
wholly free from taint, and cannot easily be matched. Their blithe 
beauty must plead for the 

< unbaptiaed rhymes 
Writ in his wild unhallowed timea.* 

The second writer, "UTUllaiii Habington (1605-1654), author of 
Castara, 1634, a collection of poems in honour of Lord Fowis* 
daughter, whom he married, is at least free from the charge of 
coarseness. But the chastity of his thoughts has not preserved his 
verse from the aflfectations of his school. Caitara^ it should, how- 
ever, be added, contains a number of miscellaneous devotional poems 
' on texts taken from the Latin Vulgate,' which are, in some respects, 
of a higher flight than his pre-nuptial and conjugal efiusions. 

55. Tbe Cawaller Poets. — ^Five poets — Suckling, Carew, Den« 
ham, Cleveland, and Lovelace— may fairly come under this denomi- 
nation. The name of Sir John Snekli ng (1609-1643) at once 
recalls the delightful Ballad on a Weddif^ —ihaX of the afterwards 
£arl of Orrery and Lady Maigaret Howard. This Hhough not 
written,' says HaUam,t' for those Q^i musas colitis severiores,* [it is 
generally abridged in most collections] * has been read by almost 
all the world, and is a matchless piece of liveliness and facility.' 
Suckling also wrote, in 1637, the Session of the Poets, in which he 
good-humouredly rallies his brother rersifiers. Tbomas Carew 
|(1598?-1639?)/ Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and Sewer-in- 
Ordinary * to Charles I., and a celebrated court-wit, died just before 
the Civil War. Suckling banters him for his laborious polish and 
sluggish conception, and he appears to hare succeeded best in short 
pieces well adapted to the music of Milton's friend Lawes and other 
csomposers. Sir 7obn Benbam (1615-1669) is familiar from the 
off-quoted couplet in his poem of Cooper^s Hill, the measured and 

• Life qf Milton, 1859, i. 440. 

t Hallam, LU. HUtory, Part III. chap. r. \ S6, 


stately Tersification of which has been highly praised. He died an 
old man in the reign of Charles II., with a mind clonded by the 
sndden loss of his young wife, whom he had married late in life. 
John CleT6laad (1613-1658), author of the Rebel Scott and cer- 
tain vigorous attacks on the Protector, was the earliest, poetical 
champion of royalty. Butler is said to hare adopted the style of 
hissatires in Hudibrae, Colonel Bl^liar4 Kovelaoe (1618-1658), 
like Habington, christened his collected verses with the name of 
his Lucasta ( » Lux casta » Miss Lucy Sacheyerell), but had not 
tihe good fortune of the author of Castara, for the lady, belieying 
that he had died at Dunkirk, married another. Lovelace is the ^rpe 
of the Cavalier, and his personal character and appearance corre- 
sponded to the graceful gallantry of his poetry. He, and Cleveland 
too, after suffering poverty and imprisonment in the royal cause, 
died miserably before they could reap their recompense in the 
Bestoration. The titles of some of the best known lyrics of Suckling, 
Carew and Lovelace are given on p. 78. 

56. ixra]l«r« — Bom a Boyalist, and connected by marriage with 
Cromwell himself, Bdmond IXTaller (1605-1687) escaped the 
miserable end of the last-named poets, to die an old man, upon the eve 
of the second Bevolution. But then he did not encumber himself with 
any inflexible fidelity to either cause, slipping as easily from a 
paneg3rric on Cromwell to a panegyric on Charles, as he slid from 
the celebration of his Sacharieea, Lady Sidney, to that of his Amorett 
Lady Murray. He saved himself from the consequences of con* 
spiracy by betrayal of his accomplices; and, when taxed by the 
cynic king with his more effective praise of the late Protector, 
replied, with easy assurance : — * Poets, Sir, succeed better in fiction 
than in truth.' In fact, as a man, he was a by-no-means estimable 
character. As a poet, his work is more finished, — less marred by 
the defects of the metaphysical school, than that of many of his pre- 
decessors, although some of them have greatly the advantage of him 
in sincerity. * Of elevated imagination, profound thought, or pas- 
sion, he was utterly destitute,' says one of his biographers, ' and it 
19 only in detached passages, single stanzas, or small pieces, finished 
with great care and elegance, as the lines on a lady's girdle [see 
p. 78, 8. 50], those on the dwarfs, and a few of the lyrics, that we can 
discern that play of fancy, verbal sweetness, and harmony, which 
gave so great a name to Waller for more than a hundred years.' * 

67* BUltDii.— The first genuine edition of Waller's poems was 
published in 1645. In the same year appeared the first collection 

'f Mmqfclop, BrUannka^ 8th ed. ; tee also Prot MintQ*8 notice in the 9th ed. 




of tlie early efibtts of a far more important -writer than the witty 
trimmer and 'Virgil of the Nation/ namely, —* Toliii BUlton 
(1608-1674). The life of the great Puritan poet ib so inextricably 
bbnnd np vith his works that onr narratire of the one most neces- 
sarily include an account of the other. He was born in Bread 
Street, Cheapsidei on the 9th of December, 1608. His father wa« 
a scrirener, a respectable composer and musician, and a repub^ 
iican in his o^anions. Young Milton was educated -first at homey 
under a tutor, and then at St^ Paul's School, whence, in 1624-&,- 
he passed to Christ's College, Cambridge. He was admitted B.A* 
in 1628-9, and M.A. in 1632. Meanwhile, his father had re- 
moyed to Horton, near Colnbrook, Bucks. Hither Milton, in the 
last-named year, returned from Cambridge. By this lime he waff 
one of the best Greek and Latin scholars of his University, a pro- 
ficient in Hebrew, could write and speak both French and Italian, 
possessed an extensive knowledge of ancient imd modern literature, 
and was a skilful musician. Already, too, he had written yerse. 
The earliest of his poems now extant are renderings of the cxiv. and 
GXXXTi. Psalms, produced at fifteen years (1624). In 1626, he had 
written his Elegy, On a fair Infant, the child of one of his sisters ; — 
in 1628, the Vacation exercise, beginning, * Hail! native langnage, 
that by smewa weakl — ^and, in 1629, the noble ode, On the morning 
of Chrises Natkfity; followed, in 1630 (?), by the lines JTpon The Oir- 
GUTneision and The Passion, To this last year belongs, also, his first 
published English poem, — the epitaph beginning, ' JVh(tt needs my 
Shakespear for his honour'd bones V given to the world in 1632. 
{See p. 65, s. 40.) During a fiya years' residence at Horton ho 
wrote the oompanion poems VJllegro and II Penseroso ; Arcades, a 
fragment of an entertainment presented at Harefield (Middlesex) 
before the Countess-Dowager of Derby ; and the masque of ComuSp 
performed, in 1634, at Ludlow Castle, by the Earl of Bridgewater's 
fi&ne.and daughter, Lady Alice Egerton, whose benighting in Hay- 
wood Forest is said to have furnished the motive. This last ^ dainty 
piece of entertainment' was sent to the press, in 1637 (without the 
author^s name), by Henry Lawes, the composer of the accompanying: 
music, who had grown tired of re-copying the words for his friends ; 
and it appears to have been highly eulogised by Sir Henry Wotton, 
Provost of Eton, in a letter to Milton, dated 1638. *1 should much^V 
he writes, 'commend the tragical part [i.e. the dialogue], if the. 
lyrical did not ravish mo with a certain Doric delicacy in your songs 
and odes ; whereunto I must plainly confess to have seen yet nothing 
parallel in our language. Ijtsa mollities I* * It was su£lcient/ sajs 


HallaxD, ' to convince any one of taste and feeling that a great poet 
had arisen in England, and one partly formed in a different school 
from his contemporaries.' To 1 637 belongs the monody of Lycidaa^ 
which was published, in 1688, at the end of a Tolnme of memorial 
verses upon the death of the poet's Cambridge friend, Edward King, 
who was drowned in the first-named year while crossing from 
Chester to Ireland. Another of the poems of this period of his life 
is the following sonnet To the Niffhtingale, printed here, not so mnch 
on account of its dewy woodland beauty, as to give an example, in- 
its more perfect form, of the Italian exotic whidi Surrey, Sidneyi 
Spenser and Shakespeare had already so successfully cultivated : — 

* Nightingale, that on yon bloomy Spray (a) \ 
' TVarbl'st at eeve, when all the Woods are still, (6) 

Thou with fresh hope the Lovers heart dost fill, (&) 
While the Jolly hoars lead on propitioas Mav, (a) I ut group 
Tby liquid notes that close the- eye of Day, (a) / (1. 1 to 8). 

First heard before the shallow Caccoo*s Ull (6) 

Portend success in loTe ; O, if Jovt^s will (6) 
Have linkt that amorous power to thy soft lay, (a) 

* Now timely sing, ere the rude Bird of Hate (c) 

ForeteQ my hopeles doom in som Grove ny : (cO 
, As. thou from yeer to yeer host song too late («) I s^d gronp 
For my relief ; yet hadst no reason why, (d) f (/. 9 to 14) 

Whether the Muse, or Love call thee his mate, (c) 
Both them I serve, and of their train am L* (d) 

The letters at the end of the lines have been added to show moro 
clearly the arrangement of the rhymes, usually indicated typo- 
graphically ii\ foreign, but not always in English, examples. In the 
first group of eight lines (a pair of quatrains) there are only two 
rhymes ; in the second group of six lines, there are but two also. 
Further, says the law, there should be a break or pause at the close 
of the eighth line. Such is the sonnet, according to the severest 
Petrarchan model.* We shall not detain the reader by enumerating 
the variations — chiefly in the multiplication and disposal of the 
rhymes—which even the most illustrious English practitioners, de- 
spairing to compel our stubborn terminations to the canons of this 
dainty tour-de-force, have at times excused or sanctioned. 

In 1637, Milton's mother died. With his father's leave, he set out; 
in the following year, for a lengthy tour on the Continent. Wotton, 
in the above-mentioned letter, had equipped him with a travelling 
maxim — * i pensieri stretti, ed il viso «cto?^ '—* thoughts clo&6 and 
looks loose,' by which the young Eepublican did not entirely profit. 

* Petrarch in the In Vita and In MorU di If. Laura has 118 sonnets with fooz 
rhymes, and 303 with five. €/, T. Hall Oaiae's Smnett ^ Three Centuries, 



He visited France, Italy, and Switzerland saccessiyelj, being intro* 
duced at difierent times to G-rotius, to Ghalileo, then, to use the tra- 
yeller's words, * a prisner [in his own house] to the Inquisition, for 
thinking in Astronomy otherwise than the Franciscan and Dominican 
licensers thought,'* and to Tasso's friend, GioTanni Manso, Maxqnis 
of Villa. By the Italians in particular he was well received, and 
addressed three of his Latin Epigrams to the celebrated singer, 
Leonora Baroni. But the disturbances at home abridged his wan- 
derings. 'When I was preparing to pass over into Sidlyand 
Oreece, the melancholy intelligence which I received of the civil 
commotions in England made me alter mypurpose ; for I thought it 
base to be travelling for amusement abroad, while my fellow-citisens 
were fighting for liberty at home.' f He accordingly returned in 
1639. At first he occupied himself peaceably in tuition. But in 
1641, ' G-od, by his Secretary, Conscience, enjoined' him to ' embark 
in a troubled sea of noises and hoarse disputes.' The controversy 
respecting Episcopacy was raging, and his first prose efibrts were 
directed against the Anglican Church Establishment. ' As long as 
the liberty of speech was no longer subject to controul, all mouths 
began to be opened against the bishops ; some complained of the 
-vices of the individuals, others of those of the order . • I saw 
that a way was opening for the establishment of real liberty ; • • 
and as I had from mj youth studied the distinctions between reli- 
gious and dvil rights . . X therefore determined to relinquish the 
other pursuits in which I was engaged, and to transfer the whole 
force of my talents and my industry to this one important object'^ 
Acting upon this decision, he accordingly wrote his first work 0/ 
Stformation touching Church Discipline in England^ and the causes 
that hitherto have hindered it, 1641, followed in the same year by 
another, Qf ^rtHatical Episcopacy^ in answer to a pro-Episcopal 
pamphlet by Aroltbisliop ITalier (1580-1656), and The Season of 
phurch Government ur^d againsit Prelafy. He also contributed to 
the controversy between ' Smectymnuus ' (a name concocted from 
the initials of the five Puritan authors who coUectiyely employed 
it) and Bisbop Sail (1574-1656), an Animadversions on the Be- 
monsirant*s [HalVs] D^ence against SmectymnttuSt 1641, and an 
Apology for Smectymnuus, 1642. These make in all a total of five 
anti-Episcopal pamphlets on the church question. His marriage 
gave rise to his next works. In 1643 he was united to Hary^ Powell, 

• AreopagUka, 1644, 60 (Arber'i J2«prm/, 1868). 
:.' t Jkftntio Stcnnda pro Fop, Angl.t Symmon'i ed. yi, 403. 

i IHfeiitHo Beetmdapro Pi^p* AnpL, GtToanoii'q ed. jU 404, 

^kE AdE 6F kiLTON AND l)Rtb^. ' 65 

daughter of a gentleman of Oxfoidshire. The austerity of the poet'd 
hoTifiehold seems to have proved uncongenial to the lady, and after vi 
hrief residence she left her new home, declining to return. It yfad 
nnder these circamstances that Hilton published successively hid 
Doctrine and pUe^ UnA (jf Th'rfT^f, 1 643, Judgment of Martin Bucer 
concerning Divorce, 1644, Tetrachordon and Colasterion—fhe last two 
being published on the same day, March 4, 1644-5. Mrs. Milton 
subsequently returned to her husband in 1645. To the year 1644 
belong also two important works, the Tyaet on Educaiiou^ and thd 
Jreopagiiica , — ^the latter, generally regarded as the most favourable 
specimen of its author^s prose, being a splendidly eloquent and urgent 
plea for the liberty of thepress, prompted mainly by the restrictive 
Ordinance of June 14, 1643, for the Begulating of Printing. 'So 
that the judgment of the true and the false, what should be pub- 
lished and what suppressed, should not be in the hands of a few 
men, and these most nnleamed and of common capacity, erected 
into a censorship over books — an agency through which no one 
almost either can or will isend into the light anything that is above 
the vulgar taste— on this subject,' says Milton, * in the form of an 
express oration, I wrote my Areopagitioa! * 

The fame of Milton as a controversialist was now established. In 
1649 the Council of State appointed him Secretary for Foreign 
Tongues ; and in this capacity he replied by his so-calle d Mkon- 
odastea^ 1649, to the Eikon BasilikS; or, the Dortraiture of his 
Most Sacred Majesty t» hie Solitudes and Sufferings, ascribed to 
Blflbop Oaudea (1605-1662), a book which * contained the most 
inyidious charges against the Parliament.' 

' Subsequently, by order of the Council, he entered the lists with 
the celebrated Leyden Professor and critic, Salmasius (Saumaise), who 
had been employed by Charles II. to write a defence of his £Eithe]^. 
To this Milton replied by the Defensio fro Populo Jnalieano ( 1661) ; 
and to a second work, entitled Begii Sanguinis Clamor ad Ctrium, by 
Peter du Moulin, he rejoined by a Defensio Secun^a (1 654). Already, 
at the outset of this last controversy, his eyesight, injured by intense 
application since boyhood, had been gradually failing, and his medi- 
cal advisers had repeatedly warned him, although ineffectually, of 
his danger. About 1652 he became entirely blind.- Hiis first wife 
having died in child-bed, he was married again in 1656 to Catherine 
Woodcock, and ultimately retired from his more arduous secretarial 
duties, receiving a reduced emolument until 1659. This brings jxb 
to the eve of the Restoration. Hitherto, the life of Milton has ex* 
• D^ensio Seeunda, qnotod in Masson's L^e qf Milton, iii. (1873), 37e. 


amplified those characteristics of the literature of the period referred 
to in the opening paragraph of this chapter. With few exceptions 
(and tho^e exceptions sonnets) his earh'er English poems belong to 
th9 years preceding the Civil War. Thenceforward, until the Ee- 
storationi his pen was devoted to prose, to ' which manner of writing/ 
be it remarked in his own words, he was ' not naturally disposed.' 
As might be antidpated, it is, in parts, splendidly sumptuous and 
eloquent ; but it is also stiff, laboured, and overladen with Latinisms. 
* It is like a fine translation from the Latin,* says Hazlitt, and the 
phrase indicates its chief defect. 

At the Eestoration, Hilton was in some danger imtil the Act of 
Indemnity was passed ; and even after this he was for a short time 
in custody. Ko prose work of any importance belongs to his later 
years. He occupied himself mainly with the composition of Para- 
dise Lost and Paradise Reffained, the former of which poems appeared 
in 1667) in ten books. In 1674 appeared a second edition, in which 
the ten books were arranged in twelve. By his agreement with the 
printer, the author received 10^. for the first edition, in two pay- 
ments pf 5/. ; and his widow, Elizabeth MinshuU (for after the death 
of his second wife, in 1658, he had married again) afterwards received 
a further sum of Bl., in full of all demands. In 1671 appeared Para- 
diss J^egainedf in four books, and Samson Agonistes, These were his 
last poetical works. In 1674 (November 8) he died, and was buried 
in St. Giles,' Cripplegato. 

Hilton's minor poems have been already noticed. It remains to 
give. some, account of his great epics and his tragedy. In an appen- 
dix to this chapter will be found a short analysis of both Paradise 
JjosA and Paradise Regained, and it will therefore be sufficient to eon- 
fine ourselves here to giviog a few particulars respecting their com- 
position and reception.* The writing of some great poem appears 
to have been an early dream of the poet's life. In a letter to his 
friend Hanso (1638) he expressly refers to this desire; and he 
returns. tq it in the JEpitaphium Damonis elicited, by the death of 
his s^oolfellow, Charles Deodati (1608-39). His song shall be, he 
says, of Brutus and Imogen, of Brennus and Belinus, and of the 
wife of Gorlois, who, surprised 

* By Utber, in her hnsband's form disguised 
(Sach was the force of Merlin's art), became 
Pr^^nt with Arthur, of heroic fame.' f 

It was to the Arthurian legends, then, and early British history that 

* See Appendix D : Note to Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained* 
t Cowper, Transtations from Milton, 


hfi W9tf to look for his hero. But, as Fenton said truly, although 
fopMseeiog only good Sir Bichard Blackmore, who wrote, in Brjden's 
phiaso, *to tho rumbling of his coach's wheels/ — * Arthur was 
reserred to another destiny.' In the third of his great prose works 
MIUoB again refers to the 'inward prompting, • • that, hy 
labour and intense study, • • joined with the strong propensity 
of nature, he might |>erhap8 leave sonlething so written to after 
times as they should not willingly let it die;'* though in the 
subsequent Apology far Smectymnutis he postpones the execution of 
his project until * a still time, when there shall be no chiding.' Yet» 
when at last the still time came, the poet's theme had changed. He 
no longer proposed to celebrate the shadowy exploits of Igraine's 
famous son, but turned to that sublimer story — 

* Of Man's first disobedience, and the frnit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
Bronght Death into the world, and all our woe.' 

He is said to have actually commenced his task in 1658, but 
doubtless had earlier planned and rounded his design. The un- 
rhymed verse of the poem (for whidi the publisher found it necessary 
to procure a justiflcation) may have been one reason why its first 
reception was apathetic ; although, as Sir Walter Scott points out, 
the unpopularity of the author's character, — the subject itself, and 
its entire discordance with the Court of the Kestoration, were other 
and more probable obstacles in the way of its success. Nevertheless, 
it met with some appreciative contemporary admirers, and those of the 
highest calibre, Marvell and Dryden ; the latter of whom declared 
it, shortly after Milton's death, to be * undoubtedly one of the greatest, 
most noble, and most sublime poems, which either this age or 
nation has produced.' f During the next period the enlighten ed criti- 
cism of Addison assisted, in popularising it, and since that time it 
has wanted neither commentators nor readers. 

Paradise Begained was suggested by the question of a friend to 
whom Milton exhibited the MS. of the earlier poem. *Thou (the 
speaker was Ellwood, the Quaker) hast said much here of Paradise 
lost ; but what hast thou to say of Paradise found ? ' It is inferior 
to its predecessor, but, as is not unusual, its author valued it as of 
equal if not superior merit. 

Samson Agonistes at once invites contrast with the poet's earlier 
dramatic effort of ComuSf — the one sombre, severe, mature, the other 
youthful, joyous, with the freshness of the morning on it, Comus is 

* Reason qf Churt^O&pemment ttrged agatrnt Prdatyy 1 641 , Symmon*s ed J .119. 
t FleCaoe to Tke State o/ Innocence, and Fall of Man, 1«74. 




of kin with 7%e Tempest, and the pastorals of Joason and Fletehar: 
Sameon J^fonutee deriTes rather from Sophodean or Enripidean 
models; being in stmctnre a strictly Greek tragedy, on a scriptural 
theme— dear-cut, and of a majestic simplidty. The BnbUma 
morality, the .pore-toned praising of temperance and chastity, — ^tha 
bnoyant ethereal Terse . • 

* as street and musical 
As bright ApoIlo*s late, stnmg vith his hair, 

will probably attract the reader rather to the former than to the 
latter work. But it is impossible not to admire the grandly-reached 
catastrophe of the mighty Nazarite, nor to forget the af^nities of 
the hero and the poet, himself fallen upon evil days, poor, and 
deprived of sight In the following soliloquy, for example, no one 
can fail to perceive the expression of a feeling as distinctly personal 
to Milton as the invocation to Light in Paradise Lost (Bk. iii.), or 
the specific sonnet On his Blindness : — 

' — chief of all, 
O loss of sight, of thoe I most complain I 
Blind among enemies, worse than chains, 
Dungeon, or beggary, or decrepit age I 
Light, the prime work of Qod, to me is extinct, 
And all her varions objects of delight 
Annull'd, which might in part my grief have eas*d. 
Inferior to the vilest now become. 
Of man or worm; the vilest here exod me. 
They creep, yet see ; I, dark in light, ezpos'd 
To daily fraud, contempt, abuse and wrong, 
'Within doors, or tiithout, still as a fool. 
In power of ethers, never in my own ; 
Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than haU. 
O dark, dark, dark, amid the blase of noon. 
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse 
Without all hope of day I 
O first created beam, and thou great Word, 
'* Let there be Ught," and light was over aU 
- Why am I thus boreav'd thy prime decree ? 
The sun to me is dark 
▲nd silent as the moon. 
When she deserts the niiiht 
Hid in her vacant interlnnar cave.' 

(<SiiflMMi Affonistes, U. G6-89.) 

A passage from H. Taine, referring to Hilton's position as a < 

>writer, may not inappropriatdy dose our account of him : — * Placed, { 

as it happened, between two ages, he partidpates in their two i 

characters, as a stream, which, flowing between two diflerent soils, ' 


Is tinged by their two hues. A poet and a Protestant^ he re- 
eeiyes from the dosing age the free poetic afflatus, and from the 
opening age the severe political religion. He employed the one in 
the service of the other, and displayed the old inspiration in new 
subjects . . Adorning the cause of Algernon Sidney and Locke 
with the inspiration of Spenser and Shakespeare • • he holds his 
place between the epoch of unbiassecl dreamland and the epoch of 
practical action ; like his own Adam, who, entering a hostile earth, 
heard behind him, in closed Eden, the dying strains of hearen/ * 

58. Butlef. — ^In 1663, or a year after Millon was introduced 
to the young Quaker, to whom he showed Paradise Lost^ Mr. Pepys, 
the Diarist, was greatly puzzled to account for the success of a 
' new book of drollery in use,' which for a long time enjoyed £ir 
more popularity than the great poet*s tardily accepted epic. He 
(Pepys) buys the work in question at a bookseller's for two and six- 
pence, and likes it so little that he sells it again for eighteenpence. 
Afterwards, feeling loth to faM out with what 'all the world cries 
up to be the example of wit,' he purchases it once more, and likes it 
no better. A year later it is still the book < in greatest fashion for 
droUeiy/ but, though for the third time he buys a copy, he ' cannot 
see enough where the wit lies.' 

The work which gave the candid chronicler so much trouble was 
the Hudibras of Sainnal Butter (1612-1680), the first part of 
which was published in 1663, the second in 1664, and a third, 
leaving the book unfinished, in 1678. The author had been secre- 
taiy to Selden, and then an inmate of the family of a certain Sir 
Samuel Luke, one of Cromwell's officers, in whom he is said to 
have found the features of his heio. Becently he had been made 
Steward of Ludlow Castle by the Earl of Carbury. His Hudibras is 
a Presbyterian Justice of Peace— an ignoble kind of Quixote, who, 
in company with an argpimentative Independent clerk, Kalpho, 'in 
the confidence of legal authority, and the rage of zealous ignorance, 
ranges the country to repress superstition and. correct abuses.' f 
There is not much plot in the story, and its endless arguments are 
sometimee wearisome, but of wit there is enough and to spare. The 
metre is that doggerel octo-syllabic measure now generally known 
as Hndibrastic verse. The following lines will exemplify it, and 
give some idea of the reckless rhyming and the humour of indi« 
vidual passages. The hero of the poem is, of course, the person 
referred to. 

* Van Laming trans. Bk. n. chap. vi. Dir. 6, at the end. 
t Johnson, Lives of the Poets, Cunningham's ed. L 179, 


. . « He was In Loffidt a great Critlck, 

Profoundly skilled in Analytic ; 
He could distlngalsh, and divide 
A Hsfr, twist AwA and Sovth-vett Side ; 
On dtber w^oh ho would disimte, 
Confnte,.cliange Hands, and still confute ; 
He'd undertake to prove by Force 
' Of Argument a Man's no Horse ; 
He'd prore a Bunard is no Fowl, 
And that a Lord may be an Owlt 
A Calf an Alderman^ a Goose a Justice, 
And Rooks CommUlee-men and Tm$teeu • « 

* For Ithdariekf he oould not ope 

His Mouth, but out there flew a Trope ; 
And when he happened to break ofl 
r th* Middle of his Speech, or cough, 
Hliad hard Words, ready to shew why. 
And tell what Rules he did it by : • • 
< In achooi'DivinUy as able 
As he that hight //T0vvaM« ; 
▲ second Tlwmatt or at once, 
To name them all, another Duns i 
Profound in all the Nominal 
And real Ways beyond them all ; 
For he a Rope of Sand could twist 
As tough as learned Sorbonist ; 
And weave fine Cobwebs, fit for Scull 
That's empty when the Moon is full ; 
Such as take Lodgings inU Head 
That's to be let unfumishSd.' 

(ITudibraf, Canto 1. Part 1.) 

We aie told that Hudihras was received with unirersal applause, 
and that King Charles n. carried i€ about in his pocket. Never- 
theless, the poet died poor, and was buried at the charges of a 

* Of all his gains by verse, he could not save 
Bnongh to purchase flannel and a grave.' 

Bntler was also the author of The Elephant in the Moon, a satire 
on the newly-fonnded Boyal Society ; and of some prose Characters 
in the sf^le of Earle and Overbury, first published in 1759, 

/{9. MarvelL—One of the first to appreciate Paradise Lost had 
been Milton's colleague in his secretaryship^Andrew aKanreU 
(1621-1678), Member for Hull from the Restoration to his death. 
Of his personal character, it is snfiBlcient to say that he was in all 
things the opposite of Waller. The fame of his nervous and plain- 
spoken satires, in which he was, in some sort, the forerunner of 
Swift, has passed with the andience to which they were addressed. 


One of his prose works — ^the Rehearsal Transposed, attaddng Samiiet 
Parker (1640-1688), afterwards Bishop of Oxford — ^was exceedingly 
popular ; and several of his poems, e.g. the Emigrants (i.e. Pilgrim 
Fathers), the NympKs Convplaint for the Death of her Fawn, and, in 
part» the beautiful lines, Had we but World enough and Time? ad- 
dressed to his *Cog Mistress,* hare great beauty and genuine 

60. Vlie Minor Poets of tbe lle8toratloii.^0f, or deroted 
to, the Court, as these were chiefly, the prevailing tone of their pro* 
ductions may be easily divined. 

* In all Ohorles's days 
Boscommon only boasts imspotted bays,-^ 

sang Pope.* The thus-eulogised Bail of Rosoommoii (1633- 
1685) was author of a blank-verse translation of Horace's Art of 
Poetry, and of an Essay on Translated Verse, in heroics. Johnson 
praises his versification. He was a correct but tame writer — one of 
those of whom it has been aptly said that they are * toujours bien, 
jamais mieux.* The only other minor poets of any importance were 
John Wilmot, Barl of Kocliester (1647-1680), a man of great 
wit and satiric talent, but infamous, during a short life, for all the 
vices; and Charles Sackville, Barl of Borset (1637-1706), author 
of the sprightly ballad 7b all you Ladies now on Land, written at sea 
during the Dutch war of 1664-67. Sedley and Buckingham we 
have placed among the dramatists f — ^where also will be found our 
account of Diyden {see p. 102, s. 74). 

61. Vlie Prose ^nrriterfli.~Kot a few of the poets of this age 
verified the truth of the dictum which attributes to them excellence 
as prose-writers. Waller, Iklarvell, Donne, all thus distinguished 
themselves. The prose of Hilton has already been characterised. 
But the two most eminent are Cowley {see p. 78, s. 51) and Dryden 
{see p. 102, s. 74). The Essays of the former have an ease and 
felicity of expression scarcely to be anticipated from the trifiing 
conceits of the typical * metaphysical poet,' and show an immense 
advance in the art of composition. The Prefaces and Essay of 
Dramatio Poesy by the latter were long famous for the easy epi- 
grammatic vigour and freshness in which he clothed his critical 
apologies for his principles as an author : — 

* ImitaMoni o/fforaee, U. 1. 

t For Corbet, Fanshawe, Mennis, Fomfret, Yaughan, and some other poets of 
this period- '1625-1700), tbe reader is refexzed to the Dictionary Appendix QB). 


92 HANDSOOK or ENGLtsfi LlT£RATltRfi. 

* Read all the prefaces of Dryden, 
For theae our cilUca mnch confide in ; 
Though merely writ at first for filling 
To raise the yolome's price a shilling/ 

(Swift, Rhapsodjf on BoOry, 1733.) 

62. SobbeSf Clarendon. — The great exponent of 'the selfiflh 
school uf Philosophy/ Tbomas Bobbes (1588-1679), was a man of 
thirty-seyen when Charles I. came to the throne» He was educated 
at Oxford, and spent his earlier years as tutor to the Cavendish 
family, in which capacity he lived long on the Continent. In 1629 
he published his first work, a translation of Thucydides. Bat the 
first of his more important productions, the treatise De Cive, did not 
appear until 1642, when it was circulated privately. The principles 
of this were more fully elaborated in the subsequent Leviathan ; or, 
the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall 
and CiuUl, 1651» which may be briefly described as a philosophic 
defence of despotism. Setting out with the idea that men, in a state 
of nature, would destroy each other, Hobbes makes them, by com- 
pact, place themselves under a common power (a 'IJeviathan' 
that swallows them all), who acts for the common good, and whose 
laws alone form the standard of right and wrong. Among tlie ad- 
vocates of despotism these doctrines, announced * in language more 
precise and luminous than has ever been employed by any other 
metaphysiccd writer,' were naturally popular ; and * Hobbism,' says 
Macaulay,* ' soon became an almost essential part of the character 
of the fine gentleman.' On the other hand, his opinions raised 
a host of vigorous opponents among the clergy, to say nothing of 
such laymen as Clarendon and Shaftesbury ; and, to-day, the works 
of the philosopher of Halmesbury, despite the undoubted shrewd- 
ness and talent of their author, and the excellence of his style, are 
seldom consulted. While abroad, Hobbes had for some time acted 
as mathematical tutor to the Prince of Wales, and the latter years of 
his life were absorbed by a controversy upon the quadrature of the 
circle, in which he gained few laurels. Among his other works 
are a TVeatise on Human Nature, 1650 ; a Letter on JAheriy and 
Necessitjf, 1654; an indifierent version of the Biad and Odyesey, 
1674-5, and the soHsalled Behemoth, a history of the Civil Wars, 
1640 to 1660, published in 1679. 

Preceding the Behemoth in point of composition, although pub- 
lished later, comes a somewhat similar work from the pen of one of 
the most distinguished opponents of Hobbism, the History of the 

* ffUtory €^ England, 1804, chap. ii. 86. 


Grand BebeUum, 1702-4, by Bdward BydOi Sari of Clarendon 

(1609-1674), began dnring the author's residence in Jersey, where, 
pn the collapse of the royal canse, he had sought an asylum. Though 
the style, to use the words of Hume, ' is prolix and redundant, and 
suffocates us by the length of its periods,' though written from a 
Boyalist point of view, and composed at different times, tinder dif- 
ferent conditions and with different objects, it is still the most 
raluable of all contemporary accounts of the civil wars, its value 
lying largely in its excellent delineations of the leading characters 
of the period, drawn from the life, by one who had been their 
colleague and intimate. Besides the Survey of the Leviathan, 1676, 
Clarendon wrote a IRstafy of his lAfe, which appeared in 1769. 

63. Pollerf Srowne. — There is a certain intellectual fellowship 
between this pair of authors, for each had distinctive peculiarities of 
style which separate him widely from his contemporaries. TbomMi 
Taller (1608-1661), after brilliant successes at Cambridge, became 
eminent as a preacher at the Savoy, an office which he lost at the 
beginning of the Civil War. He then joined the Hoyalist army as 
Lord Hopton's chaplain, and in this capacity found leisure to collect 
materials for his Worthies of England, not published until 1662, 
His other considerable production, the Church History of Britain, 
was issued In 1655. He is best known by the former — a most careful 
and entertaining topographical, biographical, and antiquarian miscel- 
lany. In such a work one does not look for wit ; yet Fuller was one of 
the most genial and natural (' sweetest-blooded,' says one writer) of 
jesters, and, side by side with his more serious passages, he shakes 
off, as it were, an infinitude of kindly, and not discordant aphor- 
isms and comparisons, leavened with the quaintest and happiest 
essence of humour. At the Hestoration he was restored to his old 
4ignity, and by his death only, it is said, escaped a bishopric. 

Fuller, we have seen, made capital of his campaigning. But Sir 
Tbomas Browne (1605-1682) was not even disturbed in his quiet 
Korwich study by the storm of civil war. Like the recluse of the 
Hue St. Honor^, who stuffed birds through the Beign of Terror, he 
went on placidly pursuing his vagrant disquisitions and speculations 
respecting pigmies, ring-fingers, sneezing, and the like. In 1642 — 
^e year of the arrest of the Five Members — ^was published his Rdigio 
Medici; or, Beligion of a Physician; and, in 1646, he issued his 
Pseudodoxia Epidemica ; a Treatise of Vulgar Errors. The character 
of some of these last may be gathered from the following headings t9 
chapters: — That Crysialis nothing else hut Ice strongly congealed ; 
Thai a Diamond is softened or broken by the Blood qf a Goat; That 


Bays preserve from the mieehief of Lightning and Thunder; That the 
Horeehath no Gall; That a Kingfisher hanged hy the Bill sheweth where 
the wind lag ; 2%at the flesh of Peacocks corrupteth not ; and 6o forth. 
TwelTo years after the Vtdgar fSrror^ appeared his Hydriotaphia ; or, 
Urn Burial, a rhapsody on mortality, suggested by the discoTery of 
bome Broidical Bemains in a field at Walsingham in Norfolk, to 
which was added a Discourse on the Quincunx of the Ancients. It is 
difficult to describe the charm which these works undoubtedly possess 
for literary gourmets^ The brain of the author, as Coleridge says, 
has a twist, and this twist is in the style of the writer. For this we 
follow his eloquent speculations and coivjectures, his learned triflings 
and out-of-the-way inquiries. * His mind,' says Haslitt, * seems tc 
converse chiefly with the intelligible forms, the spectral apparitioni 
of things ; he delighted in the preternatural and visionary, and he 
only existed at the circumference of his nature.' ^ 

64. IValton. — There is no more interesting figure in English 
literature than that of the even-minded angler of the Lea. Isaak 
Walton (so he wrote his name) (1593-1683) commenced as a 
sempster or linen-draper in a narrow shop in the City, and having 
early acqtiired a competency, retired fix>m business to spend the last 
forty years of a long life with his rod and hooks. His Compleat 
Afigler ; or. Contemplative Man*s Becreatiun, a prose pastoral, inter- 
spersed with lyrics filled with Gowper's matutini rores, aurmque 
salubres — ^a book * that breathes the very spirit of innocence, purity, 
and simplicity of heart,'t — ^was published in 1663, and passed 
through numerous editions. CHiarles Cotton (1 630-1 687), Walton's 
adopted son, and author of one of the best versions of Montaigne*s 
Essags, added a supplementary book on Trout Fishing, in 1676 ; and 
in more recent years the Salmonia of 8ir Humphry Davy (1 778-1 829) 
owed its origin to the same source. Walton married twice, — his 
first wife being a descendant of Granmer, his second half-sister to 
Bishop Ken. To these clerical connections we perhaps owe that 
acquaintance with Ghurch dignitaries which prompted the set of ad* 
mirably simple, if over-loving, biographies, scarcely less prized than 
the writer's Angler, The first of these, the life of Donne, was pub- 
lished in 1640, and was followed by those of Wotion, 1651, Hooker, 
1662, Herbert, 1670, and Sanderson, 1678. With the first two and 
the last, their biographer had been personally acquainted. 

65. Tbe lUarlstSa^To the readers of to-day any personal 
record of the past, especially if it can be proved to have been pre* 

• Lectures on the Literature qfthe Age pf Elizabeth^ 1870, 22S, 
t Lamb, LetUr to Coleridge, Oct. 28, 179«. 



pared wiihoufc regard to a possible public, its of infinite interest. 
Such were the Paston Letters (see p. 42, s. 22). Snch^-not the less 
amusing fironi the different charaeters of the writers^^are the Dian 
ries of SMtfuel Pepys (1633-1703) and Jolin Bvelyn (1620-^ 
1706)— the first extending from 1659 to 166^^, the second from 
1641 to 1706. Pepys was Secretary to the Admiralty in the reigml 
of Charles XT. and James II., a man of taste in. art and literature 
(he collected the Fepysian Library), and of sufficient enthusiasm for 
science to get himself made President of the !Royal Society. In hia 
diary, which lay for a long time unregarded in its original short* 
hand until Lord Braybrooke deciphered it in 1825, he appears as a 
shrewd, simple, inquisitive, and indefatigable gossip, whose miscella- 
neous and multifarious notes of things around him afford a vivid 
and minute picture of the time. Evelyn's mind was of a graver cast ; 
but his longer diary, also, chronicles endless familiar occurrences. 
He wrote numerous works, of which one, the Sylva; or, Discourse of 
Forest Trees, 1664, prompted by an anticipated lack of timber for 
ship-building, deserves notice, if only on account of the stimulus 
which its well-timed warning is said to have given to the arboricul- 
ture of the United Kingdom. 

66. Bunsran. — ^Next to Milton, the writer, who, perhaps to the 
fullest extent possessed the imaginative faculty, was Jobn Bimyaii 
(1628-1688), < a man,' as he himself phrases it, ' of a low and incon- 
siderable generation,' — ^his father being a tinker of Elstow, in Sed- 
fordshire. After receiving some rudimentary education, the son 
earned his livelihood in the same way. As a youth, if we may 
believe his own account in the little autobiographical tract drawn up 
in his prison-days, entitled Grace Abounding to the CMef of Smners^ 
he was notorious for precocious depravity, alternating with periods 
of the most terrible spiritual anguish. Pinally, having passed 
through a long probation of mental convulsion, he was admitted, in 
1653, into a Baptist congregation at Bedford, and shortly after 
became a preacher. During the oppression of the Dissenters which 
followed the Bestoration, his popularity in this capacity, singled 
bim out for peculiar rigour, and he was thrown into Bedford Gaol, 
where he remained until 1672. While in prison he supported his 
family by making tagged thread-laces. But his chief occupation 
was writing. It was during his confinement that — ^with the BMe, 
Poxe's Book of Martyrs, and a tattered copy of Luther on the Gala' 
tians for the bulk of his library — he conceived and began the First Part 
of that allegoiy pf the Christian Life which is read alike by rich and 
poor, — by * lered * as well as ' lewed,* In the damp^aol upon the Ouse, 


the poor ftigitiye from the City of Degtamctkm, whom Evangelist 
^Uxecfced, set out on the erezy-daj jooniey through the Stndt Gate, 
and oyer the Hill DiiSenlty ;— by the Valley of the Shadow of Death, 
aad the booths of Vanity Fair, to reach at last the Delectable 
Moontains, and the £ir-off-shining Heavenly Gify, whose foundation 
is framed higher than the donds. The first inconspicnoos edition 
of the FUgrinCa ProffretSt the date of which long remained unknown, 
was issued in 1678. It made its way silently and rapidly, and six 
more editions appeared in the next four years. In 1684, partly to 
silence some cavils as to his authorship of the book, he published a 
Second Part, which relates the journey of Christian's wife and 
fiimily, and subsequently he produced his\ J5&ft/ War made hj Kinp 
iSja jiai fJehovahl utMmJ)iabQl ^*» ^^ *^f RfffmnitoffofihA Mtiimptli» 
of t he World, or the TinKuui and lif *Mli«g ^f Maneoul, 'w hich.* says 
^TCSi ulay, ' if the PilgrinCe Profrrees did note adst, would be the best 
aiie^iy ever written.' That distinction, ^ow^Ver, 'belongs inoon- 
testably to Bunyan's earlier work. Its vivid personifications and 
all-alluring theme are still attractive as ever. Destined at first for 
a special class, making an obscure and unregarded entry into the 
world, there can be no greater proof of its excellence than that it 
should gradually have compelled the sympathies and admiration of 
all classes of readers. 

67. XK>ckeg Temple. — ^The * unquestioned founder of the ana- 
lytical philosophy of mind ' (as Joliii &ocke [1632-1704], has been 
called by a great modem authority*) was bom at Wrington, in 
(Somerset, and educated at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford. 
At first he devoted himself to the study of medicine, acquiring suffi- 
cient knowledge to deserve the praise of the celebrated Sydenham. 
His delicate health, however, obliged him to relinquish the hope of 
becoming a doctor. But before he did this finally, a happy prescript 
tion for Lord Ashley obtained him the friendship of that nobleman, 
who speedily discovered his fine intellectual qualities. With Shaftes- 
bury's fortunes Locke's are henceforth bound up. In 1683, he fol* 
lowed his fugitive protector to Holland, whence he only returned at 
the Bevolution. In 1696, he was made one of the Commissioners of 
Trade and Plantations ; but his health did not enable him to retain 
his post, he retired in 1700, and died at Sir Francis Masham's, at the 
advanced age of seventy-two. 

The English works of Locke belong to the period following the 
Revolution. Before referring to his first and greatest work we may 
record the titles of his principal remaining productions. These are 
• Tbe late John Stoart HQI, in liis Sgitem qf Logic, 


A Second Letter on Toleration, 1690 (the first, written in Latin, had 
appeared in Holland in 1689) ; A Third Letter on Toleration, 1690 ; 
two Treatises on (Government, 1690 ; Thoughts concerning theEdwa - 
Mm^f Childpen, 1 693 ; and Beasomd/leness of Christianity as ddivered 
in the Scriptures, 1695. HiB reputation restd c hiefly npon his Ess ^ 
on the Human Und erstanding, published in 1690, but planned nearly 
twenty years before — an abridgment of it haxing, in fact^ appeared in 
the French language. This book ei^joys the distinction of being the 
first attempt to construct a theory of knowledge by a systematic 
examination of the features and mechanism of the human mind. 
ghe fundamental points of Locke*s philosophy are that our ideas are 
not_innate ,^nd that all o ur knowledge spri ngs from experience. We 
borrow the following descnption ot his further procedure : — ^V^ItfiiL 
clearing the wa y by setting aside th e whole doctrine of innate no- 
_ tions and principies, bo th spec ulative and practical, the au thor 
tracea ^ ideas to twogftTirefla> -ff^^ir«»»iA" Ti^^ ^^^" 
laige of the nature of ideas simple and complex; of the operation ^ rv^AL^cAx 
of the human understanding in forming, distinguishing, compound- \ 

ing, and associating them; of the manner in which words are 
applied as representations of ideas ; of the difficulties and obstruc- 
tions in the search after truth, which arise from the imperfections 
of these signs ; and of the nature, reality, kinds, degrees, casual 
hindrances, and necessary limits of human knowledge.'* It has 
been objected that dangerous conclusions may be drawn from 
some of the principles of the Essay, ' But,' says Hallam, * the 
obligations we owe to him for the Essay on the Human Understand' 
ing are nerer to be forgotten. It is truly the first real chart of the 
^ coasts ; wherein some may be laid down incorrectly, but the general 
relations of all are perceived.' f With the larger work of Locks 
must not be confounded a smaller treatise on the Conduct qf the 
Understanding, published after its authoz^s death. 

Another writer of the period from the Restoration to the end of the 
century ^^as Sir IWHIIam Temp le (1628-1699), an eminent states- 
man and diplomatist. His career in ihese capacities belongs to poli- 
tical rather than literary history. But, in his various periods of 
retirement from more active duties, he wrote several works, the 
style of which shows a marked improvement upon that of preceding 
prose. The chief of these are the Memoirs of the Treaty of Nime* 
guen ; Observations on the United Provinces of the Netherlands, 1673 ; 

* Bnio1cer*8 HUt, of Philotophf, by Eufleld, quoted in Chamben* Cifch^. of 
Eng. LU. i. 683. 
t LU. History, Fart IV. chap. ill. % 131. 



Essays and Correspondence. Of his miscellaneons pieces, the most 
notable are those On Gardening (the Ihitoh fashion of which was 
one of his amusements) ; and the Euay on AncietU and Modern 
Learning, a defence of the former against Fontenelle, Ferrault, and 
the other upholders of the latter, out of a passage in which arose 
the celebrated controversy respecting the Letters qfPhalaris, For an 
account of this the reader is referred to Lord Macaulaj's EMay 
on Temple's Life and WorJca, Of his manner of writing Macanlay 
says: — 'He had gradually formed a style singularly lucid and 
melodious, superficially deformed, indeed, by G^cisms and His- 
panicisms, picked up in travel or in negotiation, but at the bottom 
pure English, which generally flowed along with careless simplicity, 
but occasionally rose even into Ciceronian magnificence.' * 

68. The Theoloflaiis* — So rich is this period of the sixteenth 
century in writers of theological works, that we cannot pretend to 
notice them at length, or hope to notice them all. The first in order, 
after ;''^'**f r^ Ba^' (1574-1656) already mentioned {see p. 84, s. 57)» 
are Joliii Kales (1584-1656), and ^'^"*'*Tll! «fc*in«f»^if>» 
(1602-1644), both conspicuous for their advocacy of tolerance and 
rational principles in religion. The Beligion of JProtestants a sefe 
Way to Salvation, 1637, is the chief work of the latter; the Tract 
concerning Schism and Schismatics, 1642, that of the former. Jame ii 
Vslier, Archbishop of Armagh (1581-1656), a distinguished anti- 
quariSnrhas also been referred to (see p. 84, s. 67). JTageff^y Tajitkr 
(1613-1667), who has been styled the * Spenser of Prose ' and the 
'Shakespeare of divines,' published a number of works, of which the 
Discourse of the Liberty of Prophesying, 1647* the Great Exemplar, 
1649, the Holy Living, 1650, and Holy Dying, 1651, are the best. 
Bebert San^ ^foi^ (1587-1663) was the author of Nine Cases 
of Conscience Resdved, 1678. aipHard Baxt^^y (1615-1691), 

the persecuted author of the Sainfs Everlasting Best, 1650, and 
a Call to the Unconverted, 1657 1 j gebert Barclay (1648-1690); 
"WlUiam Penn (1644-1718), Jmthor of No Cross, No Crovtun; 
and George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the sect, were 
all Quakers. Zaaao Barrew (1630-1677), an illustrious mathe- 
matician as well as theologian, has left a number of masterly 
and eloquent sermons; Jolm TUlotsoii (1630-1694) also. The 
principal work of Bdward Stiiliiigfleet (1635-1699) is his 
Origines Sacra, a rational Account of the grounds of religion ; 
that of JoliB Pearson (1613-1686), his Exposition of the Creeds 
1659. WlUlam Slierloek (1641-1707); Bobert Soutb (1633* 


1716), the 'witttoBt of EngHsh divines/ ThMus Spimt (1686^ 
1713), Xalpb CudWArtb (1617-1688), the celebrated opponent of 
Hobbes; Thomas Bumet (1636-1716), author of the Sacred 
Theory of the Earth, and others, must pass without farther mention. 

69. The Sotentlflo vrrlter»m — Towards the end of the seren- 
teenth centnry an extxaozdinaiy advance was made in the physical 
sciences. This was greatly aided, in England, by the establish" 
ment of the Botal Socdstt, which, growing out of the meetings of 
a few learned men, received a charter of incorporation in 1662. 
Among its earlier members were the Honourable liobert Soyle 
(1627-1691), according to the well-known example of bathos, 
' the &ther of chemistry, and brother to the Eaii of Cork,' — a dis- 
tinguished experimental philosopher; Br. John "WaUUi (161 &« 
1703), the mathematical opponent of Hobbes, and Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Geometry at Oxford; Br. John IVUklns (1614. 
3672), Bishop of Chester, an indefatigable projector and inventor; 
8ir Christopher Wren, Barrow, Sprat (who wrote its history in 
1667), Evelyn, Aubrey, Dryden, Waller, Benham, and Cowley, 
besides a number of titled amateurs. One of its first presidents 
in the next centniy was the famous Sir Isaac irewton (1642- 
1727), whose Principia, or Mathematical Principles of Katural 
philosophy, was published in 1687. His treatise on Optica 
belongs to the next chapter. Other notable scientific names 
are those of 'William Harvey (1678-1667), the discoverer of 
the circulation of the blood, and John Bay the botanist (1628- 

70. The Minor Prose vmters. — ^We must now retrace our 
steps to recover the names of a few writers of this period who belong 
to no particular class. Of these, the author of the Epistola Sth 
Miana (1646-66), a scries of familiar letters which come between 
the Paston collection and the Diaries of Pepys and Evelyn, is en- 
titled to the first place. James BoweU (1604 ?-1666), Historio* 
grapher Boyal to CJharles II., was a fecile writer and keen observer. 
Bis InMtructions for Forreine Travel, 1642, has been reprinted in 
Mr. Arbor's series. Another minor prose writer was John Barle 
(1601?-1665), author of the Microcosmographie ; or, a Peeee of the 
WoHd Discovered; inEBsayee and Characters, 1628 — sketches in the 
vein of Overbury and Butler, also included in the Engliah Beprints» 
Owen Feltham (1602?-1668) was the author of a volume of 
Essays entitled Resolves, 1620?, after the fashion but not in the 
material of Bacon's. Milton's friend Sir Benry "Wotton (1668^ 
1639) may also be included among the Essay writers. His works^ 



uoder tii« title of ReUqttia Wottonianat were published after hit 
death, with hit life by Inak Walton (see p^ 94, b. 64). James 
Xttrrlagtoa (1611-1677), the author of the political Utopian 
zomaaee of Ooeana, 1666; Alffemon Sidney (1622-1683), the 
republican author of Dueourses on Gooemment, 1698, and Sir 
Becer Vaetrmave (1616-1704), journalist, trsmslator, and Censor 
of the "Press in 1663, are other noticeable names. 

71. Tlie irewapaper Vreee. — ^To wards the end of James's 
reign, pamphlets or tracts of newB^.g., Wbtful newea from the west 
partes of England, of the burning of Tiverton, 4to, 1612, 'with a 
frontispiece ' — ^began to be the fashion. The titles of these show that 
their subjects referred chiefly to foreign affurs, the home occurs 
rences being of the 'sensational' kind — floods, fires, monsters, and 
so forth. The first regular series of newspapers in the British 
Museum is entitled the Weekly Nnoes from Italy, Germany, &c., 
later changed to The Newes of this present week, and subsequently 
to other titles. The dramatists of the day frequently made sarcastic 
reference to the doubtful expedients which the early journalists 
employed to decoy subscribers. But we may pass from these to 
something nearer the present — namely. The Diurnal Occurrences, or 
DaUy Proceedings of both Houses in this great and happy Parliament 
[the Long Parliament] from the 3rd of November, 1640, to the Zrd 
of November, 1641. Thenceforth we have numberless 'eccentric 
publications, which, taking the title of Mercuries, purported to bring 
their satires from heaven, from hell, from the moon, and from the 
antipodes — calling themselres doves, kites, vultures, and screech- 
owls, kughing mercur'is, crying mercuries, meny diumals, and 
smoking nocturnals.' * After the Restoration they were put under a 
licenser. But they had acquired a footing with the public, and 
neither this control, nor the future Stamp Act of 1712, was able 
to crush out the gathering powers of the press. 

72. Tlie SnrviTors of tbe Sbakespearean Stage.— The 
declining radiance of the Elizabethan school stretched far into the 
first fifteen years of Charles's, reign. During this period, indeed, 
Foid produced his best plays, and Massinger some of his best. 
Chapman and Marston, too, were still writing, but their master- 
pieces belong to the earlier time. Ben Jonson, ' sick and sad,' albeit 
still regal at times on his throne at the Devil Tavern, was struggling 
with envy, poverty, and his own decaying powers. One of his last 
(lays, the New Inn, produced in 1 629, was received with unmerited con- 

• Andrews, IfUbHy tf British JoumalUm, i, 87, 

-» - • • » 

• / ■» > 

. ^ ^ « 


tempt^ and the only work of importance which he produced nfter the 
death of his patron James was the Sad Shi^herd, a veritable 
swan-Bong, the final effort of his muse. Of the rest, Webster was 
also living, and perhaps now composed his fine drama of Appim 
Qnd Virginia, printed in 1654, but certainly brought on the stage 
some years preyiously. Heywood, productive as ever, was still ply* 
ing his unwearied pen ; so too was Dekker, but he had done his best* 

The plays of one dramatist, however — the * last of a great race,' 
Lamb calls him — ^belong exclusively to the reign of Charles. Jam^s 
Slilrley (1596-1666) has, moreover, the merit of being more free 
« from oaUis, profaneness, or obsceneness ' than his forerunners, a 
novelty which extracted from the Master of the Bevels, in 1683, the 
expression of a hope that he would ' pursue the beneficial and cleanly 
way of poetry ' which characterised his drama of The Young Admiral. 
His pieces, mostly tragi-comedies, if we may believe his editor, 
Mr. Dyce, are happiest in their tragic portions. Two other writers, 
Thonuui Sandolpli (1605-1634) and muUam Cartwrlffbt 
(1611-1643), whose names, as Ben Jonson's ' Sons-in-the-Muses,* 
may fitly be conjoined, also belong to this time. The Muse^ Look' 
ing- Glass is the chief play of the former; the Sogal Slave that of 
the latter. Each published a collection of poems. 

73. The Stage of tbeBestoratloii. — ^According to the Boseiua 
Anglicanusj 1708, by John Downes,* four of the playhouses men- 
tioned in the preceding chapter {see p. 60, s. 37), namely, the 
Black/riarSf Globe, Fortune, and Bed Bull, were open until the be- 
ginning of the Civil Wars. Besides these, there were a playhouse 
in Salisbury Court and the Cockpit or Phanix in Brury Lane, which 
last had been converted into a theatre after Shakespeare's retirement 
to Stratford-upon-Avon. 

In 1642, by an ordinance of the Long Parliament, the repre- 
sentation of stage plays was forbidden, as being inconsistent with 
public feeling. Subsequent ordinances, in 1647 and 1648, enforced 
this measure with great severity; and although these enactments 
were occasionally evaded, the theatres, up to the Bestoration, were 
practically closed. Some of the playwrights — Shirley, for instance 
—continued to puhlish plays, which, in default of stage present- 
ment, found readers in the cabinet. 

Toward 1660, however, the rigid legal prohibition appears to have 
outworn itself, for we find that ^t^oM-theatrical entertainments were 
arranged by Sir ixrilliain Bawenant (1606-1668), laureate teom 
1660 to 1668, and author of Gondibert, withont interference on the 

* A facsimile of the rare original was edited, with a preface, by Joseph 
Knight, in 1886. 

• • • • • . • 
• • • • " • • • 

< • •  • • 


part of the authorities. With the Bestomtion the theatres flew 
open. From the remnants of the old houses a company was formed, 
which, acting at the Old Bed Bull, and at a house in Vere Street, 
Clare Market, Anally, in April 1663, remoyed to Drury Lane, and 
opened with Beaumont and Fletcher's Bumimmi lAmiienant, This, 
under the direction of Thomas Killigrew, was the so-called < King's 
Company.' Another, under Davenant, with the title of the * Duke's 
Company' (i.e. the Duke of York), having performed for some time 
in Salisbury Court, transferred its operations to Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, where it commenced a fresh career, in 1662, with Davenant's 
A MUae of Rhodes^ and ITte Wits — * the said Plays, haying new Scenes 
and Decorations, being the first that e're were Introduc'd in England * 
(Downes). At the outset, wax candles had supplanted the old- 
fashioned cressets, women had taken the place of boys in the female 
parts, and the forcible and flexile blank yerse of the Elissabethans 
was superseded by the new-fashioned declamatory rhyming heroics 
after the French manner, which, in their continental exile, the 
Boyalists had learned to admire in the tragedies of Comeille and 
his school. Puritan rigorism no longer placed its restraints ou 
theatrical license, and the re-appearing drama, lawless with freedom, 
reinforced with foreign elements, began to run shamelessly its riotous 
and disreputable course. 

74. Bryden. — One man, Jobn Brydeii (1631-1700), is pre- 
eminently associated with the Drama of the Bestoration. His career 
as a writer, in the opinion of Macaulay, exhibits, ' on a reduced scale, 
the whole history of the school to which he belonged — the rudeness 
and extravagance of its infancy, — the propriety, the grace, the digni- 
fied good sense, the temperate splendour of its maturity. * * Active 
to the day of his death, ho fills the foremost place during the last 
forty years of the present chapter, and through all this time his 
influence was felt. The son of a Northamptonshire squire, he had 
come to London from Cambridge to eke out a small patrimony by 
literature, only a few years before the return of Charles IE. His first 
poem, written at Westminster School, and printed in a collection of 
Elegies dated 1649, had a like origin with that of Milton's Lycidas, 
being prompted by the death of a schoolfellow, the young Lord 
Hastings. It was in the worst style of Donne and Cowley, and 
gave no promise of future poetical power. Johnson's description of 
it is characteristic : — * Lord Hastings died of the small-pox ; and his 

• Li/e qfDrpden, UUuTlaneout Writings, 


poet has made of the pustules, first rosebuds, and then gems ; at 

last exalts them into stars, and says — 

' No comet need foretell his change drew on 
Whose coipee might seem a constellation.' * 

His next effort of any importance was the Heroic Stanzas on the 
death of the Protector in 1668, which, like Waller, he followed with- 
out compunction by his Astraa Redux, published in 1660, celebrat- 
ing the return of the Saturnian age with Charles II. Over these, 
and other panegyrical pieces ' made up,' in Macaulay's words, of 
' meanness and bombast,' although < superior to those of his prede- 
cessors in language and versification,' one need not linger. The 
poet was seeking his vocation ; and the ro-opening of the theatres at 
once afforded him the requisite arena for his talents. His first play 
— the prose comedy of the Wild Gallant — was produced by th6 
King's Company in February 1663, at their Yero Street house, with 
indifferent success. A tragi-comedy, the Rival Ladies, brought out 
in the same year, was more favourably received. His next play, the 
Indian Queen, 1664, a rhymed heroic tragedy, written jointly with 
Sir Kobert Howard (a literary partnership which gave rise to one 
of another kind, for he married his colleague's sister), aided by 
splendour of scene and costume, proved completely successful. But 
the plague of 1665 put an end, for the time, to theatrical represent- 
ations. During the enforced interval caused by this national 
calamity, the poet turned his leisure to account by writing his 
Annus Mirahilis, 1667, and his Essay of Dramatic Voesy, 1668. 
The first, a poem in the heroic quatrains of "Sosce Teipsum and 
Davenant's Gondibert, celebrated the Dutch "War and the Great 
Fire of the *year of Wonders,' — 1666 ; the second, a vigorous com- 
position in prose, and styled by Johnison 'the first regular and 
valuable treatise on the art of writing, '-advocated rhymed tragedy 
against the blank verse of the elder dramatists. Dryden had 
already exemplified his theories by the Indian Em;peror (acted in the 
beginning of 1665, published in 1667), which established his posi- 
tion ; and in the preface to a second edition he defended himself 
against the opponents of his canons. The production of the Indian 
Emperor was followed, in 1667, by the colnedies of the Maiden 
Queen, Sir Martin Mar-all, and, in conjunction with Davenant, to 
whose theatre he temporarily transferred his efforts, an adaptation 
of the I^smpesi, the prologue to which, a skilful tribute to the Bard 
of Avon, contains a well-known couplet — 

* Live* of Ou Potts, Cnnningham's ed., 1. 270. 



* Bnt Shakeq)ean*8 magic oonkl not ooided to ; 
Within that drole none dnzst walk bot he.* 

After the production of the Tempest, Killigrew secured the ser- 
Tices of the poet exclusively for the Kingfs Theatre, for which he 
produced successively the Mock Axtrologerf first acted in 1668; 
Tyrannie Love, in 1669 ; and the Cori^piest of Granada (afterwards 
printed in 1672), in 1670. In the last-mentioned year he succeeded 
Daveoant as Ijaureate, and James Howell as Historiognpher 

To the year 1671 belongs an occurrence which cannot lightly be 
passed over — the production of The Reheareal, a clever attack upon 
the heroic plays which Davenant had introduced and Bryden had 
popularised. In conjunction with difford, Butler, Sprat, and others, 
the Duke of Buckingham concocted a farce in which the tumid extra- 
vagances of the popular writers for the stage were held up to ridi- 
cule. Passages from the plays of Davenant, Killigrew, Howard, 
and Mrs, Aphra Behn were freely parodied. But the main attack 
was directed against Dryden, yrhoae peculiarities, literary and per- 
sonal, were remorselessly mimicked in the character of ' Bayes ' — 
Buckingham, it is said, taking infinite pains to teach Lacy the actor 
to accurately copy the appearance and gestures of the author satir- 
ized. He, however, was wise or prudent enough to let the assault 
pass unnoticed. Nor did the heroic plays at once receive their death- 
blow ; although Dryden himself only wrote one more, Aurenff-t^ehe, 
produced in 1675 ; and, in the prologue, intimates that he, 

* to oonfeaa a tmth, though oat of time. 
Grows weary of his long-lored miBtreaa Bhyme.' 

Aureng^eebe, however, is one of the best of its class. But All for 
Love, first brought out in 1678, a blank-verse play based upon 
Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, and which, as Dryden has 
affirmed, was written for himself, had great success ; as also had the 
Soman Catholic tragi-comedy of the Spanish Friar, written in 1680, 
and produced the year after. His only other successful work, be- 
tween 1670 and 1680, was the comedy of the Marriage a^la-Mode, 
produced in 1672. The so-called opera of the 8taU of Innocence, 
published in 1674, in which he ' tagged the rhymes ' of Paradise 
Lost, may pass with the record of its title. 

The composition of AUfor Love marks an era in Dryden's life. 
'The year 1678,' says Macaulay, *is that on which we should be 
inclined to fix as the date of a great change in his manner. During 
the preceding period appeared some of his courtly panegyrics, — his 
Annus Miralnlif, and most of his plays; indeed all his rhyming tn« 


gedies. To the subsc^quent period belong his best dramas.-- -^ for 
Love, The Spanish Friar, and Sebastian, — his satires, his translations, 
his didactic poems, his fables, and his odes.'* It is with his satires 
that we have next to deal His powers in this direction had already 
been partially manifested in his prologues and epilogues, and acci- 
dent determined his adoption of this branch of poetry. He found 
his motiye in t he struggle between the TVhigs and To ries, whose 
particular bone of contention at this point of time was tne succes- 
sion to the Crown after Charles's death— one party, the Tories, put- 
ting forward the Duke of York (afterwards James JI.), the other, 
or Whig party, the Duke of Monmouth. Jllost of the minor poets 
had drawn their pens on one or other side of tliis controversy when 
Dryden entered the lists overwhelmingly in the Tory interest with 
his M salom and Achitoyhel, 168 1. Little more than the names are 
taken from Holy Writ: Mompmitli ima ^^jtnl/i^-^ Phnftgnbury^ 
AehHophd ; Ahdad, the Duke of Albemarle ; Satd, Oliver Cromwell ; 
Corah and Jffag, Titus Gates and Sir Edmund Bury Godfrey; 
Sarnllai, the Duke of Ormond ; Shimei^ Slingsby Bethel ; and the 
personalities of The Rehearsal were avenged by Uie famous portrait 
of Buckingham as Zimri . Other names will be found in the Keif 
which generally accompanies the satire. Its success was enormovs ; 
the poet followed it up immediately by the Medal, a Satire against 
Sedition, 1682, prompted by the striking of ' a medal in honour ol 
Shaftesbnz/s acquittal of the charge of high treason,' and by Mac 
FUohnoe, 1682, an inimitable castigation of ' the true-blue Protestant 
poet T[Ao0Uu] S\hadweiU\^ to whom the crown of Dnlness is solemnly 
bequeathed by the Grub Street writer, whose name furnishes the title. 
A little later in the same year appeared a second parti^L^^gg^fft^ d . 
andJehitophel by »alwimTata (16 52-1716). containing some two ^^ 
hundred verses by Dryden, devoted chiefly to the demolition of 
^hadwell under the name of Og, and, under that of Doeg, of an old 
enemy, the city poet m^anali Seme (1648-1724), who had pub- 
lished an AchUophd Transprosed. 

Diyden's next work was one admirable for its lucidity of reason- 
ing — ^the Bdigio Laid, or Layman* s Faith, 1682, an exposition of 
his Protestant belief. But, after the death of Charles, he suddenly 
became a Koman Catholic, and almost his next production — The 
Hind and the Faniher, 1687 — was an allegorical defence of his new 
creed. In this, his longest original poem, the different sects, Churches, 
&c., are figured by animals and birds. The Independent is a Bear ; 

• Life t/Drfdm, MUeeHanews WrUingi, 


the Quaker, a Hare ; the free-thinker a * buffoon Ape ; ' the Ana- 
baptist, a ' bristled Boar ;* the fox is the Unitarian ; and the Ftesbj* 
terian, a * wolf with haggcred eyes ;* while the Church of England 
is represented by a panther, * fairest creature of the spotted kind,' 
and the Church of Rome by ' a milk-white Hind, immortal and un- 
changed.' To the King is assigned the part of the Lion. The 
allegory, of course, found answers, and one of the replies, the 
joint Country Mouse and City Mouse (1867) of Charles Montague 
and Matthew Prior (see p. 121, s. 80), was long deemed one of the 
wittiest of parodies ; its literary merits, however, are but small. 

With tiie accession of William III. the Catholic Laureate and His- 
toriographer was obliged to vacate his post in favour of Shadwell, 
During his remaining years he fell back upon play-writing, produc- 
ing, in 1690, Don Sebastian^ one of his best efforts in this line. But 
his chief works henceforth were translations or adaptations, dis- 
playing, at their best, his perfected powers over metre and expression. 
These consist of versions of several satires of Juvenal, and the whole 
of Persius, 1693, the Mieid of Virgil, 1697, and the collection of 
paraphrases of Boccaccio and Chaucer, more generally known by the 
title of The Fables, 1700. Lastly, to these later years belongs the 
beautiful ode (sometimes confounded with the Song for St. Cecilia*s 
Bay, 1687), entitled Alexander's Feast, or the Power of Music, and 
written for the St. Cecilia Festival of 1697* This Macaulay 
thinks * his greatest work.' It was among liis last. He died on the 
1st of May, 1700. 

To the plays of Dryden we must not look for the enduring part of 
his writings. Versatile, vigorous, and inventive as they are, they 
nevertheless lack wit and genuine pathos, and they are disfigured 
by bombast, and a coarseness of the crudest, not satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the prevailing profligacy of the time, or excused by the 
tardy regrets of the poet's maturer years. Few of them survived the 
age of their writer. It is in his satires, translations, fables, and 
prologues, where he gives full play to his matchless mastery over 
heroics, that his successes are most signal. As a satirist he was 
probably unequalled, v/hether for command of language, manage- 
ment of metre, or the power of reasoning in verise. ' Without either 
creative imagination, or any power of pithos,' says Professor 
Craik, in an expressive passage, * he is in argument, in satire, and 
in declamatory magnificence, the greatest of our poots. His poetry, 
indeed, is not the highest kind of poetry, but in that kind he 
stands unrivalled and unapproached. Pope, his great disciple, who, 
In correctness, in neatness, and in the brilliancy of epigrammatic 


point, has outshone his master, has not come near him in easy 

flexible ylgour, in indignant vehemence, in naxxatiye rapidity, any 

more than he has in sweep and yaiiety of yendfication. Dryden 

nereryrrites coldly, or timidly, og drowsily. The movement of verse 

always sets him on fire, and whatever he produces is a coinage hot 

from the brain, not slowly scraped or pinched into shape, but struck 

out as from a die with a few stout blows, or a single wrench of the 

screw. It is this fervour especially which gives to his personal 

sketches their wonderful life and force: his Absalom and Jchitophel 

IS the noblest portrait-gallery in poetry.' * 

A pArt of one of its portraits— that of Shaftesbury — ^may be here 

given as an illustration (though, of course, a very inadequate one) 

of the foregoing lines : — 

* Of these the false Achitophel was first, 
▲ name to all sacoeeding ages cnxst : 
For close designs and crooked connaels fit. 
Sagacious, bold, and turbulent of wit, 
Bestless, unfixed in principles and place. 
In power nnjdeased, impatient of disgrace ; 
A fiery soul, which, worldng out its way, 
Fretted the pigmy body to decay 
And o'er-inform^ the tenement of clay. 
A daring pHot in extremity. 
Pleased with the danger, when the waves went high, 
He sought the storms ; but, for a calm unfit. 
Would steer too nigh the sands to boast his wit. 
Great wits are sure to madness near allied. 
And thin partitions do their bounds divide.' 

(Alaalom and A^Uophet.) 

Or, as a specimen of his more remorseless stylo, take the following 
from JUac FUcknoe :— 

' ShadweU alone my perfect image bears. 
Mature in dulness from his tender years ; 
ShadweU alone of all my sons is he 
Who stands confirmed in full stupidity. 
The rest to some faint meaning make pretence, 
But ShadweU never deviates into sense. 
Some beams of wit on other souls may fall. 
Strike through And make a lucid interval ; 
But Shadwell's genuine night admits no ray. 
His rising fogs prevail upon the day. . . 

* My son, advance 
StUl in new impudence, new ignorance. 
Success let others teach, learn thou from me 
Pangs without birth and fruitless industry. 

* Eng, Lit. and Languagey 1871, 11.118. Also cf, Lowell's EtsaHy and the Life 
(Jim ofUtUri series) by Prof. Saintsbuiy, who re-edited Dryden's Workt^ 1883. 



Let Virtuoiot * in five yean be wit, 

Yet not one thonght accnse thy toil of wit. • 
' And when foiae flowers of rlietoric thou wonldst cnllt 

Trust nature, do not labour to be doll ; • • 
• Like mine, thy gentle nnmben feebly creep ; 

Thy tngio Mnae givee smiles, thy comic sleep. 

With whate*er gall thou set'st thyself to wiite^ 

Thy inoflenslye satires nerer bite ; 

In thy felonious heart though venom lies, 

It does but touch thy Irish pen, and dies. 

Thy genius calls thee not to purchase fame 

In keen Iambics, but mild Anagram. 

Leave writing plays, and choose for thy command 

Some peaceful province in Acrostic land. 

There thou mayst wings display and altars raise. 

And torture one poor word one thousand ways ; 

Or, if thou would thy difiPerent talents suit. 

Set thy own songs, and sing them to thy lute.' 

{Mae Fledtnoe,) 

75. Bhadwellf &ee. — ^The poet to ▼horn Dryden, in the preced- 
ing lines, decreed an immortality of derision, was, nevertheless, not 
wholly destitate of talent. Bochester said of Thomas Sliadwell 
(1640-.1692), that 'if he had bximt all he wrote, and printed all he 
spoke, he wonld have had more wit and humour than any other 
poet '/ and, in one of his pieces, he classes him with Wycherley as 
the only other ' modem wit * who ' touched upon true comedy.' Sut 
he was a slovenly writer, generally choosing prose as the medium 
of his hastily-composed plays. In 1688 he succeeded to the laureate- 
ship ; and died, in 1692, from an overdose of opium, just before the 
production of his latest drama — The Vblunteirs, or the Stock-jobbers, 
1693, in which he ridiculed the knavery of contemporary bubble- 
mongers. VatliaBiel &ee(lC53?-.1692),the author of the Bival 
Queens, Theodosius, Mithridaies, Lucius Junius Brutus, and seven 
other plays — the two first-named being his best— amidst much ex- 
travagance has occasional tenderness and passion, which lift him at 
times to a loftier height than Dryden. He became insane from 
prolonged dissipation, and was confined for some time in Sedlam. 
Upon his release, he relapsed into his old habits, and, returning home 
drimk one night through Gare Market, fell down, and perished in 
the snow. 

76. Otway, Southeme. — The former of these writers has 
perhaps a better claim than Shirley to be considered the last of the 
Elisabethans. Like Sen Jonson, actor, soldier, and dramatist suc- 
eessively, poor as Lyly, dissolute as Marlowe, dying as miserably as 

• A comedy by Shadwell, 167<S, 


Greene, Tliamaa Otwmy (1652-1685) had at least a fellowship in 
their Tidssitndes. like theirs, his work, too, exhibits the excesses 
of his life. Bat, painful and indelicate as are his themes, they are 
relieyed by the most moring passages. * In the portrayal of scenes 
of passionate emotion,' says Scott, * his talente riral at least, and 
sometimes excel, those of Shakespeare.' And though he generally 
degrades the female character, he has left more than one noble portrait 
of a woman. Of his six tragedies and four comedies, Venice Pre' 
served (produced 1682), which contains the character of Beloidera, 
and the Orphan (produced 1680), still hold the stage. Both 
are in bknk yerse, as might be expected after Dryden's renuncia- 
tion of rhyme some three years previously. Thomas Southeme 
(1660-1746) was a more prosperous dramatist than Otway, making 
700/. by one of his dramas, and far exceeded Dryden in his literary 
gains. * Choice and conduct of the story,' says Hallam, * are the 
ehief merits * of this prolific writer. OroonoJco, 1696, and TTie Fatal 
MarriagCf 1694, later known as Isabella, are the best of his plays. 
In the latter, the celebrated Mrs. Siddons made her first appearance 
on a metropolitan stage, in 1 782. 

77. The Coznlo Dramatists of the Itestoratlon.— The 
plays of Dryden and Otway can scarcely be praised for their purity. 
But gross, and coarse even to brutality, as they occasionally are, it 
may be questioned whether they were more dangerous than the 
glittering libertinism of the group of dramatists who, with Wycherley 
and Congreve at their head, represent the Comedy proper of the 
Restoration. Marriage, with these, exists only to its dishonour, and 
loye is the science of seduction. The one being the matter, the other 
the end, of most dramatic work, it may be inferred that the moral 
goes for little or nothing in their productions. On the contrary, 
intrigue, wit (they have it in profusion), repartee, and epigram are 
severally and collectively enlisted to popularise an inverted code of 
manners under which virtue is ridiculed and vice rewarded. Their 
plays are essentially of the class * which leave a bad taste in the 
mouth ; ' and even the graceful sophistry of Charles Lamb cannot 
betray the reader into relegating the cynical profligacy of the 
Wishforts and Wildairs to some unreal land, ungoverned by ordinary 
laws of decency. It may be doubted whether the writers themselves 
would have accepted the defenccr A brief enumeration of their 
plays will suffice. 

The best of Sir George Stherege's (1635 ?>1691) is his Man of 
Mode; or, Sir Foiling Flutter, 1676 — 'the model,' says Campbell, 
'of all succeeding ^e^t'^s maitree,* and, if report speak traly, s faith* 


fill portrait of himself, although he designed another character to 
that end. Two others of his phiys, I/ym in a Tub, 1664, and Shs 
Would if She Could, 1667f were also successful. '(Hntle George/ 
as Diyden calls him, is said to have broken his neck by falling 
down stairs at Batisbon, where he was Minister Besident. The 
Jtehearsal of Oeorye VllUen, Duke of Bnckingham (1627-1688), 
has already been referred to (see p. 104, s. 74). The Mtdberry 
Garden, 1668,^presumably the same fashionable resort where 
Dijden, * advanced to a sword and Ohedrenz wig,' ate tarts with 
Siadam Beere, the actress — ^is the best known play of Sir Cliarles 
Bedley (1639-1701), and it contains one of the most finished of his 
songs — ^that beginning, ' Jh, Chlans, could I now but sit!* 

The next of this group, 'WlUlam -wyelimrlay (1640-1715), was 
educated in 1^'rance, where he became a Boman Catholic At the 
Bestoration, howerer, he returned to the Protestant religion. After 
being a favonrite of the Duchess of Cleveland, he married the 
Countess of Drogheda, ^om he survived long enough to contract, 
in his declining years, another alliance with a mere girl, nuunly for 
the sake of spiting his nephew. He led the life of a wit and rouS, 
and, toward the dose of it, was greatly embarrassed — indeed, he lay 
for a long period in the Fleet. His last piece was produced in 
1677> so that his works belong to his earlier years. They are — 
Love in a Wood, produced 1672 ; the GenUeitum Dandng-Master, 
1673; the Country Wife, 1675, and the TUdn Dealer, 1677. Cal- 
deron, Bacine, and Moli&re — ^the last especially — suggested many 
of the scenes. At his death a worthless and indecent miscellany of 
prose and verse was issued under his name. It owes its slender 
value to the corrections of the youthful Pope, who had been the 
friend of its author*s old age. 

After being educated at the University of Dublin, and publishing 
a foigotten novel under the pseudonym of * Cleophil,' the Coryphoeus 
of the Comic Dramatists, muuam Congrewe (1670-1729), 
brought out, in 1693, his play of the Old Bachdor, followed, in 
1693, by the Double Dealer, and, in 1695, by Love for Lone. To 
these succeeded, in 1697, the tragedy of the Mourning Bride, which, 
in addition to the fine passage eulogised by Johnson, contains the 

• - * luiaio has chJunns to loothfi a savage breast.* 

Last came the comedy of the Way of the World, in 1700, which 
proved a failure. This mishap was, perhaps, a result of the vigorous 
onslaught made, in 1698, upon theatrical licentiousness by Jeremy 


Collier (1650-1726), a non-juriDg Bishop, in his Short View of the 
Immorality and Profatieiieaa of tJie English Stage, Into the detaUs 
of this controversy we cannot enter. The leading dramatists, how- 
eyer, but feebly repelled the censures of the diyine ; Dryden, indeed, 
made no important reply, and, practically, an appreciable purifica- 
tion of the theatre dates from the dispute. But it must be borne in 
mind that the mass of the public were with the clerical censor, and 
without this advantage on his side be would scarcely have obtained 
a hearing. 

Congreve died a rich man from the emoluments of the places he 
had occupied, to the last still splendidly popular in the fashionable 
world. The daughter of the great Duke of Marlborough had a 
curious attachment for him, and to her he left the riches.which, says 
Humour, might more fitly, if not justly, have been bequeathed to 
the beautiful Mrs. Bracegirdle. The following is Macaulay's com- 
parison of Congreve and Wycherley, He gives the palm to the for- 
mer. After touching upon the analogy in their lives and writings, 
he says : — * Wycherley had wit ; but the wit of Congreve far out- 
shines that of every comic writer, except Sheridan, who had arisen 
within the last two centuries. Congreve had not, in a large mea- 
sure, the poetical faculty ; but compared with "Wycherley he might 
be called a great poet. Wycherley had some knowledge of books ; 
but Congreve was a man of real learning. Congreve's offences against 
decorum, though highly culpable, were not so gross as those of 
"Wycherley; nor did Congreve, like Wycherley, exhibit to the world 
the deplorable spectacle of a licentious dotage.' * 

The satire of Swifb still clings to the architectural remains of 
Sir John Vanbmffh (1666-1726) in Blenheim and Castle 
Howard; but the Relapset 1697, the Provoked Wife^ 1697, the 
Confederacy^ 1706, and the Journey to London (completed by Cibber 
in 1728 as the Provoked Husband), still attest his wit, as well as his 
immorality. Goorye Farqnliar (1678-1707) belongs more pro- 
perly to the next century, as his first play only, Love and a Soitle, 
1699, was produced before 1700. His best works are the Recruit'' 
ing Officer, IJOG, and the Beaux Stratagem, 1707. In both of 
these kist writers the approaching improvement of the style is fore- 
shadowed. One of the plays of Vanbnigh .contains a character that 
Hallatn has styled the fir'st homage that the theatre had paid to 
female chastity since the Restoration — the character of Ananda, in 
tilie Bdapse,^ 

* EMiOgt, ol that on the Comic DramatUU ^ the BettaraitUm, 

t Vot iiphca Behn, Crowne, Settle, I^tOb and some other i^ywrights of this j 

pertod (16S'-1'700) the retder Is reftrrtd to the Dictionary Appendix (E>. j| 




LBTT, ffCEBini, BTO.— 93. OOLDSHFTH.— 91. JOHNSON.— 95. BUBKB.— 96. THB 

78. Suiuinary of tbe Period. — ^In the last year of the seven- 
teenth century Dryden died ; and with his death the preceding period 
closed. The present chapter opens with an epoch which, owing to some 
not yery obvious resemblance to the age of the Emperor Augustus, 
it was formerly customary to style the * golden * or * Augustan As^ e 
of English literature. That this resemblance did not lie in the pro- 
tection of letters by royal or noble patrons ; that it was not based 
upon any special elevation in the character of the works produced — 
which, on the contrary, were generally more or less identified with 
the interests of opposing Whig and Tory ; that the time, in short, 
was not great by comparison with the periods that preceded and 
followed it — are facts now fairly established. To the question, In 
what, then, does the likeness consist? — it has been answered : — In 
the correctness or finish of sty l^ achieved by the leading writers. 
Yet, although it is allowed that a new attention to the mechanism 
of literary expression — a striving after ^rspicui ty and brevity in 
style— is traceable as far back as theBestoration, even this attribute 
of 'correctness* has been contested. It has been urged that the 
writings of Pope, of Addison, of Swift even, are not * correct * in any 
exact sense of the word ; and that, supposing this particular pro- 
perty were conceded to the writings of one or two of the authors 
who lived under Queen Anne and George I., they would not, numeri* 


cally, Boffice to oonstitnte a literary age. It may, therefore, be held 
that the title * Angostan/ as applied to the era in qnestion, has now 
passed into the categgr ^ time-hy t^Bf^ TnianAmftTfl 

The foregoing rmitfks apply co the earlier years only of the 
period comprised in the present ^apter. Bat, daring the whole of 
the tune (1700-1785), no 'great' poet can be said to hare appeared. 
Pope, who stands first, and, it mnst be added, at an elevation far 
abo ve that of his contemporaries^ has, notwithstanding, been denied 
a place in the highest order of poets. Yet, in his own province, his 
ability was unquestioned. His poetry was * the apotheosis of clear* 
ness, pointy and technical skill ; of the ease that comes of practice, 
not of the fulness of original power.' * As a njstrioiLiUlifit, he 
stands supreme among his fellows, and his influence over the fashion 
of verse-writing is distinguishable for at least forty years after 
his death. Nevertheless, there were not wanting indications of the] 
advent of a truer and more genuine school of poetry. In the blank] 
verse of Thomson's Seasons, in the Odes of Collins and the Odes and' 
Jg%y of Gray, in the TraveUer and Deserted ViUage of Goldsmith, 
nay, in the very forgeries of Macpherson and Chatterton, and the ) 
popularity of Sishop Percy's Seligues, there were manifest signs, 
even in those days of apparent poetical sterility, that a reaction from 
the 'mechanic art' and 'musical finesse' of the popular Popesque 
manner — ^&om 'drawing-room pastoral' and the 'poetry of the 
town' — was gradually approaching, and that there was a growing \ 
and irrepressible impulse toward the poetry of nature and humanj 


In the absence of poetry of the highest order, prose, on the other 
hand, exhibited an extraordinary development. With the Tatler and 
Spectator of Steele and Addison began that popular form of essay- 
writing which still survives and flourishes ; while the class of fiction 
adopted by Swift and Defoe reached, in the minute character- 
painting of Richardson, the vivid delineation of life and manners by 
Smollett and Eielding, the whimsical, super-subtle analysis of Sterne, 
and the idyllic grace of Goldsmith, a degree of excellence which, 
it may fairly be asserted, the modem British novelist has but seldom 
attained. Kor was it in fiction alone that the opulence of prose was 
apparent The history of Hume, Robertson, Gibbon ; the theology 
of Berkeley and of Butler; the political eeomony of Adam Smith, 
the rhetoric of Burke, and the invective of ' Junius,' all found 

* Lowell, J/if Studp Windom: Pope, 

t V,IiUroduetor9 Memoir to WarcTs Pope, 1869 (OJoie Sd.); Englhh Poetr§ 
from Vrjfdm (Q Coitper, (2«ar(«r7y ReHew^ July, 186S C<t>y F* T« FiJgraTe]. 

- 4 



their uttezance in that homelier form of \mtiDg to which the more 
pnetieal offices of literature are commonly assigned. 

The drama of the period calls for no special remark. Home and 
Bowa, Sheridan and Foote, shine ont from their contemporaries. 
But they are luminaries of the lesser rank, whose brilliancy is the 
result of the eomparatirely feeble radiance of their neighbourisi. 

79. Tbe 3Po«tot 3Pi»p«« — Among the poets of the so-called 
'Angostan Age/ Alesaader Pope (1688'-1744), as we hare al- 
ready said, stands supreme. The only son of a tradesman of Lom- 
bard Street, he was, as a child, delicate and sickly; indeed, his whole 
life was, in his own words, ' a long disease.' Schools were not calcu- 
lated to derelope such a nature, and he was mainly self-taught. 
Writing he had learned early from copying type; and what he knew 
of Ghreek, Latin, and French, was acquired rather by his own patient 
translations than from the instruction of masters. The art of yersi- 
fication, and the verse of Dryden in particular, seem early to have 
attracted him ; while the advice of a friend to make correctness ' his 
study and aim' {ij, to *copy the ancients') niay be noted as farther 
directing his tendencies. He said of himself that he * lisped in 
nimibers ; ' and he is recorded to have written a play from the Miad 
at twelve, and to have shortly after composed some 4,000 lines of an 
epic, having for hero Alcander, prince of Bhodes. This latter ho 
(perhaps wisely) burnt But, if we may believe his own statement 
that some of its lines were imported bodily into much later and 
maturer poems, their technical excellence must have been already 
remarkable. His youthfiil connection with Wycherley has already 
been referred to (see p. 110, s. 77)* By him he was introduced to 
Walsh, the judicious critic who advised him to cultivate classic 
models. Another and earlier friend was Sir William Trumbull, to 
whom, in 1709, he dedicated the first of his four Pastorals, then 
published in Tonson's Miscellanies, The unbounded praise with 
which these performances were received may now be modified into 
Johnson's words, that they show the writer * to have obtained suffi- 
cient power of language and skill in metre to exhibit a series of 
versification which had in English poetry no precedent.' * 

With the publication of the Pastorals, Pope's literary life may be i 

said to begin. In 1711 he gave forth his Essay on Criticism, a 
clever summary of the best received opinions, sparkling with the con- ( 

dse maxims and pointed illustrations which are distinguishing { 

characteristics of his talent. Well might Addison observe, ixi com* 

• Ziffi ^ (he M^, CannlnsbMn*e ed« 


menting upon those finished epigrammatic couplets of the critic of 
twenty, that 'Wit and fine Writing doth not consist so much in 
advancing Things that are new, as in giving Things that are known 
an agreeable Turn.* What, for instance, could be neater or more 
ekilful than the way in which these verses (some of which he quotes) 
are made to exemplify the errors they condemn : — 

' But most by Kambers judge a Poet's song ; 
And smooth or rough, with them is right or wrong. 
These equal syllables alone require, 
Tho* oft the ear the open Towels tire ; 
Wliilo ea^iIetiTeB their feeble aid do join ; 
And ten low words oft creep in one dull lino : 
VThile they ring round the same unyary'd chimes, 
"With sure returns of still expected rhymes ; 
"Where-e'er you find " the cooling western breeze," 
In the next line, it " whispers through the trees," 
If ciystal streams " with pleasing murmurs creep," 
The reader's threaten'd (not in vain) with " sleep : " 
Then, at the last and only couplet fraught 
With some unmeaning thing they call a thought, 
A needless Alexandrine ends the song. 
That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.* 

{Essay on Criticism.) 

In the year 1712 appeared (with other pieces), in Lintot's Afiscel- 
lani/f the first sketch of the Hope of the Lock, an ' heroi-comical* 
poem, which owes its slender motive to Uie theft of a curl by a 
' well-bred Lord' (Lord Petre) from a ' gentle Belle* (Miss Arabella 
Fermor). Yet^ upon this fragile basis. Pope has reared a master- 
piece of filigree— a work * so exquisite, in its peculiar style of art,' 
says Professor Conington, * as to make the task of searching for 
faults almost hopeless; that of commending beauties simply imper- 
tinent.* * *It is the most exquisite monument of playful fancy that 
universal literature ofiers,* says De Quincey. Its plan, in fact, 
exactly suited the range of the poet's powers ; his wit, his fancy, his 
command of polished verse are all seen to the best advantage, while 
his literary artifice and insincerity — grave faults elsewhere— are 
excusable in mock heroics. The most remarkable circumstance in 
the history of this famous production is that ho extended its scheme, 
and yet improved it. In the first state Addison called it 'merum 
sah—a delicious little thing,*— and not unreasonably deprecated fur- 
ther alteration — advice which, however well-intentioned, did not meet 
with the approval of the sensitive author. He accordingly added—- 
and, it must be allowed, with entire success — the machineiy of tha 

• MisciV<xn40US irritings^ 1872, i. 83, 


Sjlphfl, wliich Br. Osrth had nggerted; and tlie poem, as it now 
appean, was pablialMd is 171i. The Memak, 1712, a Saend 
Eclogue, in imitation of Tiigirs BaUio, fiist brooght onfc in No. S78 
of the 9peet4iior\ Wwdior Foreti, 1713, the design of which is 
borrowed from Coopei'9 BSU («« p. 80, s. 55); and the (Mf /br 
MuHa an Si, CeeiluCt Day, 1713, written in 1708 at the suggestion 
of Steele, also belong to this period. In the November of 1713 he 
opened a subscription list for a work of greater magnitude than he 
had yet attempted — the translation of the UUid, The list was 
swelled bj the generons advocacy of Swift; and, in 1715, duly 
appeared the iLest volume^ oontainiug four books. The only poem 
of importance issued in the interval was the Temple of Forney 1715, 
based chiefly on the last book of Chaucer*s Hous of Famt {ue 
p. 85, s. 17). 

The completed translation of the Iliads in six vols, quarto, appeared 
in 1720, with a dedication to Congreve ; and the anthoi^s gains are 
said to have amounted to more than 5,000/. For the subsequent 
translation of the Odyuey, published in 1725, he received some 
3,000/. or 4,000/. more, after the necessaiy deductions had been 
made for the labours of BltJalft ronton (1683.1750) and 1»1I- 
liam Sroom* (d. 1745), whose aid he had called in to complete 
hit task. The splendour of this celebrated paraphrase has somewhat 
faded in our day. But even in the author^s lifetime it was calmly 
esUmated. The great Bentley (whose frankness procured him a 
niche in the Dunda/S) is reported by Sir John Hawkins to have said 
that it was * a pretty poem,' but must not be called Homer. Gibbon, 
writing later, describes it as 'a portrait endowed with every merit 
except that of faithfulness to the originaL' After these opinions we 
may quote the judgment of the late Professor Conington, himself 
a distinguished translator of the Biad,^ Having indicated some of 
the defects of various preceding versions from Chapman toSotheby, 
and referred to the keener * appreciation of the characteristic style 
of difftrent periods which now prevails,' he says : — ' Probably no 
other work of his [Pope's] has had so much influence on the na- 
tional taste and feeling for poetry. It has been— ^I hope it is still— 
the delight of every intelligent schoolboy ; they read *' of kings^ and 
heroes, and of mighty deeds " in language which, in its calm, ma- 
jestic flow, nnhasting^ unresting, carries them on as irresistibiy as 
Homer's own oould do^ were they bom readers of Greek ; and their 
minds are flUed with a conception of the heroio age, not indeed 

• PaUUtedlin.<8: BlDLLtozIl.arsl7Ur. Wecdo: Bks.xiii.toxitv.fa 
liw stNUM excepted) ^ FrotaMT OooiBgUm. 

•J- / 


strictly true, but almost as near the truth as that which was enter- 
tained by Virgil himself/ * 

In connection with the translation of the Hiad and Odyssey mnst 
be mentioned the quarrel of its author with Addison. Through 
Steele, Pope had made the acquaintance of the great essayist 
shortly after the publication of the Essay on Criticism, which 
Addison had praised in the Spectator (No. 253). Sut, almost from 
the first, a series of petty occurrences appears to have awakened 
Pope's morbid literary susceptibilities. Addison had given but a 
lukewarm public welcome to. the Bape of the Lock {Spectator, No. 
523), and, as we have seen, had not recommended the extension of 
its scheme. Pope remembered this. Pope had voluntarily taken up 
the cudgels for Caio against Dennis the critic ; and Addison had 
not approved — ^he could not in decency approve— the ill-advised 
defence.! Finally, Tickell, a friend of Addison, published a version 
of the Lst Book of the Iliad, which Pope chose to regard as a rival 
to his own, put forth at Addison's suggestion. Lord Hacaulay 
has examined this last charge, and is of opinion that there is not the 
slightest foundation for it. But Pope made it the ground for lasting 
animosity, and under the influence of this feeling, designed that 
fiunous portrait, which, elaborated with wonderful art and malignity, 
found its place finally, sixteen years after Addison's death, in the 
Epistle to Dr, Arbuthnot {Prologue to the Satires), as one of the best, 
if not the best^ of the poet's (^aracter-sketches, although posterity 
refuses to regard it as a &ithful likeness of Joseph Addison: — 

* Peace to all snch I but were there One whoae fires 
True Genius Undies, and fair Fame insi^res ; 
Blest wltti each talent and each art to please, 
And bom to write, conTexse, and live \7ith ease : 
Should such a man, too fond to role alone, 
Bear, like the Tork, no brother near the throne^ 
Tlew him with scornful, yet with jealous eyes, 
And hate for arte tiiat cans'd himself to rise ; 
Damn with faint praise, assent with dvUleer, 
And without sneerinff , teach the rest to sneer ; 
Willing to wound, and yet afraid to 8trike« 
Just hint a fault, and hesitate didike ; 
Alike reserv'd to blame, or to commend, 
A tini^ions foe, and a suspicions friend ; 
Dreading er'n fools, by Flatterers besiegedt 
And so obliging, that he ne'er oblig'd ; t 

• MtseeBmumu WHHtiift, 1873, i. 48. 

f Lt,The jrarraHve qf Dr, BoUrt ITorri* [a Quick who pretended to cure the 
Ibhum] iqmmi tks Frentit q/'./[ohn] 2>[enni8], 1718. 

t An instance of dumge in pronunciation. *Tea' (TV)* which in Pope, Svift^ 
Gay, and Young, xbymes to ' obey,' * play,' and the Vke, <s another of many. 


Like Goto, giye lUs little Senate laws, 
And sit attentiye to bis own applause ; 
While Wits and Templars ev'ry sentence ralse^ 
And wonder with a foolish face of praise :— 
Who bat most laogh, if sach a man there be ? 
Who wonld not weep, if Atttcub were he ? ' 

{Prologue to the Satires, 11. 198-Sli.) 

Whaterer pain these lines inflicted (and Pope, 

' Semper ardentei acucnt eagiUas,* 

had patiently assured himself of their power to wound), Addison 
received them, when sent to him in MS., with characteristic serenity. 
His sole reply was a more studious courtesy. 

Of Pope's relations vith.another literary character, the celebrated 
Lady Mary VTorttej Montana (1690-1762), whom he began by 
liking and ended by lampooning, the limited nature of this boolc 
does not permit us to give any adequate account. Kor can we here 
touch upon his friendship vith the two Miss Blounts. His next 
published works of any importance, after the Tein^ of Fame, are 
the Eleffy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady, whose identity is 
one of the vexed questions of his biography ; the Epistle of Eloisa 
to Abelard ; and (with Arbuthnot and G^ay) the farce of Three Hours 
after Marriage, which proved a failure on the stage. All these 
belong to the year 1717. Not much significance can be attached to 
his edition of Shakespeare, 1725, little better than that subsequently 
published by Johnson. It was eclipsed, in Pope's lifetime, by the 
more accurate labours of a lesser man, XewUi Tbeoliald (d. 1744). 

The name of Theobald appropriately introduces a work which, 
by many of Pope's admirers, is regarded as his best. This was 
his famous onslaught upon the swarming hacks and poetasters of his 
day, among whose ranks J^eounted many real or imagined enemies. 
It will be remembered that Sr^n's Mao Fleckhoe, 

* without dispute,,^ 

Throngb all the realms of Nonsense abeomte/ 

had resigned his empire to Shadwell, who later ousted Dryden from 
the laureateship. Pope's Jktnoiad, founded to some extent upon the 
earlier satire, takes -up the succession at the death of Lawrence 
Eusden, Shadwell's third successor, and describes the elevation of 
.Theobald to the raeant throne at the hands of the Goddess of 
Dalness. His criticism of Pope's ShaJcespeare had earned him this 
distinction. The solemnity is graced by ' high heroic games,' at 


^ich all Grub Street is made to compete; and Pope, revenging 
himself, in the name of literature, for injuries suffered in his own 
person, mercilessly rains down his scathing satire upon the whole 
body of inferior scribblers: — 

* Unoeasing was the play of wretched hands, 
Kow this, now that way glancing, to shake oH 
The heat, still falling fresh/ 

(In/erno, canto zIt.) 

The earliest known edition of the three books of the Bundad was' 
published in May 1728 ; but a more perfect edition, dedicated to 
Swift^ appeared in the following year. Other editions followed ; and, 
in 1742, was added a fourth book, directed against dunces, theologic 
and philosophic. To this succeeded, in 1743, a fresh edition of the 
entire poem, in which the name of Colley Gibber, the then laureate — 
a dramatist and wit to whom we shall hereafter refer — ^^yas sub- 
stituted for that of Theobald. The alteration gratified another 
antipathy on the author's part, but it scarcely improved the *Epos 
of the Dunces.' That is, nevertheless, and remains, in Professor 
Conington's words, * a very great satire.* But its wanton character 
is well expressed in the sentences with which he concludes his 
criticism of this celebrated work :— * Such inhuman, nnpitying ani- 
mosity cannot be justified, even on the plea of retaliation; and the 
plea of retaliation, though elaborately urged, seems not to have 
been always true.* . . , It is * an unblessed contest, undertaken in 
the spirit of Persian tyranny against those who would not propitiate 
the arrogance of one man, and waged partly with weapons of the 
keenest edge and finest temper, but partly also with noisome imple- 
ments of offence, and inventions of gratuitous barbarity.' * 

The remaining works of Pope consist of the so-called Moral 
Essays, which appeared from 1720 to 1736; the Essay on Man 
(four Epistles), 1732-4, generally included with them (see p. 
120); and the Satires (Imitations of Horace and Donne), 1733-8, 
from the Prologue to which— the Ejpistle to Dr. Arbuthnot-^yfre 
have already printed an extract (5e<? p. 117). The first principles 
of the Essay on Man Pope received from the famous Bolingbroke, 
to whom also he was indebted for the suggestion that gave rise to 
the iSteft*ff«— master-pieces of language and metrical skill, unrivalled 
in \heir pungent portraiture of contemporary chftwwster and manners, 
* It id'no paradox to say that these Imitations araumong the most 
original of his writings. So entirely do they bfeatjie the spirit of. 

'" • JiisaUaneous Writings, lS'2,i,i9, 


the age and eonntzj in which they were written, that they can b« 
read without reference to the Latin modeL' * 

The 8atwe$t it ia held by Judges, will probably outlire the Esioy 
on Man, Bnt^ more on account of its place among Pope's writings 
than its intrinsic ralue, this much-discussed latter work demands 
some ftirther notice. The poet's purpose, he says in the pre&tory 
< Design/ is < to consider Kan in the abstract, his l^ature and his 
State.' By * steering betwixt the extremes of doctrines seemingly 
opposite^' by ' passing over terms utterly unintelligible,' he hopes to 
Dnune '* temperate yet not inconsistent^ and a short yet not im* 
perfect, system of EUiies.' The Eesay (as we now have it) * is to be 
considered as a general Map of Man, marking out no more than the 
greater parts, their extent, their limits, and their connection, but 
leaTing the particular to be more iully delineated in the charts 
which are to follow.' The four EpisUea of which it is composed 
are therefore only part of an incomplete scheme, although they form 
a complete portion of that scheme. They are all dedicated to 
Bolingbroke («m p. 134, s. 90), who is expressly apostrophised in 
the last Epistle as * master of the poet, and the song ' — as his ' guide, 
philosopher, and friend.' It has indeed been asserted that Pope 
simply rhymed the prose Essays of his Mentor. At all events, 
the presiding influence of Bolingbroke is clearly discernible, and to 
that influence, taken in connection with the poet's ambition to try 
his hand at a popular ethical subject, the work must mainly be at- 
tributed. The Epistles treat severally : Of the Nature and State of 
Man — (i.) with respect to the Universe; (ii.) ioith respect to Himself; 
(in.) withrespeet to Society; and (it.) toiih respect to Happiness, Bat 
the theme was unsuited to the treatment adopted. Moreover, it has 
been said, the writer imperfectly understood, nay, was not even in 
sjrmpathy with, the system he advanced ; and hence the Essay is 
' without permanent value as a philosophical treatise.' In point of 
execution, however, there is little to be desired. Pope's power of 
crystalliaing precepts, of manufacturing 

' — jewels flTe-words-loDg 
That on the stretched fore-finger of all Time 
BparUe for ever,' 

has never been shown to greater advantage than in this poem. It 
is true the gems maybe often paste, but the workmanship is wonder- 
ful, and the brilliancy incontestable. The following are a few 
examples :— 

• Her. Kaxk FattlsoD. Piefaoe to Pope's SaUnt and tpiSOes (Claiendon 
PreBS Series), §. 


'Hope springB eternal in the hmnan tanast : 
JCan never w, bat always to be bleet.' 

'Tirtnons and Tidons ev'ry man must be, 
Jfvw in th' extreme, but all in tbe degree.' 

< For modes of faith, let graceless lealots fight ; 
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right.* 


* Hononr and shame from no condition rise ; 
Act well yonr part, there all the hononr lies.' 

Ep. iv. 1. 198. 
' What can ennoble sots, or slaTes, or cowards ? 
Alas I not all the blood of all the Howards.' 

«. L 215. 

* Enow then this truth, enough for nuui to know* 
Virtue atoie is happiness below.' 

ib, 1. 809. 

In 1718, after the death of his father in the preceding year, Fop6 
had settled with the mother — his affection for whom is one of the 
most pleasing traits in his character — at Twickenham, where his re- 
treat, his grotto, and the eccentricities of that taste for gardening 
which he had inherited from his father, have become historical. 
Here he bVed in constant correspondence or personal oommnnion 
with Ghiy, Swift, Bolingbroke, Warburton, and others ; and here, in 
1733, his mother died. Her son sonrived her nearly eleven years. 
As a man it is difficult to regard him with much admiration. ' He 
was the most irritable of the genus irritabile,^ says one contemporary ; 
'mens eurva in corpore curvo, says another. He ' played the politi- 
cian about cabbages and turnips,' says a third; in other words, 
plotted and schemed about the Teriest trifles. It is this that makes 
his life ' a succession of petty secrets and third-rate problems ' — > 
witness, to take one example only, the mysterious shifts and pitiable 
equiyocations to which he resorted in order to smuggle his cor- 
respondence into print during his lifetime.* He appears to have 
been Tain, sensitive, artificial. He was, however, a good son, — an 
attached £riend ; and it is but just to recall his continued ill-health 
and painful physical disadvantages when referring to his peculia- 
rities of character. And he was a genuine HtUrateur, Loving 
letters, at least, with an unfeigned devotion, his exquisite taste 
and almost &ultle8s metrical art have ^ven him a position in, and 
inflnenceover, our literature, which will not easily be contested. 

80. VrlOTf Cktj« — ^The story of the precocious youth at the 

* 9, the fun disonsdon of this subject in tbe Works qf Alexander Pope, edited 
hj theBev. WUtweU Elwin, i. (1871), Introduction, zzyi.-cxlTii« 


Bhenish WineboiiBa, who Bet the fine gentlemen right upon a pae- 
eage from Horace, recurs at once with the name of Mattliew Frior 
(1664-1721). When this incident is eopposed to have occnrred, he 
had already reeeired some brief instmction at Westminster School. 
Id 1683, accepting one of three scholarships established by the 
Duchess of Somerset, he went to Cambridge. His first literary 
effort was in connection with the successful parody of Dryden's Htnd 
and Panther, 1687, before referred to (see p. 106, 8. 74). In 1690, by 
Lord Dorset's aid, he commenced a long diplomatic career, the details 
of which do not concern us, as Secretary to the Embassy at the 
Hague. His principal poems ore Alma, a discursive metaphysical 
work in Hudibrastic verse ; Solomon, an epic of the Davideis (see 
p. 76, 8. 51) class ; and Uenry and Em^na, a modem, yet not very 
happy, adaptation of the fine old ballad of the Not-Browne Mayde 
{see p. 49, s. 31). But it is not by these that he will be remembered. 
His lighter pieces, songs, tales, and epigrams are models of their 
kind. Cowper, who speaks somewhere of ' dear Matt. Frior^s easy 
jingle,' has praised his mastery over familiar verse in a passage * 
whiok may stand for a definition of those sprightly social pieces of 
which, in his' otm age, Swift was the only other really skilful prac- 
titioner,-and of which, from Herrick and Suckling down to Praed 
and Thackeray, our-literature furnishes so many sparkling examples. 
'Prior's seem to me,' says the lastr named writer, 'amongst the easiest, 
the richest, the. most. charmingly humourous of English lyrical 
poems. , Horace is always in his mind; and his song, and his philo- 
sophyi-his good sense, his happy easy turns and. melody, his loves, 
and his Epicureanism, bear a gr^t resemblance to that most delight- 
ful and accomplished master.' f Here is one of his epigrams : — 

' Yes, eveiy-poet is a fool ; 

By demonstration^Nod OMi show it{ 
Happy could Ned's iuTerted role 
FroTO eTcry fool to be a poet.' 

To Prior, in thti lecture from which the last quotation but one is 
taken) succeeds Jolm Gay (1685-1732), already mentioned ai 
joint author with Pope and Arbuthnot of the farce of Three jSoure 
after Marriage, of which he bore the blame. Gay was an easy, in«: 
dolent, good-natured man, now chiefiy remembered by ike FableSf 
1727-38, which he wrote for the edification of the young Duke of 
Cumberland, afterwards the ' Butcher' of Culloden, and by that 
femous ' Newgate pastoral ' — the Begga;r*e Opera — which, when pro> 

• F. Letter to Tin win, Jan. 17, 1783, on Jolmsou's lAfei^ Prior, 
t Unglith Humourists: Prior Gay^ and Pope, 


duced in 1728, banished Italian song, for a time, from the English 
Stage, procured a coronet for its prima donna, and, in the epigram of 
fhe day, made * Kich [the manager] gay, and Gray [the author] rich.* 
A sequel, entitled Po%, was prohibited by the Lord Chamberlain on 
political grounds, but its publication as a book proved even more 
lucrative than the representation of the earlier play. Among Gay's 
other works lure the ShephertFs Week, 1714, six pastorals undertaken, 
according to Johnson, in ridicule of the so'Ksalled 'namby-pamby' 
style of AmbroM Pbillips (1671-1749) ; Trivia; or, The Art of 
Walking the Streets of London, 1716, a mock-heroic poem, still fre- 
quently consulted for its pictures of town life and humours ; and 
the What d!ye Call it f produced in 1715, a mock-tragedy, containing, 
like the Beggar^s Opera, some of those ballads in which the author's 
skill was conspicuous. 

81. Touiigr, TliomBOii.— The Night Thoughts of Bdwara 
TounfiT (1684--1765), although they foiled to procure for their 
author the ecclesiastical preferment he sighed for, brought him both 
gain and honour when they first issued from the press in 1742-6. 
Now they are but seldom read. True thoughts and lofty imagery 
are frequent in this series of sombre poems — the full title of which 
is the Complaint; or, Night Thoughts upon Life, Death, and ImmoT" 
tdlity ; but, side by side with these, are triviid conceits (* butterflies 
pinned to the pulpit cushion,' one critic has called them), which 
have earned for the writer the character of a 'successor,' under Pope 
and Bryden, 'of the Bonnes and Oowleys of a former age.* 
Young's first important work was a rhymed satire — Love of Fame, 
the Universal Passion, 1725-8, after the manner of Pope. He was 
also the author of the Revenge, 1721, a tragedy which long kept the 

The fame of Raines Tbomson (1700>^1748) has been more 
durable than Ihat of Young. A Scotchman by birth, after resigning 
the study *of-divinity in favour of that of literature, he came to Lon- 
don, iB4725, to seek his fortune, with the manuscript of Wmler in his 
pocket." ^his he published in the succeeding year; following ilrup by 
Summit 17 ^7 » Spring, 1728, BJid Autumn, 17dO« His Itve for 
nature was deep and genuine; and, tumidity and pomp of language 
notwithstanding, his work acquired and still enjoys a merilM popu- 
larity. ' It is almost stale,' says Campbell, * to remark the beauties 
of a poem [he is speaking of the Seasons collectively] so universally 
felt — the truth and genial interest with which he [the poet] carries 
us through the life of the year ; the harmony of succession which 
he gives to the casual phenomena of nature ; his ploasing transition 


from native to foreign scenery ; and the soul of exalted and un* 
feigned beneyolence which accompanies his prospects of creation/ * 
After producing two or three tragedies, the chief of which is 
Saphomaba, 1730, he issned the Castle of Indolence, 1748, a poem 
in the Spenserian stanza, to the composition of which he brought his 
matured poetical powers. Of all the numerous imitations of the 
great Elizabethan, this certainly bears away the palm. In one of 
Thomson's dramatic attempts — the masque of Al/red, 1740, — 
occurs the now national song of Bide Britannia, 

82. Gray* ColUnsr— The name of Tbomas Oray (1716-1771) 
recalls at once the ESeffy written in a Country Chureh-yard — a title 
which must not, however, be too literally accepted, as, brief though 
the poem be, the fastidious composer devoted several years to its 
revision and completion. When published at last, in 1751, it 
' pleased,' as Byron says, * instantly and eternally ;' f and Wolfe de- 
clared that he would rather have written it than take Quebec.^ Its 
excellence somewhat overpowers the remaining (and not very 
numerous) productions of its author. But the Ode on a Distant 
I^oapect of Eton College, 1747* the Hymn to Adversity, and the Ode 
to spring — all conspicuous for their careful finish— deserve a per- 
manent place in literature ; as also do the Pindaric Odes of the ^ardf, 
and ihQ Brogreee of Foesy, 9Xih.o\x^ sX their publication, in 1757) 
they failed entirely to attract the attention of the public. No 
better fate aUended the Odes of 'WlUlam CoUlns (1721-1759), 
first published in 1747, which nevertheless included the Ode on the 
Passions, and the beautiful Ode to Evening, now known to every 
schoolboy. The only other notable poetical work of Collins was 
his Persian Eclogues, published in 1742. The scanty recognition 
which his productions received is said to have been one of the 
causes of the lunacy of his later years, when he is described as wan- 
dering, during his hours of liberty, in the aisles and cloisters of 
Chichester Cathedral, accompanying the music with sobs and groans. 
Gray's life, essentially that of an easy scholar, and passed mainly 
in a quiet college seclusion, whence he dated those chatty unaffected 
letters to his friends which still rank as epistolary models, is a 
striking contrast to the unhappy fate of his gifted contemporary. 

83. cnikiirolilll. — Educated at Westminster, and, as he says in the 


* decreed, 

Bre it was known that I should learn to vead,* 

• Speelment of the BrUUh PoOt, 
t Gburvationt upon an Article in Blackwood, 1820. 

X Loid Mahon'a ffiUory qf England, iv. 244. The anecdote Is there reported 
upon the authority of a middy who wae in the boat with Wolfe> 


to the clerical profession, Cluurles Cilkiirolilll (1731-1764) finally 
discarded the cassock to try his fate as a poet His first two 
essays in verse (the Bard and the Conclave) were declined by the 
publishers ; his third, the Bosoiad, 1761, a yigorous and unexpected 
satire upon the principal contemporary theatrical performers, he 
published anonymously, and at his own expense. Its success was 
immediate. Ere the world of critics had well recorered from its 
astonishment, he followed it up with an Apology addressed to the 
Critical Bevietoers, as daring and outspoken as its predecessor. 
'It was a fierce and sudden change firom the parterres of trim 
sentences set within sweet-brier hedges of epigram, that were, in 
this line, the most applauded performances of the day.'* In that 
day he was openly named as the rival of Dryden; but posterity has 
not ratified the judgment. Of the numerous pieces which, until the 
dose of his short life, he rapidly put forth, the Prophecy of Famine, 
1763, directed against the Scotch place-hunters who swarmed under 
the Bute administration, and the Epistle to WiUiam Ebgarth, 1763, 
to which the great painter rejoined with interest by a caricature of 
his assailant, are perhaps the most noteworthy. Vigour and fear- 
lessness are the chief characteristics of Churchill's verse. His 
breathless and reckless mode of production rendered polish impos- 
sible, even if (which is not probable) it had been congenial to his 
nature as a poet. 

' Fetish my Mnse ;— a wish 'bove aU aereie 
To him who eyer held the Moses dear. 
If e*er her labours weaken to refine 
The gen'rons ronghness of a nerrons line.' 

(The Apology,) 

84. Chattertoiii fttaeplienioii. — ^But a few words can be de- 
voted to these once celebrated writers. Tlioiiias cndatterton 

(1752-1770), the first, died by his own hand, after a brief struggle 
with the hardships of a literary existence. He is remembered 
chiefiy by a number of poems and other pieces purporting to have 
been the work of a certain Thomas Bowley, priest of Bristol in the 
fifteenth century; and opinions were long divided as to their genu- 
ineness. What the boy of seventeen, who could scribble off 
tolerable political letters, satires a la Churchill, and imitations 
of Oma»; — ^who 'goes an evening or two to Marylebone Gar- 
dens, and straightway writes a capital burletta,'t would have done 

• Forster's Biographical Essays^ 1860, 978 : Charlei Churchill, 
t Kaaaon's Euays, 1856, 835 : Chattertont a Story of the Year 1770. See aim 
WUson'a (Mttrton, 1869, 


with his marvellous assimiiatiTe powers had he attained maturitj, 
cannot now be conjectured. It is, however, to be remarked that his 
avowed original works are not to be compared with the ' tragjcal 
enterlttde * of JEllat the Dethe of Syr Charles Bawdin (or the Bristowe 
Tragedie)t and others of the ' Eowley ' series. 

The second, James Maoplienoii (1738-1796), was the self- 
styled exhumer of the supposed Gaelic poet, Ossian, translations of 
whose works he issued in 1759-63. These, again, gave rise to consi- 
derable oontiOTersy ; but, although the question was never definitely 
settled, there is little doubt as to their spurious character. 

85. THe BUnor Voets. — ^To this age belong a number of 
minor poets, memorable in most cas^s by a single work, i,e, — 
Samuel aaith (1661-1719), Pope's friend, and author of. the 
Diapentary, 1699, a satire originating in a dispute between the 
physicians and apothecaries, and directed against the latter; JoIib 
Plilllpa (1676-1708), author of Cyder, 1708, and a clever parody 
of Paradise Lost, entitled the Sj^did BhiUing, 1701 ; Bryden's 
'quack Maurus'* Sir Sieliard Blaokmore {d, 1729), whose 
principal works are his * philosophical poem' of The Creation^ 1712, 
and bis Arthurian epics {see p. 87, s. 57) ; Tbomas VarneU (1679- 
1718), author of the ^i?rmtY ; Jolm Byer (1700-1758), author of 
Grongar HiU, 1727, and the Fleece, 1757; ^RTilllam Bomervile 
(1677-1742), author of the Chace, 1735 ; Mattliew Oreen (1696- 
1737), author of the Spleen, 1737 ; William Bbenatone (1714- 
1763), who survives chiefly by a poem in the Spenserian stanza^ 
entitled the Schoolmistress, 1742; Hebert Blair (1699-1746), 
author of the Grave, 1743; Mark Akenslde (1721-1770), author 
of the Pleasures of ImaginaHon, 1744, HTllllam Falconer (1730- 
1769), author of the Shipwreck, 1762 ; JTames Grainier (1723- 
1767)i author of the Sugar Cane, 1764; CbrUtoplier Anetej 
(1724-1805), author of theA>toBa^A Guide,\1^^; James BeatUe 
(1735-1803), author of the Minstrel, 1771-1774; and others foi 
whom the reader is referred to our Dictionary Appendix (£). 

Of Scotch Poets must be mentioned Allan Bameay (1686-1758) 
originally a wig-maker ; but subsequently— choosing (as he said) 
rather * to line the inside of the pash \head\ than to theek IthatcKl 
the out' — a publisher and author. Bamsay's chief woric is a 
delightfully genuine pastoral, entitled the Gentle Shepherd, 1725; 
and he contributed much towards the preservation of ancient popular 
poetry by assiduously collecting old ballads, many of which appeared 
in his earlier Tea-table Miscellany and the Evergrene, 1724, 

• 9, Diyden*s Prologue to the A^r(m| ^00 ; Frefttce to the /*«&?««, &c. 


Robert FerffUflBon (1750->1774), a poet who was even a greater 
fayonrite with Bams than Ramsay, was the author of some pleasing 
pieces in the Scotch dialect. 

86. Tbe VTartonsy Perey. — Both Thomas and Josepli 

IV^Brton— the former of whom lived until 1790, the latter until 
1800, — wrote poems; but their prose services to poetiy hare sur- 
vived their verse. Joseph was the author of an important Essay 
on the Genius and Writings of Pope, 1766-1782; and Thomas of 
an exhaustive History of English Poetry, 1774-1781, extendingfrom 
the close of the 11th to the beginning of the 18th century, which, 
from its want of system, remains, as Scott predicted, rather an im- 
mense * common-place book ' of Mhnoires pour servir than a stan- 
dard work.^ The name of Scott recalls another book, which had no 
small influence upon his career, and those of not a few of his literary 
contemporaries — namely, the Beliques of Ancient English Poetry, 
1765, collected and edited by Tbomas Percy (1728-1811), bishop 
of Dromore, a work from the appearance of which, * some of high 
name have dated the revival of a genuine feeling for true poetry in 
the public mind.'t Percy's materials were derived from an old 
MS. volume in his possession ; and, in adapting them to the taste 
of his age, he used considerable editorial license. Curiosity has 
long been rife as to the extent of his additions and omissions, and 
the publication by the ' Ballad Society' of the folio MS., under the 
able editorship of Messrs. J. W. Hales and F. J. Fumivall, has 
placed the public in possession of the unsophisticated originals. 

87. The Prose^wrlters 8 Be Foe. — ^In the year after Bry- 
den*s death, 1701, appeared a metrical satire, entitled the True- 
horn EkgUshman, the author of which was a London tradesman and 
Dissenter, who, having tried various branches of commerce, was 
destined at last to win a great name in literature. The satire in 
question was the answer of Banlel Be Toe (1661-1731) to the 
aspersions of one Tutchin, a Grub Street hack, upon the House of 
Orange and the Butch generally. Bcgarded as verse, the perform- 
ance of Be Poe was poor ; but its manly, patriotic sentiments found 
so great a favour that more than 80,000 copies were sold in the 
streets alone. A year later, the same satirist published, anony- 
mously, and in prose, an inimitably ironical Shortest Way with the 
JHssenters, 1702, in which, to the complete mystification of that sect, 

* A new edition in four volumes, by W. Oarew Hazlitt, appeared in 1871, 
with * notes and additions* by Sir F. Madden, Th. Wrigbt, Aidis Wxlght, Prof. 
Bkeat, Br. Morris, Dr. Fornivall, and the editor* 

t HtUam, LU. IIUtoTy, 1204, 11. 223, 




and the delight of High Chxuchmexi and Tories, the 'rooting out' 
of Dissent vas ronndly advocated. When the pamphlet was found 
to emanate from the pen of a Dissenter, the andadons author was 
fined, pilloried, and imprisoned, and his book was bnmed by the 
common hangman. In Newgate — * nnabash'd ' — he wrote a Hymn 
to the Pillory, 1 703, apostrophising it as an 

< — hieroglyphic State mAchine, 
Contriv'd to pnniBh Fanpy in*' 

By two or three similar couplets, or lines, the homely and practical 
muse of De Foe is now alone remembered* Such are-* 

* Wherever Qod erects a house of prayer. 
The Devil always bnilda a chapel there ; * 

and the noble — 

* It's personal virtue only makes us great/ 

in the 7Vtf«-^n EnglUhman, 

lu Newgate, too, he projected, and began, the Beview, 1704-1713, 
a part of which paper — i.e., the ' Scandalous Club,' may be re- 
garded as the precursor of the Toiler, He contioued it» single- 
handed, for nine years. The power and assiduity of his pen were 
recognised by the Government^ and he appears to have been em- 
ployed in socret service up to a late period of his life. In this place 
the enumeration of his two hundred and fifty works, political, 
religious, and commercial, can scarcely be attempted. It is with 
the series of realistic fictions, inaugurated by Bobineon Crusoe, that 
we are most concerned. The Ist, 2nd, and 3rd parts of Bobineon 
Crusoe {the 3rd part being his Serious Beflections) a,ypeaxoA. in 1719- 
1720. In 1720 also came out the Life and Piracies of Captain 
Singleton, and the History of Duncan Campbdl; the Fortunes and 
Misfortunes of JiMl Flanders followed in 1722; also in 1722, the 
Life and Adventures of Colonel Jack and the Journal of the Plague 
Year (1665) ; and, in 1 724, Boxana, The Memoirs of a Cavalier are 
not dated, but they appeared in 1720. Other notable works of De 
Foe are the History of the Union, 1709 ; the Family Instructor, 
1715-8 ; Beligious Courtship, 1722; Political History of the JkvU, 
1726; Complete English Tradesman, 1725-7; and Travels in Eng* 
land and Wales, 1724.1727. 

Of the Life and strange surprising Adventures of Bobinson Crusoe^ 
ef York, Mariner, who, according to the original title-page, ' lived 
eight-and-twenty years all alone in an uninhabited Island [surely 
this comes in the category of* Bulla ' !]of the Cgoat of America, near 


the mouth of the Great Kiyer of Oroonoque/ and was at last 
' strangely deUver^d by Pyrates/ who has not heard? For what are 
we not indebted to his Uving prototype — ^that morose Alexander 
Selkirk or Selcraig, whom Dampier * marooned/ in the old bucca- 
neering days, upon Juan Fernandez?* To say that Robinsoih 
Crusoe has been translated into many languages, — that it has 
attracted audiences to Arab story-tellers, and paid, again and again, 
its penalty of excellence in parody and imitation, is only to repeat 
what is recorded in every fresh edition. The incontestable charm of 
De Foe's style in this and other fictions is its truthful lifelikeness. 
No one has excelled him in the art of accumulating matter-of-fact 
minutim and circumstantial detail, — in what Professor Masson calls 
his * power of fiction in fac-simile of nature/ No wonder that his 
inventions have been mistaken for genuine records. Chatham was 
deceived by one set of memoirs ; Johnson by another. It is hard, 
even noTV, to disbeUeve the Journal of the Plague, still less the * true 
Eelation ' of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal . . to one Mrs. Bar^ 
gram, at Canterbury, the EigJUh of September, 1705 — in order to 
recommend to the attention of that lady (and, collateraUy, to the 
attention of all other perusers of devotional manuals), the con- 
solatory but unsaleable precepts of BreUncourt Cn Death, Never 
was device more successful. Not only did the French Calvinist*s 
book become popular, by reason of its preface, but it remains so. 
'Mrs. Years ghost is still believed in by thousands; and the 
hundreds of thousands who have bought the silly treatise of DreHn" 
court (for hawking booksellers have made their fortunes by travers- 
ing the country with it in sixpenny numbers), have borne unconscious 
testimony to the genius of De Foe.' f 

88. Swift. — ^In the same year in which Be Foe published his 
Shortest Way with the Dissenters, there came to London * an eccen- 
tric, uncouth, disagreeable young Irishman/ of fire-and-thirty, who 
astonished the wits at Button's Coffee-House by the extravagance of 
his behaviour. If we regard that kind of supremacy which is con- 
ferred by fear rather than love, 7onat]ian Swift (1667-1745) was 
certainly one of the greatest men of his age. At the time of his 
visit to this country, he was incumbent of Laracor, in Meath, and 
had come over to claim the authorship of a pamphlet Essay in the 
Whig interest, A Discourse of the Contests and Dissensions between 
the Nobles and the Commons in Alliens and Rome, 1701. Previously, 

* Soott * maroons* his Ptrate, and alleges tliat such abandonments were com- 
mon among the Buccaneers. 

t Forster's Biographical Essayt, 1869, 123. It is now contended that Defoe*s 
itory was really true. 

ISO handdooe of enqlish litebatuiis. 

after education at Trinity College, Dublin, where, on account of his 
very irregular f>tudies, he received his degree speciali gratid, he had 
been a dependant of, and Secretary to, Sir William Temple {see p. 97, 
8. 67) ; — had quarrelled with and returned to him ; and, finally, at 
his patron's death, had settled down discontentedly in the Irish living, 
presented to him by Lord Berkeley, whence he had just arrived. His 
first work, as we have said, was on the side of the Ministry. But the 
politics of Swift were of a mingled tissue. As a * lover of liberty,' 
he inclined to the Whigs ; as a clergyman, he confessed himself to 
be a High Churchman, — consequently a Tory. These divided 
opinions have given colour to the accusation of Macaulay, that he 
was ' an apostate politician.' With the statement that, while pre- 
serving his High Church principles, he appears to have attached 
himself at first to the Whig party, we may proceed to the list of his 
chief works until he transferred his allegiance to the Tories. In 
1 704, came out his Tale of a Tub and Battle of the Books, — the latter 
a burlesque Homeric description of the Boyle and Bentley contro- 
versy {see p. 98, s. 67), in which he attacks the vindicators of the 
modems. The Tale of a Tub is an allegorical account of the for- 
tunes of three brothers : Martin, who stood for the Church of Eng- 
land, and Peter and Jack, who respectively figured Popery and 
Dissent, and of their dealings with their father's will (the Bible) ; 
and, more especially, with certain coats (or creeds) therein be- 
queathed to them. The honours of the fable lay, of conrse, with 
Martin ; but the author's satire fell so impartially, that Voltaire is 
alleged to have recommended the book to his disciples as tending to 
discredit Bevelation. Swift at once became a power in literature ; 
and, in some respects, did not excel the Tale of a Tub by any 
subsequent effort. So, in fact, he believed himself, being reported 
to have exclaimed in later years — ' What a genius I had when I 
wrote that book ! ' * It exhibits ' — says Johnson — * a vehemence and 
rapidity of mind, a copiousness of images, and vivacity of diction, 
such as he afterwards never possessed or never exerted. It is of a 
mode so distinct and peculiar that it must be considered by itself; 
what is true of that is not true of anything else that he has written.'* 
Though its irreverence scandalised readers, it has been remarked that 
the author was nevertheless a staunch supporter of the Established 
Church, and that his successive works during the next six years, 
i.e. Letter on the Sacramental Test, 1708 ; Sentiments of a Church of 
England Man with respect to Religion and Government, 1708; Bea* 
sons against Abolishing Christianity, 1708 (a matchless {fpecimen of 

* Jchnson, lives o/ihe /V></j« 


irony), and Pryect for the Advancement of Religion, 1708, afford 
sufficient eyidence of this position. Yet, on the whole, it is scarcely 
surprising that the formidable author of the TaU of a Tub waited 
long and vainly for ecclesiastical advancement. 

From 1704 to 1710, Swift lived between England and Ireland. 
In the latter year, he came over to London ' at the desire and by the 
appointment of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland ' to obtain, if 
possible, the long-solicited remission of the rights of the Crown to 
the first-fraits and twentieth-parts payable by the Irish clergy. 
Having succeeded in his object, he shortly afterwards transferred 
his services to the Tories ; and, until 1714, continued on terms of the 
greatest intimacy with their leaders. His life, at this time, i s minutely 
detailed in the well-known epistolary journal, 1710-1 3, whidi he kept 
for the benefit of the unfortunate Stella, to whom we shall make some 
further reference. His daily habits, his power with the ministers, 
his pamphlets, his literary firiends, his imperious kindness and 
bullying benevolence, are all exhibited without reserve in this 
familiar chronicle. But, in sum, the only practical reward he 
received was, not the English bishopric upon which he had set his 
heart, but the Irish deanery of St. Patrick's; and, at the fall of the 
Tories in 1714, he once more returned to Ireland, which he detested. 
In Ireland Swift^ was destined, nevertheless, to acquire an im- 
mense reputation. About 1720, he began, in various ways, to 
champion Irish affiiirs against the Whigs {teste his JPropasalfor the 
Univereal Uee of Irish Manvfacturee and the Rejection of Everything 
wearable thai comes from ISnglandf published in that year) ; and, in 
1723-4, when a patent was granted to a certain William Wood for an 
Irish copp^ coinage, the Dean, by his celebrated Dn^net's Letters, 
raised so serious a storm of opposition to the poor man's ' brass 
halfpence' that^ good or bad, the patent for them was recalled. This 
exploit completed his popularity. Medals were struck in his honour ; 
the * Prapiei's ' head was elevated to ale-house signs ; and, as the 
vindicator of Irish nationality, he became the idol of the Irish 
people, a distinction which he retained to the day of his death. 

In 1726 and 1727 appeared, in two successive volumes, the won- 
derful book of imaginary voyages, with which Swift's name is most 
generally associated, viz., QuUivei's Travels, The first of the voyages, 
that to LUliput, deals with a race of pigmies, in the account of whose 
doings contemporary politics and politicians were severely satirised ; 
the next, the voyage to Brobdingnag, describes a country of giants 
in much the same relation to humanity as QuUiver himself was to 
the Lilliputians of his first adventure. Voyages to Laputa (a flying 


island), Balnibarhi, Luggnagg, and other pl&ces oocapy the tlii^ 
part, and the satire in this is chiefly levelled at scientific qnackeiy. 
In the Toyage to the country of the Honyhnhnms, hones senred by 
degraded specimens of humanity called Yahoos, the author gives a 
cruel and loathsome picture of mankind. ' With i^hat power, what 
genius in ludicrous invention, these stories are written, no one needs 
to bo reminded. Schoolboys, who read for the story only, and know 
nothing of the satire, read GuUiver with delight ; and our literary 
critics, even while watching the allegory and commenting on the 
philosophy, break down in laughter £rom the sheer grotcsqueness of 
some of the fancies, or are awed into pain and discomfort by the 
ghastly significance of others.'* 

During 1726 and 1727, Swift again visited England, spending 
much of his time in the company of Gay, Arbuthnot, Bolingbroke, 
and Pope. With the last of these his friendship was of the closest. 
His hopes of preferment revived with the attempts of the Tories to 
return to power. But he was doomed to die Dean of St. Patrick's ; 
and, in 1727» returned to Ireland for the last time. Between 
this date and 1736, his literary activity continued to expend itself 
in political pamphlets and lampoons. To this period belong his 
famous ironical Modest Proposal for preventing the chUdren of poor 
people in Ireland from becoming a burden to their Parents or Country^ 
1729; his Directions to BervaniSy 1745; and his Polite Conversation, 
1738. His health, however, had already begun to fail; and, not 
long after the last-named date, the mental disorder which he had 
for years foreboded came upon him, and the * great Irishman,' as he 
was affectionately called, ' from a state of outrageous frenzy, aggra- 
vated by severe bodily suffering, . . sank into the situation of a 
helpless changeling.' He was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin, where, according to the words of his epitaph on himself, 
sava indignatio vltcrhis cor laccrare nequU. 

In most accounts of Swift much space is devoted to the discussion 
of his intercourse with the Stella and Vanessa of those ' easy, am- 
bling verses,* of which, like Prior, he was so skilled a master.f 
Stella, the young lady in Ireland for whom he wrote his Journal, 
was a Hiss Esther Johnson, a resident in the household of Sir 
William Temple, after whose death she had moved into Swift's 
vicinity, first at Laracor, and then at Dublin ; Vanessa was a Miss 
Vanhomrigb, who had formed a violent attachment for the Dean 

• Maeson, BriOsh NovelUU and their Styles, 1869, 94. 

t y- ^*rfjj$*» P^im* to Stella, 1718-25 ; Cadenut (le. Ikcanus, Dean) an4 


daring his sojourn in London, and had followed him to Ireland. 
Finding it impossible to supplant hor rival in his affections, Vanessa 
died in 1723 of a broken heart; and the life of Stella, to whom he 
is alleged to have been privately married in 1716, was embittered 
by his refusal, on some obscure grounds, to acknowledge their 
relations. The story of the marriage, however, rests upon no very 
conclusive evidence, and we must set against it the fact that the 
lady, in her will, made shortly before her death in 1728, described 
herself as a ' spinster/ The matter is, in fact, a problem, the solu- 
tion of which is more or less bound up with the solution of the 
leading mystery in Swift's life* 

And what was that? His biographers have answered the question 
with much conjecture and little certainty. How are we to explain 
that 'demoniac' element (as Professor Masson styles it) in the 
character of this great and unhappy genius, which, in its milder 
form, no worse than intolerance of cant and 

* Scorn of fools, by fools mistook for prido,* 

degenerated at times into raving misanthropy and obscene brutality ? 
Let the reply be what it may, 'herein at least was a source of 
strength which made him terrible among his contemporaries. He 
came among them by day as one whose nights were passed in 
horror ; and hence in all that he said and did there was a vein ot 
ferocious irony.** The * foremost satirist of his age * he remains to 
posterity, in the words of Archbishop King, as reported by Dr. 
Belany, ' the most miserable man on earth, but on the subject of his 
wretchedness you must never tisk a question.' 

89. Berkeley, dflLrbutbnot. — The firstof these writers, Oeorgre 
Berkeley (1685-1753), Bishop of Cloyne, was a distinguished 
philosopher and contemporary of Swift. Among his works are an 
Essat/ towards a new Theory of Vision, 1709, and a Treatise con- 
cerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, 1710, with the attempt 
in the latter of which to prove that the commonly received notion of 
the existence of matter is false, the name of the author is now 
generally associated. The series of dialogues called Alciphron ; or, 
the Minute Philosopher, 1732, written to expose the weakness of infi- 
delity and scepticism, is another and well-known work of Berkeley. 
In Siris ; or, Philosophical Befiections and Inquiries concerning the 
virtues of Tar Water, and divers other subjects connected together and 
arising one from another, 1744 — ^the virtues of that then popular 

• Masson, Briiiih Novelists and their Stifles, 1859, 9S. v. also IIasson*s Etsays, 
IB^: Dean Swift, 


•pecifie are discussed at len^h. Dr. Jolm Arbuthnot (1667- 
1735), Fhysician in Ordinary to Queen Anne, and a celebrated lory 
wit, was also a contemporary and friend of Swift. He was the 
author of the History of John BuU, 1712, a satire upon Marlborough 
and the Wars of the Succession ; and took a considerable part in 
the proceedings of the 'Scriblerus Club,' formed by Barley. Con- 
greve, Pope^ Swift, Gay, Atterbury, and others, about 1714, to 
ridicule all the false tastes in literature under the character of a 
man of capacity that had dipped into every art and science, but 
injudiciously in each. 

90. SliafteabuiTv BoUngrbrokey lSaadi«vUle.— The grand- 
son of Dryden's 'Achitophel,' Anthony Ashley Cooper, Barl of 
Sbafteabury (1671-1713), is the author of a number of ethical 
works entitled coUectiTely CharacterisiicsofMen, Manners^ Opinions^ 
and TimeSf 1711-1723, and of an Inquiry concerning Virtue, 1699. 
Henry St. John, Viscount BoUnffbroke (1678-1751), a celebrated 
statesman and orator of Queen Anne's reign, for whose unsound 
philosophy Pope's Eseay on Man was made the mouthpiece, is to be 
remembered now by his Letters on the Study of History, his Idea 
of a Patriot King, 1749, and the defence of his political conduct in 
a Letter to Sir William Windham, 1716. Bemard die BCande- 
ville (1670-1733), another writer of this day, is the author of a 
* Satire upon Artificial Society, having, for its chief object, to ex- 
pose the hollowness of the so-called dignity of human nature,' and 
entitled the Fable of the Bees ; or. Private Vices Public Benefits, the 
first sketch of which appeared in 1705. 

91. Tbe Saaaylsta. — ^With both Be Foe and Swift, the periodical 
work by which Steele and Addison inaugurated a long succession 
of Essay-literature was, in a measure, connected. In the Mercure 
ScandaJe; or, Advice from the Scandalous Club, — the 'little Diver- 
sion' with which Be Foe sought to enliven the somewhat prosaic 
and over-practical pages of his Beview, may perhaps be traced the 
germ of the Ta^/er^ which made its first appearance on the 12th of 
April, 1 709. From the pseudonym under which Swift had issued cer- 
tain famous anti-astrologic Predictions for the year 1708, beginning 
with the announcement of the death of Partridge the almanac-maker, 
whose subsequent protestations respecting his vitality, gravely op- 
posed by Swift's merciless assertions of his non-existence, had kept 
the town in an uproar of merriment,— Steele borrowed that well- 
known name of * Isaac Bickerstaff,' which his tri-weekly papers 
made still more familiar. But, before proceeding to any account of 
this eldest collection of ' Essays,' it will be well to say something of 


the two principal writers. Ricbard Steele (1672-1729) was the 
son of an Irish attorney; Josepli Addison (1672-1719), the son 
of an English clergyman. They were of the same age, they were 
educated at the Charter-house together, and both went to Oxford. 
Addison was at first destined for the Church. By the favour of the 
Earl of Halifaz, he obtained a grant enabling him to travel on the 
Continent; and, in 1705, published a narrative of his Tour, bristling 
with illustrations from the Latin poets. At William's death 
this grant ceased ; but through a poem on the Battle of Blenheim 
(the Campaign^ 1704), he obtained a Commissionership of Appeal 
in the Excise, and became subsequently Under-Secretary of State, 
Chief Secretary for Ireland, and Secretary of State. In 1707 
he supplied the words to Clayton's opera of Sosamond, Steele in 
the meantime had enlisted as a cadet in the second regiment 
of Life Guards ; had become a captain in Lucas's foot ; written 
B pious book under the title of the Christian Hero, 1701 ; and 
produced the comedies of the Funeral ; or, Grief a la Mode, acted 
in 1701 ; the L^ng Lover, 1704; and the Tender Husband, 1705, — 
all of which plays, in point of morality and decency, are considerably 
in advance of Vanbrugh and Farquhar. In 1707> he was made 
'Gazetteer.' In 1709, he designed and published the first numbei 
of the Tatler ; or. Lucubrations of Isaac Bkkerstaff, Esq,, a penny 
paper, issued every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and having 
for its * general purpose/ in the words of the Preface to Vol. I., * to 
expose the false arts of life ; to pull off the disguises of cunning, 
vanity, and affectation ; and to recommend a general simplicity in 
our dress, our discourse, and our behaviour,' After eighty numbers 
had appeared, Addison joined him, and thenceforward the * lucubra- 
tions ' were produced in concert. Steele refers to this alliance with 
the frank generosity which is characteristic of him : — * I fared,' he 
says, ^iike a distressed prince, who calls in a powerful neighbour to 
his aid ; I was undone by my auxiliary ; when I had once called 
him in, I could not subsist without dependence on him:'* The 
Tatler reached 271 papers (the last of which is dated January 2, 
1711) ; and was succeeded by the Spectator, the first of whose utter- 
ances bears date the 1st of March following. An extract from the 
introductory paper will explain the title : — * I live in the World,* 
says the writer, * rather as a Spectator of Mankind, than as one of 
the Species; by which means I have made myself a Speculative 
Statesman, Soldier, Merchant, and Artizan, without ever meddling 
with any Practical Part in Life. I am very well versed in the 

• Preface to Tatler, Iv, 


Theory of an Husband, or a Father, and can discern the Errors In 
the GESoonomy, Easiness, and Diversion of others, better than 
those who are engaged in them; as Standers-bj disoorer Blots, 
which are apt to escape those who are in the Game. . . In 
short, I hare acted in all the parts of my Life as a Looker-on, which 
is the Character I intend to preserve in this Paper.' * In the second 
nnmber we are introduced to the admirable character of Sir Boger 
de Goyerley, and the remaining members of the immortal ' Clnb,' 
in which the phin of the papers is ' laid and concerted.' Such is 
the machinery of that delightful periodical, which was the daily ac- 
companiment of the eighteenth-century breakfast-tables; and it 
must certainly be allowed * to be both original, and eminently happy. 
Every valuable essay in the scries may be read with pleasure 
separately; yet the five or six hundred essays form a whole, and a 
whole which has the interest of a novel. It must be remembered, 
too, that at that time no novel, giving a lively and powerful picture 
of the common life and manners of England, had appeared. . . 
The narrative, therefore, which connects together the Spectator's 
Essays, gave to our ancestors their first taste of an exquisite and 
untried pleasure/f 

The Spectator appeared daily (Sundays excepted) until the 6th of 
December, 1712, at which date it had reached its 555th number. 
Then Steele (whom we must regard as the leader of these successive 
enterprises, Addison's assistance being pseudonymous), with a view 
to obtain a greater scope for the discussion of contemporary poli- 
tics, decided upon a new venture, and substituted the Cruardian, 
1713. The Guardian reached, 175 papers; Steele followed it up 
with the EnglUhman, 171 3-1 4, in which he opposed Swift's Examiner, 
To the Engliehmanf Addison did not contribute. But in 1714, 
without Steele's aid, he recommenced the Spectator, which, how- 
ever, only extended to an additional volume, generally known as 
the * eighth.' % Numerous periodical Essays succeeded the Guardian 
of Addison and Steele. Among these are included the JRanMer and 
Idler of Johnson (see p. 146, s. 94) ; the Adventurer of Hawkesworth, 
1752-4; the World of Edward Moore, 1753-6; the Connoisseur oi 
George Colman and Bonnel Thornton, 1754-6 ; the Mirr$r, 1779-80 ; 
the Lounger, 1785-7 ; the Babbler, and others. 

Of tlie lives of the two great essayists little more remains to be 
said. The production of his frigid tragedy of Cato, 1713, and his 

• spectator, No. 1, Tbnrsday, March 1, 1711 [by Addison], 
t Hacaulay's EsMiys, 1860, U. 846 : L{fe and Writings o/ Addison, 
t For BudgcU and Hughes, the only two r^nilar contribntors to the Sptelator 
alter Steele and Addison, the reader is referred to the Dictionary Appendix (E.)* 


unsuccessful comedy of the Drummer, 1716, the publication of the 
series of papers entitled the Freeholder, 1715-16, and his marriage, in 
1716, to the Countess Dowager of Warwick were the chief occurrences 
of Addison's remaining years. Steele survived his friend, and pro- 
duced, in 1722, another comedy — the Conscious Lovers, generally 
considered to be his best. Lord Macaulay has left an appreciative 
essay upon Addison ; Mr. Forster has written another upon Steele ; 
— and each is equally tenacious of the character of his author.*^ With 
a reference to these tributes, and the following citation from 
Professor Craik, we may pass to those great novelists, who were to 
evolve in artistic narratives the fortunes of characters as admirable 
as the Coverleys and Honeycombs who had diversified the Spectator, 
* Invented or introduced among us as the periodical essay may be 
said to have been by Steele and Addison, it is a species of writing 
in which perhaps they have never been surpassed, or on the whole, 
equalled by any one of their many followers.* . , Besides * the con- 
stant atmosphere of the pleasurable, arising simply from the light- 
ness, variety, and urbanity of these delightful papers, the delicate 
imagination and exquisite humour of Addison, and the vivacity, 
warm-heartedness, and altogether generous nature of Steele give a 
charm to the best of them, which is to be enjoyed, not described.' f 
92. Tbe Vovellsts.— In any list of the writers of fiction who 
belong to the present chapter, Swift and Be Foe must, of course, 
be included. But^ when speaking of the great novelists of this age, 
the names of Hichaidson, Fielding, Smollett, and Sterne, as com- 
posers of works more closely resembling modem novels than GuUi' 
ver^s Travels or Bchinson Crusoe, naturally come first to memory. 
Samuel SteliardAOii (1689-1761) was a well-to-do printer, 
who, by attention to business, had duly narried his master's 
daughter (like Hogarth's 'Industrious Apprentice'), become a 
master himself^ printer of the Journals of the House of Commons, 
and, lastly, Printer to the King. As a youth, a faculty for senti- 
mental letter- writing had procured him the post of confidential 
secretary to the girls of the neighbourhood ; and, in the exercise of 
this honorary vocation, he appears to have obtained a minute 
insight into feminine character. Yet he had no thought of turning 
his experience to account in the way of fiction, until, in his own 
words, ' he accidentally slid into the writing of PamtHa* He had 

• V. lCaoanlay*8 Essaf» ; and Forster*8 Biographical Euaift, Later works are : 
Richard Steele by the present writer, in the Engluh Worthiet series, 1886 ; and 
tlie I4fe <tf Steele, 1889, by G. A. Aitken, who has edited the six plays for the 
iifrmaid series, 1894. * Selections * from Steele will be found in the Clarendon 
rresi series (last ed. 1896). 

t Craik, English Lit. and Language, 1871, il. ?50. 


pnssed fifty, when his known epistolary skill indaced two booksell- 
ing friends to suggest to him the preparation of such a little manual 
«s would now answer to a Polite Letter^Writer, But it occurred to 
Bichardson that it would be well (in his own words again) to teach 
his leaders * how they should think and act in common cases, as 
well as indite,' and * hence sprung Pamela* published in 1740. A 
leisurely title amply sets forth its intention : — Pamela ; or, Virtue 
Bewarded, In a series of familiar letters from a beautiful young 
damsel to her parents. Published in order to cultivate the prinHj^les 
of virtue and religion in the minds of the youth of both sexes, A 
narrative which has its foundation in truth; and at the same time 
that it agreeably entertainSt by a variety of curious and affecting in- 
cidents, is entirely diveeted of aU those images whichj in too many 
pieces ealeulaied for amusement only, tend to inflame the minds they 
should instruct. That the worthy writer is explicit^ and even tedious, 
may be seen at the outset, and the text of the book is of a piece 
with its title. But, nevertheless, so novel a production, after * the 
huge folios of inanity over which our ancestors had yawned them- 
selves to sleep,' did not fail of fortune. Clubs, pulpits, and 
coffee-rooms combined in its praise, and at fashionable resorts, 
such as Vauxhall, fine ladies were wont to exhibit the popular 
treasure to each other. The generally conceded defect cf tho 
book is that the virtue of the heroine reads too much like calcu- 
lation. There could, however, be no doubt about the author's 
moral intentions, or the simplicity of the style, or the skilful 
conduct of the story. It prepared the public for the second and 
greater novel of Clarissa; or, the History of a Young Lady, 
(usually misnamed Clarissa Harlowe), 1748, the theme of which is 
Virtue not Bewarded, but hunted down and outraged. Upon, this 
book, says Scott, * his [Bichardson's] fame as a classic of EngLind 
will rest for ever.' ' No work,' he says again, ' had appeared be- 
fore • • containing so many direct appeals to the passions, 
stated, too, in a manner so irresistible.' And it was the opinion 
of Johnson, who admired Clarissa more than Bichaidson's other 
novels, that ' it was the first book in the world for the knowledge 
that it displays of the human heart.' In his third and last work. Sir 
Charles Grandison, 1754, intended for the picture of a model fine 
gentleman, Bichardson has failed to enlist the reader's sympathies 
for his unimpeachable hero, and the prolixity of the style {Clarissa 
was a seven-, and Grandison a six- volume novel*) becomes less en- 

* For the benefit of impatient moderns, ClarUta has been Ehom down to three* 
Toliune ^mensions by Hr. B. S. Dallas, 1868. As cno instance of the diff aseness 
ef tbo orignal, the heroine's Will oocapies thirteen closely printed pages 1 An 
abridged Qranditm was edited, in two volames, by Prof. (>. Saintebnry, 1895. 


durable. No. 07 of the Rambler, and a volaminous correspondeiice, 
selected in 1804 by Mrs. Barbaold from the original MSS., ooo- 
stitute the only other literary remains of this writer. 

To Bichardson we indirectly owe it that the pen of one greater 
than himself was enlisted in the perfecUng of the new form of 
fiction. Gibbon's prophecy that Fielding's Tom Jones — < that ex- 
qaisite picture of hnmonr and manners' — would outlive the Escorial, 
was cnrionsly illustrated some years since by a fire in the palace 
and the almost simnltaneous appearance of a firesh edition of the 
BOTeL Its author was a scion of the noble house of Denbigh. From 
the fostering care of a clergyman, whom he is afterwards said to 
have immortalised as the 'Parson Trulliber' of Joseph Andrews, 
BeiiS7 riAldiiiff (1707-54) passed early to Eton. Thence, as 
was then nsoal wi(!h those intended for the Bar, he proceeded to 
Leyden. But his father's means were not adequate to his support 
as a law student. In I727f he returned enddenly to London; 
and, in all the plenitude of health and high spirits, plunged down 
the Tortex of town dissipations. Being without resouices, his alter- 
natives of subsistence were, he has said, to be a hackney writer or a 
hackney coachman — and he chose the former. His first essays were 
dramatic, and he began with a play called Love in several Masptes, 
1728, followed, shortly afterwards, by the Temple Beau, Both of 
these were fairly received, and for the next ten years he continued 
to produce pieces for the theatre with great rapidity, nearly all his 
plays belonging to this period. In 1735 he married well, and, 
besides, acquired a small inheritance. Upon this ho retired into 
the country. But his genial, lavish habits soon obliged him to fall 
back upon London and literature for a livelihood ; and while he was 
thus struggling for existence as a journalist and essayist, Bichard* 
son's Pamela came out. To the robust palate of Fielding; the 
sentiments of the sober printer were necessarily somewhat insipid, 
and it presently occurred to him to compose (1742), in imitation 
of the manner of the author otDon Quixote,* a burlesque pendant to 
the story of the popular servant girl. He accordingly wrote his first 
novel, Joseph Andrews, supposed * brother to the illustrious Pamela, 
whose virtue,' says Chapter II., ' is at present so fiimous,' and he ma- 
liciously turned Mr. B , her master and ultimate husband, into 

* Squire Booby.' But, in the evolution of his plan, like many another, 
his primary purpose became secondary, and Joseph Andrews is read 

* V. the title-page '.—llidory of the Adventurts of Joseph Andrewt and hit 
fritnd Mr. Abraham Adam*^ tcritten in imitation of the manner of Ctrtante*. But 
Scott thUiks the mock-heroic style Is derived Crom the Roman Comique of Scarrou. 


for its own sake, and for its admirable Parson Adams, ' designed/ in 
his creator's words, 'a character of perfect simplicity ;' and, in this 
respect, decidedly successfuL Among Fielding's next works wero a 
Journey from this World to the next^ and the Life of Jonathan Wild 
the Greatf an ironical biography of the notorious thief-taker — both 
published in 1743. In 1748 he became acting magistrate at West- 
minster. This office wtLB procured for him by the Hon. (afterwards 
Lord Lyttelton) to whom he dedicated his next noTel — ^the History 
of Tom Jonts, a Foundling, 1749 — a perfect contrast by its exuberant 
animal spirits, and genial, if somewhat orer-indulgent, humanity to 
the comparatively straidaced moralities of Kichardson. It is now 
pretty well agreed on all sides that the chief character of the book ia 
rather a sorry hero ('sorry scoundrel' is Lady Montagu's term); 
but *as a picture of manners,' says Mr. Thackeray (recalling Gib- 
bon's words), * the novel of Tom Jones is indeed exquisite : as a 
work of construction quite a wonder. The by-play of wisdom ; the 
power of observation ; the multiplied felicitous turns and thoughts ; 
the varied characters of the great Comic Epic ; keep the reader in 
a perpetual admiration and curiosity.'* In his next fiction, Amelia, 
1751, Fielding is alleged — if we may believe his kinswoman above 
quoted — to have given a true picture of himself and the beautiful 
and amiable wife he had lost not long previously. Its enthusiastic 
reception may be inferred from the statement that a second edition 
was called for on the day of publication; and its chastened merit 
from the fact that even the surly Kichardsonian, Dr. Johnson (from 
whom we have the preceding statement), was constrained to read 
it through without stopping. And, although Tom Jones is tho 
author's masterpiece, Amelia may well be a favourite. What it 
loses in humour and pictorial vigour, it gains in pathos and morality ; 
and many will bo inclined, with the great Dictionary-maker, to rank 
the long-suffering wife of the not-very-reputable Captain Booth, as 
* the most pleasing heroine of all the romances.' f Some philan- 
thropic tracts, and the Covent Garden Journal, constitute the re- 
maining literary work of Fielding's life. In 1754, his health being 
whoUy broken up, he started for Lisbon, where he died in the October 
of that year. A journal of his voyage was published in 1755. 

If, for the sake of comparison, Fielding may be said to have fol- 
lowed the manner of Cervantes, his contemporary, Tobias Smol- 
letty 172 1-7 1> in the preface to Boderiok Bandom, confesses to the 

* English Ewmmrida of (he Eighteenth Century, 1858, Tm—Hogarth, SmolleU, 
mnd Fielding. 
t BoswelVaJohneon, by Croker, 1860, 1v. 508 (note). 


imitation of Le Sage. Smollett was of good Scotch extraction. 
After essaying the medical profession (he sailed as surgeon's mate 
on the 'Cumberland' in the Carthagena Expedition of 1740-1 — a 
circumstance to which we owe his excellent marine characters), he 
finally, about 17^6, embarked in literature with a couple of satires, 
Advice, 17^6, b.h6l Beproof, 1747. But satire in shilling pamphlets 
was not likely to make his fortune; and, in 1748, he published, 
anonymously, the Adventures of Hoderick Bandom, a novel to some 
extent autobiographical, the merit of which was so evident as to 
warrant its being at once attributed to Fielding. It contains two 
capital conceptions — ^the hero's devoted henchman, Strap, and the 
searlieutenant» Tom Bowling, a nautical portrait in a style which, 
although frequently attempted since, was then comparatively new to 
fiction. But the difference between the manner of Smollett and 
the method of the author of Tom Jones is easily discernible. In the 
case of the latter, the plot is conducted to its designed denouement 
by a gradual march of skilfully-involved incidents ; — ^in that of the 
former it consists of a succession of brilliant but loosely attached 
scenes, terminated arbitrarily, after a certain time, by the marriage 
of the leading personages. * His (Smollett's) notion of a story was 
rather that of the traveller than the historian ; his chief characters 
are kept on the move through a succession of places, each full of 
things to be seen and of odd physiognomies to be quizzed.* * These 
remarks apply equally to the Adventures of Peregrine Piclcle, a longer 
novel, which appeared in 1751. This, which, besides some riotously 
humorous scenes and incidents, contains the famous amphibious 
trio of the * Garrison ' — Commodore Trunnion, Lieutenant Hatch- 
way, and Pipes the boatswain, — swelled its sale rather discreditably 
by embodying in its pages the Memoirs of a Lady of Quality (the 
notorious Lady Vane), an item of scandalous interest with which 
its well-nigh inexhaustible fertility of circumstance might have 
dispensed. The chief of Smollett's succeeding works are the Ad* 
ventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom — a clever chevalier d'indusirie, 
1758; — a version of Don Quixote, 1755; the Critical Bevieto, 1756; 
History of England, 1758; Adventures of Sir Launcdot Greaves, 
1762; Travels in France and Italy, 1766; the Adventures of an 
Atom, 1769 ; and last but not least, the Expedition of Humphry 
Clinker, 1771, written while its author, worn out by the petty irri- 
tations of a militant literary life, which his own sarcastic but sensi- 
tive spirit rendered more unbearable, was dying near Leghorn. In 
this book, published shortly before his death, the characters, after 
« Quartrrly Bsxifw^ cUl. 96, Tobias Smollett [by the late James Honnay], 


the fiishion of the * B— r— d Family* in Anstey's New Bath Guid$, 
defiet theniflelTes in a series of letters ; and it is, bjmanj, preferred 
to Smollett's earlier efforts. * The novel of Humphry Clinker,* says 
Thackeray, * is, I do think, the most laughable story that has ever 
been written since the goodly art of norel-writing began. Winifred 
Jenkins and Tabitha Bramble must keep Englishmen on the grin 
for ages yet to come ; ai|d in their letters and the story of their lores 
there is a perpetual fount of sparkling laughter, as inexhaustible as 
Bladud's welL' * Let us add that, beside the Methodist maid and 
her spinster mistress, here referred to, thia book contains another 
inimitable character, also praised by Mr. Thackeray, in the person 
of the doughty and disputatious Scotch lieutenant, Lismahago. 

Smollett's well-filled gallery of eccentrics has formed a repertory 
of models for succeeding noyeliets. It is frequently asserted, for 
example, that the nautical occupants of the Garrison, in Peregrine 
Pickle, furnished the hint for the famous Uncle Toby and Corporal 
Trim of Kanrenoe Sterne (1713>68), a clergyman of Irish birth, 
and, like Fielding, a devoted disciple of Cervantes.t But, beyond 
this, the whimsical prebendary of York has little in common with his 
predecessors. ' His humour,' says Professor Masson, * is something 
unique in our literature . . There is scarcely anything more intel- 
lectually exquisite . . To very fastidious readers much of the 
humour of fielding or of Smollett might come at last to seem but 
buffoonery ; but Shakespeare himself^ as one fancies, would have 
read Sterne with admiration and pleasure.' t His life had no par- 
ticular eventftdness, and the list of his works is not large. A 
number of forgotten sermons, the unfinished Ltfe and Opinions of 
Dristram Shandy, Gent, 1759-67, and a Sentimental Journey 
through France and Italy, 1768, make up the sum of them. The 
two last are famous classics, unrivalled in style, originality, whim, 
and pathos. Sterne disregards his plot even more than the author 
of Roderick Random ; but he paints his characters with the greatest 
minuteness and the most subtle disposition of detail. His works 
are, however, marred by much thinly-veiled indelicacy. Yet» on 
this score. Fielding, Smollett, and even the good Bichardson him- 
self are far from unexceptionable modem reading, although we 

* EnfflUh numourisU qf the Eiffhteenlh Cmtmy, 1858, 266: Bogarfk, Smoiktt, 
tnd ^UUHm* 

t * Tnmmon^s <* garrison " is slaTisUy copied by Stemein his Castle of TTncto 
Toby,' lays Ghamben (Life tf Smollett, 1867). But it is aflinncd in MaemUUaCi 
MagaMtmt (Julr, 1878) that the real original of Captain Shandy was a Hertftud- 
ahire irorthy. Captain Hinde, who UTed in an old-faiLioced coontiy hoofle^ caUsd 
Preeton Cteatla, 


know, from Eichardson's correspondence, that, in its day, Tom Jonee 
had ladj admirers as well as Clarissa. Autrcs temps, autres mcnirs, 
Keyertholoss, Sterne has been censured more severely than the 
others because his questionable paragraphs are less honest than 
theirs, and because, while they were laymen, ho was a cleigyman and 
writer of sermons. Coleridge, who defends Tom Jones against those 
who commend Pamela and Clarissa as * strictly moral,* does not 
extend the same indulgence to TVistram Shandy. 

With the exception of Johnson and Goldsmith, of whom we de- 
sign to speak presently, the foregoing writers were the most illus- 
trious representatives of that prose fiction in which the eighteenth 
century finds its most characteristic expression. But, beside these, 
there were numerous minor writers whose merit has been, to some 
extent, overshadowed by that of their greater contemporaries, yet 
whose names at least deserve mention. Such are diaries Jolui* 
stone (d. 1800), the author, among other romances, of Chrysal; or, 
the Adventures of a Guinea, 1760-5, which owed much of its now- 
passed-away popularity to its delineations of contemporary characters 
and vices ; Sarab Vleldlnip (1710-68), sister of the great novelist, 
and authoress of David Simple, which appeared shortly after Joseph 
Andrews (see p. 139, s. 92) ; Henry BCackenxie (1745-1831), a 
watery kind of Sterne, author of the Man of Feeling, 1771, the 
Man of the World, 1773, and Jidia de SoubignS, 1777; Fanny 
Bnmey, afterwards Madame d*Arblay (1752-1840), whose novels 
of Evelina, 1778, and Cecilia^ 1782, belong to this period ; Henry 
Srooke (1706-83), author of ih^Foolof Quality; or, the History oj 
Henry, Earl of Moreland, 1766;* Horace IV'alpole (1717-97). 
autlior of the Castle of Otranto, 1764; his imitator Olara 
(1725-1803), author of the OldEnglish Baron, 1777; and 'VnUii 
Beckford (1760-1844), author of the History of the Caliph Vathek, 
1786, an Oriental romance of considerable power. 

93. OoldsmlUi. — The vanity, the goodness, the genius and the 
blunders of the immortal author of the Vicar of Wak^fiM have been 
rendered so familiar by the excellent biographies of Irving and 
Forster that there is scarcely need to recall them, and to this day 
no novel of the preceding writers, except HoUnson Crusoe, can be 
said in any way to approach his masterpiece in popularity with 
modem readers. How Oliver Goldsmitlft (1728-74) was a dull 
and ugly boy, * little better than a fool * in the eyes of unprophetic 
intimates, an idle and traant sizar of Trinity and a B.A. at the 

• BcpnbUslied In 1859, with a preface and life of the anther, by Canon 


bottom of the list; how he wrote ballads at five shillings a head, 
and stole, at night, into the streets of Dublin to hear them sung; 
how he is alleged to hare been refused ordination for appearing be- 
fore the bishop in flaming red small-clothes ; how he studied medi« 
cine in Edinburgh and Leyden, and human nature during a long 
Tagabondage in Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Italy ; how, at 
last, after being usher, druggist, physician, reader to Bichardson, 
and usher again, he drifted into literary hack-work as the hind of 
Griffiths the bookseller (and Mrs. Qriffiths), where our accx)unt of him 
must begin — have all been written and rewritten in endless memoirs. 
We may pass over his contributions to Monthly Rcview8y Critical 
BevUw8t Literary MagaMnes, and the like, to note his first book, An 
Enquiry into the Present State of Folite Learning ^ 1759, which, on the 
whole, was well received. In the same year he was chief contributor 
to the Bee^ the Biisy Body^ and the Ladtfs Magazine^ the first two 
of which soon collapsed. The papers in the Bee^ howcTor, obtained 
popularity and a reprint In 1760 he began, in the BMie Ledger 
(on the hint of Montesquieu's Lettrea Persanes)^ the series of * Chinese 
Letters ' afterwards collected as the still classic Citizen of the World, 
1762. Lives of Voltaire, 1761— of Beau Nash, 17C2, master of the 
ceremonies at Bath and little king of little people, next came from his 
pen, now pretty actively employed in miscellaneous work for New- 
bery, the children's bookseller of St. Paul's Churchyard, and the 
proprietor of the Ledger, By this time he had acquired the friend- 
ship of Johnson and Beynolds, and become a member (1764) of the 
famous ' Literary Club ' (see p. 148, s. 94). In the same year appeared 
the D^aveller ; or, a Prospect of Society : a Poem, By Oliver Gold- 
smith, M.B, — ^the abbreviation signifying that ' formal authority to 
slay ' which he had somehow picked up in his foreign rambles. 
He has used the mellowed memories of those rambles in this, his 
first verse production of any length. Coming upon the world as it 
did in a time of poetical dearth, dedicated to no great patron, 
utterly unofficial and unfeigned, this poem was warmly welcomed. 
Its popularity gave rise to the publication of another and more 
famous work. In 1766, the success of the Traveller turned the 
attention of the younger Newbeiy to a prose MS. by the same 
author, which Johnson had induced him to purchase for 60/. some 
years before; in fact, it had probably been written concurrently 
with the poem. This was the Vicar of Wakefield : a Tale ; supposed 
to be written by himself. Its success, not immediate, but gradual, 
was nevertheless certain, and before its author died the fifth edition 


had been reached. After an ineffectual attempt to practise as a 
physician — for, in spite of his successes as an author, he was 
still engaged in solving the problem of obtaining a livelihood, a 
task rendered more difieult by his constitutional improvidence — 
he made an experiment in a new direction — that of the Drama, and 
he brought to his work the freshness and untraditioned felicity which 
had distinguished the Traveller, The Good-natured Man^ produced 
by Colman at Covent Garden in 1768, prevailed over all opposition, 
had a fair run, and brought the author from 300Z. to 400^. But he 
was still unable to emancipate himself from hack-work, and there 
is a long list of compilations — Boman History^ 1769; Lives of 
Bolinghroke and Farnellt 1770; English History^ 1771 ; History of 
Greece^ 1774 ; History of the Earth and of Animated Nature^ 1774 ; 
— for his few and sad remaining years. They are brightened, how- 
ever, by two masterpieces — the exquisite poem of the Deserted ViHage^ 
1770, and the comedy of She Stoops to Conquer, 1773, *an incom- 
parable farce in five acts,' also brought t)ut by Colman, of which the 
success was unequivocal. In the following year he died. 

Goldsmith's biographers have familiarised us with his curiously 
complex character, 'He seems,' in Thackeray's words, *to have 
been compounded of two natures, one bright^ the other blundering.' 
He ' talked like poor Poll,' as Garrick said, but < he wrote like an 
angel.' Few writers have left a wreath so unsullied. Composed 
in the days of Fielding's * indulgent and sympathising warmth,' — of 
Ilicliardson's morbid morality, and Sterne's * innocent exposures,' his 
Vicar may still bo read by the most fastidious. * There are 
an hundred faults in this thing,' says he in his Advertisement, 
but we forget or forgive them in the charm of his pathos and his 
humour. * We read the Vicar of Wakefield^ says Scott, * in youth 
and in age. We return to it again and again, and bless the memory 
of an author who contrives so well to reconcile us to human nature.* 
As a practical commentary on this of the most distinguished kind, 
there is the statement of no other than Goethe that, in his eighty- 
first year, he had read it from beginning to end with renewed 
delight. The Traveller and the Deserted Village yet preserve an 
unfaded freshness, and She Stoops to Conquer still rectifies our 
modem theatrical standard, as, in its own day, it vanquished ' Senti- 
mental Comedy.* * Whether,* says the next celebrity of whom we 
have to give an account, ' we take him [Goldsmith] as a poet, as a 
comic writer, or as a historian ['historical compiler* would be a 
juster phrase], he stands in the first class. . . He deserved a 




place in Weetminster Abbey,* and every year he lived he would 
hare deserved it better/ 

94. ^olmsoB. — ^It has been said that Goldsmith has had the 
advantage of admirable biographers. Bnt the great man who 
loved him with a growling kind of aflfection, and who has so appre- 
ciatively defined his position in literature, had the same advantage, 
with the additional one, that his biographer was not an admirer 
bom in another century, bnt a devotee bom in his own. If Gold- 
smith's weaknesses have been brought out in the process of writing 
his life, his friend's superstition and scrofula, his greediness, his 
goodness, his conversations, contradictions and opinions have all 
been imperishably * printed' by the persistent Scotchman, who was 
for ever at his heels * taking notes.' In company with the future 
actor, Garrick, BMimel Jolmson (1709-84) had come to London 
to seek a fortune, nearly twenty years before Goldsmith landed 
at Dover from his continental vagabondage with a like purpose. 
He had been at Pembroke College, but left it without taking a 
degree ; he had acted as an usher at Bosworth, — had failed as a 
schoolmaster at EdiaL Literature was not a lucrative employment 
in 1737» and a London bookseller to whom he applied for work ad- 
vised him rather to turn porter — a calling for which his huge frame 
seemed specially to qualify him. His first regular engagement 
appears to have been with Edward Cave, the publisher, and pro* 
jector of the GentlemmCs Magazine^ for which he reported the 
speeches in Parliament under disguised names, and considerably 
* edited.* In May 1738, he published London, his vigorous 
imitation of the third satire of Juvenal, and * it is remarkable/ 
says his biographer, Boswell, 'that it came out on the same 
morning as Pope's satire, entitled i739 [the first part of the 
Satires']: so that England had at once its Juvenal and Horace 
as poetical monitors.' f His next important work was a life 
f)f ftTiA Af t -h ose needy men of letters, wit h whom misery had m ade 
himacquai nted, Mcttara Sa^ ge (1 698-1743), the authop'of 
tlie Bastard, a poem, in whicIP Ee alHWfB hl8 6wn condition lSfl. 
tKTalt^gd lllggltlmate Bon orJKarl Rivers and Lady Macdesfleld . 
' The little work,' says Macaulay, ' with all its faults, was a master- 
piece. Mo nner specimen ot iicerary biography existed in any 
language, living or dead ; and a discerning critic might have confi- 

* A monnment was erecled to him in Westminstor Abb(7, 1776. He Um ia 
uhc bnrying gronnd of the Tomple Church, 
t BoflWiell, Lif4 cif Johnson, chap. vi. 


dontly predicted that the author was destined to be the founder of 
a new school of English eloquence/ * 

Whatever might have been the opinion of the discerning critic, 
the dispflming booksellers appear to have become aware of Johnson's 
powers; and, in 1747i engaged him upon his Dictionary of ike 
English Language, for which he was to receive 1,500 guineas. Ac- 
cordingly in this year he issued his prospectus, dedicated to the 
Earl of Chesterfield. Seven years elapsed before he had accom- 
plished this huge monument of drudgery, relieved, in 1749, by a 
second imitation of Juvenal, — The Vanity of Human Wishes, In 
the same year hb tragedy of Irene, a play which he brought to 
London in MS., was produced at Bruiy Lane by his fellow- townsman, 
Garrick, now the foremost actor of his day. The piece, despite 
Garrick's friendly fostering, was ill suited for representation, and met 
with little success. Another work belonging to this period was the 
series of essays in the manner of the Spectator, entitled the Bamhler, 
Altlioughtliese papers lacked the happy graces of Addison and Steele, 
and although the style was cumbrous and verbose (' too wordy,' was 
his own verdict, in later years), they ultimately found numeroos 
admirers, and, in a collected form, were exceedingly popular. The 
last is dated 1752. In 1758, he commenced another and similar 
work, the Idler, which finished a two years' existence in 1760; and 
to defray the expenses of his mother's funeral, wrote, in 1759, 
the little book entitled Basselas, Frince of Abyssinia — an expanded 
' Rambler* generally regarded as one of his happiest efforts. 

In 1762, he obtained a pension of 300/. per annum. Henceforth 
he was freed from necessity ; and although he had yet more than 
twenty years to lire, we may rapidly pass over his remaining works, 
Those are a long incubated edition of Shakespeare, 1765, which added 
nothing to the fame of his abilities and learning ; a Journey to the 
Hebrides, 1776, the record of a tour undertaken with Boswell in 1773 ; 
and the Lives of the Poets, 1779-81, a work which, begun simply as 
a series of short introductory notices for the booksellers, grew into 
a gallery of critical portraits. Of these the best are said to be those 
of Cowley, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Gray, and Savage. The magis- 
terial attitude of the writer, his prejudice against some of his sub- 
jects, his downright injustice to others, have been suflBciently 
commented on. But that these defects have not been able to weaken 
the vigour and sagacity of many of his judgments may be gathered 
from the enthusiastic words of a great modem poet. * Johnson,* says 

« Uoca'alaj's Bid^rapkies for tho Jlheyclop, BriUtniHlUat SamwJ fohnion, 




Byron, * strips many a leaf from every laurel. Still Johnson's is th« 
finest critical work extant, and can never be read without instruction 
and delight.* * 

If we set aside the Dictionary, the value of which, always dimin- 
ished by the compiler's ignorance of the Teutonic languages, has 
now been considerably reduced by the labours of later and more 
enlightened etymologists, the literuy fame of Johnson would appear 
to rest upon two poems, two collections of essays, and a number ot 
brief critical biographies. One is, at first, puzzled, therefore, now- 
a-days, to account for his unquestioned literary eminence, and for 
the familiarity with his character and general appearance displayed 
by nearly every member of the reading public. This knowledge of, 
and respect for him are attributable to two causes,^-one being the 
fidelity and accuracy with which his habits and opinions have been 
portrayed by his biographer Jamas Boswell (1740-95); the 
other his supreme talent for that conversation, which has been so 
faithfully reported. As a writer, his style, though it found imita- 
tors and admirers, was ponderous, artificial, and — to use the quali- 
fication of Coleridge — *hyper-Latinistic' to a wearisome degree. 
But his talk had none or few of these blemishes, while it was as 
sedulously correct, with * little more than a fair proportion of words 
in oHty and ation. All was simplicity, ease, and vigour.' * The influ- 
ence exercised by his conversation, directly upon those with whom 
he lived, and indirectly on the whole literary world, was alto- 
gether without a parallel.' f 

He had, moreover, a singularly suitable arena for the display of 
his powers. In 1764, as we have already said (see p. 144, s. 93), was 
formed that fetmous ' Literary Club,' whose decisions were so potent. 
Of this he was the acknowledged head ; and here, among his ' tribu- 
tary wits,' he delivered his generally sound, if often dogmatic, 
decrees. Its most illustrious members have all been made vital to 
us in the ' Life ' of the indefS&tigable Boswell. ' There,' says Lord 
Macaulay, in a vignette-passage, which may appropriately close this 
account of the * Great Cham of literature' — as Smollett christened 
him — ' are assembled those heads which live for ever on the canvas 
of Beynolds. There are the spectacles of Burke and the tall thin 
form of Langton, the courtly sneer of Beauclerk and the beaming 
smile of Garrick, Gibbon tapping his snuff-box and Sir Joshua with 
tiis trumpet in his ear. In the foreground is that strange figure 

• Letter to Mwrrtv M BowMi Slrielures on Pope, in yiocft^n life of B^rotu 
1844, 699. 
t Maoanlay, BiogttphUi for tho Eneydop, Britannica : Samuel Johnson, 



which is as familiar to lis as the figures of those among whom' we 
have been brought up, the gigantic body, the huge massy face, seamed 
with the scars of disease, the brown coat, the black worsted stock- 
ings, the grey wig with the scorched foretop, the dirty hands, the 
nails bitten and pared to the quick. We see the eyes and mouth 
moying with oonvulsiye twitches; we see the heavy form rolling; 
we hear it puffing ; and then comes the "Why, sir ! " and the 
<<What then, sirl" and the "No, sir! "and the "You don't see 
your way through the question, sir I " * * 

95. Burke. — ^Among the above-mentioned luminaries of the ' Li- 
terary Club' was one who has been described as the * supreme writer 
of his century,' and whose powers of conversation were fully equal 
to those of Johnson himself, although, like Gibbon, he was usually 
contented to play second to the great table-talker. This was 
Bdmnnd nutKe (1729-^7). The bulk of the writings of this 
fervid and illustrious rhetorician belong, however, rather to the suc- 
ceeding than to the present chapter — ^his Reflections on the French 
Hewlution being published in 1790, his Appeal from the Old to the 
New Whige in 1791, his Letter to a Noble Lord (the Duke of Bedford* 
who had attacked him for taking a pension), in 1795, and his Letters 
onaJSefficide Peace, in 1796. But the Annual Register which he sug- 
gested to Dodsley in 1758 ; the clever imitation or parody of 
Bolingbroke, entitled a Vindication of Natural Society, 1756; and 
the still feunoQs Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful, 1757i belong to 
the days of Johnson and Goldsmith, with whom he was connected 
by friendship. ' Here lies,' wrote the latter in that genial little 
fragment of a satire, which has been called by Lord Lytton * the most 
consummate, though the briefest^ of all his works of character,' f — 

* Here lies our good Edmund, whose genins was snch. 
We Bcaroely can praise it or blame it too much ; 
Who, b<nm for the universe, narrowed his mind, 
And to party gave up what was meant for mankind ; . • 
Who, too deep for his hearers, still went on refining. 
And thought of oonyincing, while they thought of dining ; 
Thoof^ equal to all things, for all things unfit ; 
Too nice for a statesman, too prond for a wit. 
For a patriot too cool, for a drudge disobedient. 
And too fond of the right to pursue the expedient,* 

iRetaliatian, a Poem, 1774.) 

Burke's public life cannot be treated here, but it is to be read in 
the histoiy of England, To that the reader must turn for his atti* 

* ICacaulay, Euaps, 1860, 1. 1C5. Croket^t ediiion ef BonoeWt U/e of Johmm, 
t MiK, Prose Worke, 1868, i. 64 : Qoldsmm. 


tade during the long straggle with the American Colonies, hii 
impeachment of Warren Hastings, and the kindling eloquence with 
which from first to last he denounced the French Beyolution. His 
encydopsedic knowledge and his rhetorical supremacy are also 
historical. * Burke understands everything/ said 'Single-speech* 
Hamilton, to whom he was at one time private secretary, *but 
gaming and music' * He is the only man,' said Johnson, * whose 
common conversation corresponds with the fame he has in tbe 
world.' * The name of Burke,' said another contemporary (Lord 
Thurlow), * will be remembered with admiration when those of Pitt 
and Fox will be comparatively forgotten.* 

96. Tbe Historians. — In an age of which prose composition is 
held to be the foremost form of literature, it might be anticipated 
that historians would be active. Accordingly we find that Hume's 
HUtoty of Enfflandf 1754^61 ; ^ohertaon's Charles K., 1769; and 
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Soman Empire^ 1776-88, all belong 
to this time. Bavid Bame (1711-76) comes first of these, his 
Treatise on Human Nature appearing in 1738. His other works are 
Essays Moral and Politicalf 1741-42; Enquiry concerning Human 
Understanding t 1748 ; Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, 
1751 ; and the posthumous Dialogues on Natural Bdigion, 1779. In 
addition to the histoiy mentioned above, 'Wllliaxii Robertson 
(1721-93) wrote a History of Scotland, 1769; & History of Ame- 
rica, 1777; and a Disquisition on Ancient India, 1791; and 
Edward Gibbon (1737-94), besides his magnum opus, is the 
author of a short Essai sur Vtltude de la Litterature, published 
in 1761. The style of Hume, both in his philosophic essays and 
history, is brilliant and perspicuous, and by incorporating chapters 
on the people with his work, he added a new feature to historical 
writing. Kobertson's style lacks what Gibbon has called the * care- 
less inimitable graces of his predecessor, and his writing, though 
correct, is colourless and unidiomatic. The style of Gibbon himself, 
on the other hand, is proverbial for its ornate splendour and sump- 
tuous, albeit somewhat overpowering. Orientalism. 

97. IVilkes, ' Jnnias.* — Political writing during this period 
was made notorious by two authors, Jobn IXTilkes (1727-97) 
and the celebrated • Jonins ; ' — the former of whom, however, is 
scarcely to be named with the Utter. Wilkes attacked the Govern- 
ment in the North Briton, a weekly newspaper which came out from 
June 1762, to April 1763, when the appearance of its famous * No. 45 ' 
caused the authorities to take decisive steps for its suppression. 
Wilkes was arrested ; but, being member for Buckinghamshire, his 


airest vas pronounced illegal. He was expelled from Parliament, 
re-elected, and his re-election reversed. For a time he became a 
popular idol, but ultimately sank into insignificance. As the result 
of a quarrel with Hogarth, not very creditable to either party, his 
by no means prepossessing features have been perpetuated in a print, 
well known to all collectors of that artist's works. Five years after 
the cessation of the North Briton^ there appeared in the Public 
4dverti8er, from Januaiy 21, 1769, to January 21, 1772, a series of 
letters criticising and attacking the Duke of Grafton and other 
loaders of public affairs, in a style which, for its merciless inyectiv* 
and biting sarcasm, has long been regarded as a model for party 
writing. The authorship of these letters, much debated, is still sub 
judice, A variety of claimants have been set up during the inter- 
rening century, but of none can it be unanswerably affirmed that he 
composed them. The bulk of the eyidence tends to indicate Sir 
»liiUp Vraneta (1740-1818), Clerk in the War Office, 1762-72, 
and member of the Supreme Council of Bengal in 1778, as the 
probable author. A recent scientific comparison of the Junian MSS. 
with some of the letters of Francis still extant, goes far to show that 
th^ were the work of one person. But it nevertheless remains 
open to the opponents of the so-called ' Franciscan ' theory to con- 
tend that. Francis was only the scribe and not the author of these 
mysterious epistles.* 

98. Adam 8inltli« Blaolcstone. — Two writers of this period 
deserre a longer notice than our space will admit. One is Adam 
Bmltla (1723-9 J), successively Professor of Logic and Moral Philo- 
sophy in the University of Glasgow and ' founder of the science of 
political economy ;' the other Sir UTUliam Blackstone (1 723-80), 
the elucidator of 

* That codelpss myriad of precedent, 
That wUdemesB of iingle izutances,— >' 

English law. His Commentaries on the Laws of England were pub- 
lished in 1765-68; Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1769, 
and his Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 
in 1776. Both authors wrote other books ; but those cited are their 
masterpieces, and, progress in law and political economy notwith- 
standing, neither of these great works can safely be neglected by 
modern students. For the principal works of Eeid, Priestley, 
Tucker, and some otlier philosophic writers of this era, the readei 
is referred to our Dictionary Appendix (E). 

* The Handwriting of Janiui Prof ettiondllif Investigated, Bp Mr. Ch, Chdbot, 
Expert, With Prtface and Collateral Evidence, By the Hon. E. Tuitleton, 187L 
lir. W. F. Bae*8 five artioles in the Athenaum, 1888-90, should be consulted. 


99. Tbe Tbeoloffians-— From the many theologians of this 
epoch three names must be selected, yiz., those of Atterbory, Butler 
and Warburton. The first, rrancto Atterbory (1662-1732), 
Bishop of Bochester, was a brilliant and active controversialist (in- 
deed he, too, was engaged on Boyle*s side in that famous battle 
about the Letters of Fhalaris — see p. 99, s. 69), and a kind and 
amiable man. The second Josepli Bntler (1692-1752), Bishop of 
Bristol and Dean of St. Paul's, was author of the Analogy of 
Biiiffion, Natural and Bevealed, to the Constitution and Course of 
Nature^ 1736, a work which Lord Brougham has styled ' the most 
argumentative and philosophical defence of Christianity ever sub- 
mitted to the world,* and of which the excellent matter has overcome 
the abstrusoness of the manner. IXTiUlam IXTarliarton, the last 
(1698-1779), was Bishop of Gloucester, and author of the Divine 
Legation of Moses, 1738. But a more signal work (in the opinion 
of many) is his adroit apology for the Essag on Mun {see p. 120, s, 
79), against the charges of Deism advanced by M. Crousaz in his 
Examen de VEssai de M. Pope, 1737. For the Hoadleys and Lowths, 
Watts and Doddridges, Wesleys, Whitefields, and other theologians 
of this chapter, the reader is referred to our Dictionary Appendix. 

100. Tbe Bramatlo IXTrlters. — The list of dramatic writers 
of eminence during this period is not a long one. Authors there 
were in abundance, but masterpieces are few. Yanbragh and 
Farquhar belong to the early part of the century by several works 
already enumerated (s^e p. Ill, s. 77). The comedies of Goldsmith, 
still popular as ever, have also been mentioned (see p. 145, s. 93). 
Besides the unacted tragedy of the Regicide, 1 749, Smollett wrote 
a play called the Reprisal, or the Tars of Old England, 1757, — of 
average excellence ; and, of the many works of Fielding, but few 
deserve remembrance. Walpole, too, comes among the playwrights 
by the Mysterious Mother ; which, however, was never acted. The 
chief tragic writers were— xricliolas Rowe (1673-1718), author of 
Jane Shore, 1714, the Fair Penitent, 1703, and other plays; and 
Jolm Home (1724-1808), author of Douglas, 1757> Home wrote 
five other tragedies of indifferent merit. Colley Cllibor (1671- 
1757), Bavld Garrick (1716-79), Cbarles XMCacklln (1690- 
1797), -Aftbur Mnrpby (1730-1805), mcbard Cumberland 
(1732-1811), and George Cohnan, the Elder (1733-94), also pro- 
duced anumber of comedies and farces. But the plays of Samuel 
Foote (1720-77) and Rlcbard Brinsley Bberldan (1751-1816) 
deserve more than a passing mention. The comedies of the Minora 


1760 ; the Lyar^ 1761 ; and the Mayor of Garrett , 1763, are thb 
best of the twenty^four pieces of the fonner.* Sheridan's 
principal plajs, all written before the date fixed for the conclusion 
of this chapter, were produced in the following order: the Rivals^ 
St. Patrick's Day^ and the Duenna^ 1755 ; A Trip to Scarborough 
(altered from Vanbrngh's Relapse)^ and the School for Scandal, 
1777 ; and the Critic, 1779. The remainder of the writer's life 
belongs to political history. That he has laid previous authors— 
Pielding and Smollett for instance — under contribution for some of 
his characters has not been held to detract from the merit of his 
dramatic productions, of which the only fault is uniformity of 
brillianey. ' There are no delicate touches, no hues imperceptibly 
fading into each other : the whole is lighted up with an universal 
glare. , , Every fop, every boor, every valet, is a man of wit* 
The very butts and dupes, Tattle, Witwould, Puff, Acres, outshine 
the whole Hotel of Eambouillet.' f 

* For a valuable esaay on Poote, v. Forgter*s Biographical Essays, 18C0. 
t Uacaulay's Essays, 1860, i. 40 : Maehiavelli. 





104. DABWXN.— 105. THB DELLA-CRUSCAKS.— 100. BUIINS.— 107. XU>GESa, 

BOWLBs. — 106. iroBDSWonrn. — 109. soumET. — 1 10. colebidob. — 111. 

LAMB.— 113. CAUPBELU — 118. nOOO, BLOOM FIELD. ~ 114. MOOBB.— 115. 

101. Snnmiary of tbe Period. — ^Within a short space of time 
from the date at which the foregoing chapter concluded, tlie 
destruction of the Bastille announced the uphcayal of that great 
democratic volcano, whereof the premonitory rumblings and hoarse 
underground agitations had long been threatening on the Con- 
tinent. That a social disturbance so widespread in its extent, how- 
ever apparently confined and local in its issue, should be without 
its effect upon the minds and opinions of surrounding nations, is not 
to be expected ; and it is accordingly to the increased mental activity 
brought about by the first "^r^^ PAimi^fri^p, ^n/^ the simultaneous 
appearance in G- ennany ot the tlftii|gc*^^dp"*^^^ phil^t^phy. that we 
must look for two powerful infiuences over forthcoming English 

Yet to attribute the magnificent second-growth of English Poets 
belonging to the end of the eighteenth century and the first thirty 
years of the nineteenth, entirely to these two causes, as some have 
done, would be probably to unduly ignore other influences, not less 
potent, if more obscure. Thus much may be conceded — ^that the 
marked manifestation of poetical genius in the one case was deeply 
\/^^ affected by the surging aspirations and enthusiasms set free by the 
great social outbreak in the other ; and to this extent, if only to this 



extent, there is a connestion between them. Nevertheless, it must be 
remembered that new impulses had long been discernible in English 
poetiy, against which the prestige of the old leaders had been 
powerless. Pope, and Johnson after him, had not been able whoUj 
to detain the new thoughts in the orthodox channels, even whe? 
opposed by dissenters not more formidable than Thomson and 
Percy ; and Pope and Johnson were now dead. If, among tlie 
later school of the next age, there were those who, like Byion, clung 
to their precepts, they deriawed from them in their practice, like the 
rest of their contemporaries. The departure from the old traditions 
traceable in Gray and Collins, in Goldsmith and Beattie, was con- 
tinued during the last years of the eighteenth century by Cowper and 
Burns. Following the recluse of Olney and the Ayrshire ploughman, 
come with the new century, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey, — 
Scott and Campbell, — Moore, Byron, Shelley, Keats, to say nothing 
of a crowd of minor poets, — who * carried to further perfection the 
later tendencies of the century preceding, in simplicity of narrative, \ 
rever ence for human Passion and C haracter in every sphere, and I 
impassioned love of Nature.' The quotation may be still further ex- ' 
tended, so apt is its conciseness : ' Whilst maintaining, on the whole, 
the advances in art made since the Restoration, they renewed the 
half-forgotten melody and depth of tone which marked the best 
Elizabethan writers,' and, * lastly, to what was thus inherited they 
added a richn ess in language anda vari£t^iii-lBfitre,.jkfQrcfi and fira 
in narrative, a tenderness and bloom in feeling, an insight into the 
finer passages of the Soul, and the inner meanings of the landscape, 
a larger and wiser Humanity,— hitherto hardly attained, and per- 
haps unattainable even by predecessors of not inferior individual 
genius.' * 

In prose, too, a distinct revival is to be traced from the beginning 
of this period, although it was not until 1814 that the supreme tale- 
teller of the nineteenth century — the 'Wizard of the North* — 
turned from his poetical successes to earn new laurels in romance. 
But before Scott came Mrs. Kadcliffe's supernatural fictions and 
Godwin's social studies. Miss Edgeworth's and Miss Austen's novels 
of manners, — and with him and after him the throng of Gaits and 
Hooks, of Manyats and Jameses, of Carletons and Wilsons. This 
is the ago, besides, of Hallam and the eldtr Mill in History,— of 
Chalmers and Hall in Theology, — of Cobbett, of Bentham,— of 
Jeffrey, Brougham, Sydney Smith, and the cluster of writers whose 

• The Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics, Ed. by F. T. PalgraTC, 1861, 320 ; 9, 
sbo Dcscriplive Poetry in England from Anne to Victoria, Fort, Rev., June, 1866. 


brilliant aliilities found their utterance in the newly-established 
critical organs, — ^the Edinburgh and the Quarterly Beyievs. 

102. Tl&e Poets i Cowper. — ^Fifteen years only of the long life of 
vnillam Oowper (1731-1800) belong to this period (1785-1835). 
But his first important volume of poems (if, for the moment, ire set 
aside the earlier Olney Hymns) did not appear, and then but incon- 
spicuously, until 1782, two years before Johnson's death, and it is 
to the last decade and a half of the eighteenth centuiy that his 
literary influence and his masterpiece especially belong. For this 
reason, and also from the fact that he saliently marks the progress 
of the school which found its completest expression in the Terse of 
Wordsworth, we place him in the forefront of the present chapter. 
Cowper was born at Great Berkhamstead, in Hertfordshire, of 
good family. His mother, npon whose portrait he wrote, in later 
years, some of his most beautiful lines, died when he was six years 
of age. A timid and sickly boy, he was sent early to a provincial 
school, and afterwards to Westminster. The tyrannical treatment 
to which he was subjected at the first of these places served further 
to aggravate his morbid sensibility. At Westminster he had for 
schoolfellows Churchill {see p. 124, s. 83), Lloyd, Cumberland (see 
p. 152, s. 100), and Cobnan (see p. 152, s. 100). The usher of his 
form was the gifted Vincent Bourne. In 1748 he left Westminster, 
entered the Middle Temple, and, in 1752, went into residence. He 
had already begun to be afiBicted by appalling fits of depression, 
and already, as may be gathered from his Epistle to Robert Uoyd, 
Esq., had turned to verse for relief from the 

'— fierce iNiiiditti 
(9wom foos to eyery-thlng that's witty), ' 

That, with a black infernal train. 
Make cmel inroads in mj brain.' 

In 1756 his father died. The poet's means were small ; and when, 
in 1763, it became in the power of a relative to ofier him the appoint- 
ment of Clerk of the Journals of the House of Lords, an easy com- 
petence appeared within his reach. But, at this time, his diseased 
fancies had increased to so great an extent, that, under nervous 
anticipation of the preliminary examination, he became insane, and 
was placed under control at St. Albans. Upon his recovery he went 
to live at Huntingdon. Here, after some time, he made the ac- 
quaintance of the Bev. Morley Unwin, into whose house he was 
received in 1765. At Mr. Unwinds death, in 1767, Cowper still 
continued to reside with the widow at Olney (to which place she 


then removed) and afterwards at Weston, and this long companion- 
ship, which, at one period, bade fair to ripen into a closer tie, was 
only broken by her death in 1796, fonr years before the poet's own. 
In 1773 the terrible visitation of insanity, which, in his case, took 
the form of religious despondency, again overtook him. From 
this he can never be said to have wholly recovered, although at 
certain periods his malady assumed less painful features. * In 
God's mysterious providence,' says a recent writer, who has some 
claim to speak authoritatively, * for twenty-seven long years, with 
scarcely one cheering beam of hope, he regarded himself as doomed 
by an inscrutable decree of heaven to lasting perdition.'* No man, 
however, found kinder comforters, or more devoted friendship 
The Unwins, mother and son, his cousin Lady Hesketh, Lady 
Austen, the Eev. "William Bull of Newport Fagnell, and the cele- 
brated John Newton of Olney, vied with each other in endeavouring 
to alleviate his mental distresses. 

Apart from his one delusion his understanding remained un- 
clouded. His garden and his numerous pets — notably the three 
hares, of which he has left an account in the Gentleman*9 Magazine 
for June, 1784, — served partially to divert his thoughts. But it was 
in correspondence (his letters are some of the best in the language), 
and in literary occupation generally that he found the most complete 
relief. As early as 1771 Newton had engaged him in the composi- 
tion of the well-known Olney HymnSy not published, however, until 
1 779. In 1 780 Mrs. Unwin invited him to write a moral satire upon 
a given theme, and he accordingly produced, in rapid succession, the 
poems entitled the Progress of Error, THUh, Table-Talk, and Ex- 
posttblation. At the desire of the publisher, Hope, Charity, Con- 
versation and Betirement were afterwards composed and added to 
increase the volume, which appeared in 1782. If we except the 
approbation of Franklin, no great success attended it, — indeed the 
didactic titles were not calculated to attract the ordinary reader 
In the following year, he began, at Lady Austen's suggestion, a poem 
upon the subject of The Sofa, Fit surctdtia arbor, says his motto 
This, growing under his pen, gradually branched into the series 
of six books entitled generally T%e Task, which, with an S^tle to 
Joseph Hill, the poem entitled Tirocinium, or a Bemew of Schools, 
and The Diverting History of John Gilpin (a ballad which had 
appeared some time before in the Public Advertiser), was published 

* Bev. JosUh Bull, M.A. (grandson of the poet*s friend, the Rev. William 
Boll of NeMqx)rt Pagnell), in the Sunday at Home for Juno 1866, where will be 
Couud four articles on the £arly years of the l*oct 'Cotcper at Olney, 


in 178t5. The socond e£fort met with a better reception than its 
forerunner; and, public curiosity once awakened, caused readers 
to revert to the earlier volume. Gowper^s onlj other important 
work was a blank-verse translation of the Iliad and Odysseyy 1791. 
It has the reputation of greater fidelity to the original than that 
of Pope ; but is heavy and laboured in style. He also translated 
the Latin and Italian poems of Milton, his master and model, some 
of the Latin poems of Viiic«nt Bourne (169d'1747)» and a 
selection of the poems of the French mystic, and friend of F^nelon, 
Madame de la Motte Guyon (1648-1717). But no original pro- 
duction of any length followed his second volume. His friends 
attempted to allure him by such themes as the Four Ages of Man's 
Life, and that 'mid-sea that moans with memories* — I%e Mediterr 
ranean, but without success. One poem, Yardley Oah, a subject 
which seemed to offer the requisite attraction to his muse, waj9 
indeed commenced, but it remains a fragment. 

To Cowper's admiration for Milton we owe the masterly measure 
of The Tasky and also the chief defect of his Horner^ which is 
rendered Miltonice. How thoroughly the style of Paradise Lost 
had saturated his own may be gathered from the following de- 
scription of the Eussian Ice Palace : 

* Silently as a dream the fabric rose ; 
No sound of hammpr or of saw was there. 
Ice upon ice, the well-adjnsted parts 
Were soon conjoined, nor other cement asked 
Than water interfused to make them one. 
Lami>s gracefnlly disposed, and of all hues, 
Illnmined every side ; a watery light 
Gleamed through the clear transparency, that seemed 
Another moon new risen, or meteor fallen 
From heaven to earth, of lambent flame sercno. 
So stood the brittle prodigy ; though smooth 
And slippery the materials, yet frostbound 
Finn as a rock. Nor wanted aught within, 
That royal residence might well befit, 
For grandeur or for use. Long wavy wreaths 
Of flowers, that feared no enemy but warmth, 
Bloshed on the panels. Mirror needed none 
'Where all was vitreous ; but in order due 
C!onvivial table and commodious scat 
(What seemed at least commodious scat) were there. 
Sofa and couch and bigh-bnilt throne august.* 

The Task, from which the foregoing extract is taken, is neverthe- 
less Cowper*s greatest wotk, and its appearance marks an epoch in 
modern English lit'i^rature. It caime at a tj me when the public taste 


was ripe for a reaction from the old modc^ls, and it suited and 
directed the public taste. Its disregard of conyentional poetic 
diction, and its consequent gain of a vocabulary of wider range and 
copiousness, its loving descriptions of natare and domesticity, its 
genuine emotions and noble indignations, were wholly new to the 
somewhat unpoetic age which still continued (in the main) to con- 
struct its metrical productions upon the traditions of Pope's manner, 
but without his skill and talent. * The best didactic poems,* when 
compared with J%e Task, are like formal gardens in comparison with 
woodland scenery.** 

103. Crabbe. — ^The Olney Hymm were published, as we have 
said, in 1779, — when Newton was transferred from Olney to London. 
But, if the Progress of Error, etc., be regarded as Cowpei^s first im« 
portant contribution to our poetical literature, then by his Candidate, 
1780, and Xt^rafy, 1781, Oeorre Crabbe (1754-1832) precedes 
him in point of time. Crabbe was the son of a salt-collector at 
Aldborough, in Suffblk. He commenced life as a medical practi- 
tioner; but ultimately came to London, in 1780 (he was an eye- 
witness of the fetmous * Gordon Biots' of that year), with a view 
to obtain a livelihood by literature. His first poem, named above, 
was unremunerative from the failure of the publisher; and after 
various fruitless attempts to procure employment, he was only 
rescued from destitution by a well-timed and manly appeal to 
Edmund Burke {see p. 140, s. 05). Burke helped him, and farthered 
the production of T%e Library, and a third poem, I'he Village^ 
1783. By the aid of Burke and Lord Chancellor Thurlow, the 
salt-coIlector^s son entered the church, and passed successively 
from the curacy of Stathern to other livings, until he finally settled 
at Trowbridge, where, after a nineteen years* residence, he died. In 
1785 he published The Newspaper) and then — ^with a long interval 
^The Parish Begister, 1807 ; The Borough, 1810 ; Tales (in verse) 
1812 ; and Tales of the Sail, 1819. Crabbe*s poetry is chiefly nar- 
rative and descriptive, generally in the heroic measure of Pope» 
indeed he has been styled by one of his clever parodists of the 
Bejected Addresses — *Pope in worsted stockings.* Nature and 
human nature, drawn vigorously and minutely — not omitting the 
warts and wrinkles — constitute his models. In pictures of rural 
life, unsentimentalised and with .the gilt off, — in sombre interiors, 
mental and natnxal, — Crabbe excels. The uncompromising veracity 
of the painter, and his preference for strongly-shadowed subjects, 
. lend a depressing effect to many of his delineations. But ho desorres 


to the full the praise of Byron (who ranked him next to Ck>leridge)a8 
' — Natnie'8 Bternest paintor, yet the best,' 

a line from the English Bards and Scotch Beoiewers which the poet's 
descendants have worked into his epitaph. 

104. BarwlB. — The Botanic Garden of Brasmns Barwln 
(1 731-1 802) has for its theme the Linnsean system of Botany. The 
second part, the Loves of the Plants^ appeared first, in 1789, and the 
first part, the Economy of Vegetationi ioMow^ in 1702. Darwin 
also \Fvote Zoonomia ; or, the Laws of Organic JJfe, 1794-6 ; and the 
Tem'pU of Nature ; or the Origin of Society , published posthumously 
in 1803. The metaphysical pomp and fiorid tinsel of the doctor's 
style, which nevertheless found favour in their day, would now 
scarcely command a reader/ although many striking passages are 
scattered through his ornate and elaborate couplets. Coleridge has 
forcibly compared his work to that ' Eussian palace of ice, glitter- 
ing, cold, and transitory,* * Cowper's description of which we have 
already quoted. The Loves of the Plants has been admirably paro- 
died in the Loves of the Triangles ; and it is the Lichfield doctor's 
misfortune that the witty squib of Canning and Frere is perhaps 
better known than its once popular model. 

105. Tbe Bella* Cmseans. — After Darwin, a paragraph may 
fitly be opened for the little knot of writers, who now — to speak 
paradoxically — survive chiefly by their demolition, at the hands of 
Gifford, in the Baviad, 1794, and the Maviad, 1795. Some ten 
years previous to the last-named date, certain scribbling English 
residents in Florence had formed themselves into a Mutual Admira- 
tion Society ; and, growing elated with each other's praises, first 
published a miscellany in Italy, and afterwards began to export 
their productions for home consumption. In the columns of the 
World and the Oracle, their sonnets, odes, and elegies were 
heralded by the editors with magniloquent prefaces, and their 
affected obscurities speedily found admirers and imitators. The 
leading writer in the Florentine MisceUany was one Robert Merry 
(1755-1 798), who was a member of an Italian Academy Hdla^ 
i^^i the Sieve) for the purification of language and style. Adopting 
this as his pseud ^y™- i^ speedily becam e the generic ter m for the 
^ AJhy fi ui J V "Sentimentality, whic^, for a wniie. Jtt thrXanfiT ftf 
* Laura Marias * and * Anna Matildas,' — of ' Orlandos ' and * Edwins,* 
gi^et^ td bti LUu pupulai' Mhiuii uf potitry, to Uie eltiiclment of i'ope 
and Milton. 'From one end of the kingdom to the other, all was 

• Siographim LUeraria, i. 9 (Bolm's edition, 1870). 


nonsense and Delia Grosca.' To 'William Olfford (1756-1826), 
afterwards editor of ih^QtMrterfyf belongs the credit of having given 
a death-blow to this contemptible style, in the two satires mentioned 
above. After their appearance, the Delia Croscans subsided into their 
normal obscurity, and no service wonld be rendered now by recalling 
from Gifford's justificatory notes * the names of these once famous 
mediocrities. For a fair idea of their manner, the reader is referred 
to an excellent parody in the Selected Addresses of a performance by 
Mrs. Cowley, who, under the signature of ' Anna Matilda,' was one 
of the most illustrious of the coterie. In default of this, the fol- 
lowing bond-fide Della-Cruscan verses wiU perhaps suffice. The 
admiring italics are Gififord's : — 

' Gently o*er the rising biUows 
Sqftly steals the bird of night, 
BtuUing fhro' the bending willows ; 
Fluttering pinions mark her flight. 

* Whither now ixi^tilence lending. 
Ruthless winds demy (hee rest ; 
Chilling night-dews taat descending 
Olisten on thy downy breast.* 

These stanzas, we are further informed, are part of a ballad de- 
scribed by a contemporary critic as a * veiy mellifluous one ; easy, 
artless, and unafibcted.* 

106. Boms. — ^A year after the publication of 2%tf Task, a Kil- 
marnock printer put forth a volume by an Ayrshire peasant, who, 
treading in the footsteps of Eamsay and Ferguson (see p. 126, 
6. 85), was, north of the Tweed, to carry poetry into the line of 
nature even more signally and splendidly than the recluse of Olney. 
So little had life prospered with Robert Barns (1 759-96), ci-devant 
farm-labourer, land-surveyor, and flax-dresser, that, having realised 
a modest 201, by the sale of the poems in question, he was upon 
the point of starting for Jamaica in the first vessel that sailed from 
the Clyde. * I had been,* he says, * for some days skulking from 
covert to covert, under all the terrors of a jail ; as some ill-advised 
people had uncoupled the merciless pack of the law at my heels. 
I had taken the last farewell of my few friends ; my chest was on 
the road to Greenock; I had composed the last song I should ever 
measure in Caledonia — The gloomy night is gathering fast — ^when 
a letter from Dr. Blacklock [the blind poet] to a &iend of mine 
overthrew all my schemes, by opening new prospects to my poetic 

* In 1800 Giifocd's satires reached a sixth edition, which has been here oon- 


ambition. The doctor belonged to a set of critics for whose applause 
I had not dared to hope. His opinion, that I would meet with 
encouragement in Edinburgh for a second edition, fired me so much 
that away I posted for that city, without a single acquaintance, or 
a single letter of introduction/ >^ 

But at Edinbuigh, upon the strength of his volume, he was 
received with the greatest enthusiasm. He is in a fair way of 
becoming ' the tenth worthy, and the eighth wise man of the world/ 
he writes. Erskine, Lord Glencairn, Henry Mackenzie — ^then editor 
of The Lounger^ in which he wrote a critique on the poems — ^Lord 
Monboddo, Dugald Stewart, Blair, Bobertson, — to say nothing of 
mere fashionables, — all f^ted and made much of him ; and a second 
edition of his poems was published (April 1787), bringing him some 
further and more substantial profit. These, however, were the 
poet's ' halcyon days,' and he estimated them rightly when later he 
wrote to Dr. Moore his fear that the intimacies and friendships 
he had formed were ' all of too tender a construction to bear carriage 
a hundred and fifty miles.' f 'I must return,' he says again to 
the Earl of Buchan, 'to my humble station, and woo my rustic 
muse in my wonted v/ay at the plough-tail.' In 1788 he took a 
farm at Ellisland, near Dumfries, and applied himself to agricul- 
tural pursuits, and the duties connected with a small appointment 
in the Excise, obtained in 1789, and worth about M, per annum. 
Upon this pittance, subsequently increased to 70/., he continued to 
live after his farm failed. A third volume of his poems, with 
additions (one being the inimitable Tarn CShanter), which appeared 
at Dumfries in 1793, brought him additional gain. He had, how- 
ever, by this time contracted habita of intemperance, which the 
brilliancy of his social talents, and the opportunities of a hard- 
drinking age, unhappily served to confirm. Debt and difficulties 
aggravated the inroads which habitual conviviality made upon his 
constitution, and he died at the early age of thirty-seven. After his 
death a fourth edition of his works was published. 

In his last days he had said to his wife — ' Don't be afraid : I'll be 
more respected a hundred years after I am dead, than I am at pre- 
sent,' — a Non omnia moriar which must assuredly be as valid as that 
of Horace. Such a singing faculty— such a s-^eop of pathos and 
passion — so genuine a power of humour and satire will not- soon 
appear again. Alas that he, too, must be added to the short-cut lives 
—the ' inheritors of unfulfilled renown/ the Byrons, the Shelleys, 

* Autobiosraphical Letter to Dr. Mooro, August 2, 1787, 
t April 23, 17S7. 


and the Keatses, of whom we can bat coxgectnre sadly what marvel 
of perfected production is lost to us bj their too early death I 'All 
that remains of Bums, the Writings he has left, seem to us ». no 
more than a poor mutilated fraction of what was in him ; brief, broken 
glimpses of a genius that could never show itself complete ; that 
wanted all things for completeness : culture, leisure, true effort, nay 
even length of life. His poems are, with scarcely any exception, mere 
occasional efiusions ; poured forth with little premeditation ; express- 
ing, by such means as offered, the passion, opmion, or humour of 
the hour.'* Nevertheless, let us be thankful for Tarn OShantert 
the JoUy BeggarSt the Address to the JkU, and Death and Doctor 
Hornbook; for the Cotter's Saturday Night, the lines To Mary 
in Heaven, and the numberless songs and lyrics, which, whenever 
love speaks Scotch (if philologists will still permit the term), must 
always be its language. What, for example, can exceed the tender 
simplicity of the following well-known lines ? — 

* Oy my IaYe*8 like a red, red rose, 
That's newly sprung in Jane : 
O, my luye's like the melodie 
That's sweetly play'd in tone. 

As fair art thon, my bonie lass, 

So deep in Inve am I : 
And I will lave thee still, my dear. 

Till a' the seas gang dry. 

* Till a* the seas gang dry, my dear, 
And the xoclcs melt wi' the sun : 
I will luve thee still, my dear, 
While the sands o' life shall run. 

And fare thee weel, my only Inre, 
And fare thee weel awhile 1 

And I will come again, my lave, 
Tho' it were ten thousand mile.' 

107. Hoffersy Bowles. — In 1786, the same year in which Bums 
published his first volume, appeared an Ode to Superstition, with soms 
other Poems, by Samuel Rogers (1763-1855) an opulent London 
banker. Beyond this coincident entry upon literature, Eogers has 
Httle claim to be named with the great poet of Scotland. The Flea'- 
sures of Memory^ 1792 (bis best work) ; HUman Life, 1819 ; Italy, 
1822-28 — to name some of his principal productions — all bear the 
impress of a refined and cultivated mind, and are finished with 
fastidious taste. According to Lady Blessington, Byron said not 
inappropriately of the writer that if he had not fixed himself in the 
higher fields of Parnassus, he had at least cultivated a very pretty 
pleasure-garden at its base. Bogers issued editions of his poems, 
with illustrations by ilaxman, Stothard, and Turner, which are now 
much sought after. He was, in fact, a most enlightened connoisseur 
and patron of art and letters ; and as a generous friend to needy 
talent will long be remembered. 

• Oarlyle, EsMtfSt i., 834 : Bums, 


The enthnfiiastic manner in which Coleridge, in the first chapter of 
the Bioffraphia Liieraria, has spoken of the influence upon his mind 
of the Bey. WUUam Usle Bowles (1762-1850), and the con- 
troTersy of that writer with Byron and others respecting the merits 
of Pope (whose works Bowles edited in 1806), have perhaps served 
to preserve his name more enduringly than his poems would hare 
done. Yet * his poetic sensibility was exquisite/ says Mr. Elwin, 
' and he was well read, shrewd, and candid.* His firat collection of 
Sonnets appeared in 1789 ; and he continued to produce both prose 
and verse until late in his life. Southey speaks of his 'sweet and 
unsophisticated style' as one upon which he had early endeavoured 
to form his own. 

108. Vordswortb. — ^The revolt from the Popesque traditions 
of poetry, already clearly distinguishable in the works of Thomson, 
Gray, Collins, Goldsmith, and others, but active under Cowper and 
Bums, was carried further forward by Wordsworth, whom, from his 
accidental residence in the same district as Coleridge and Southey, 
not to mention some less important writers, it was the fashion of 
the critics of the first half of the present century to regard as the 
leader of the so-called * Lake School.* That any such school really 
existed, has been distinctly denied by one of the most eminent of 
the poets concerned, viz., Coleridge ; but that they were * dissenters 
from the [then] established systems in poetry and criticism ' may be 
affirmed without fear of contradiction. The circumstances of their 
lives, however, and their influence upon each other, make it convenient 
to treat them in immediate succession. ^VUllam IVordswortb 
(1770-1850), the eldest, was bom at Cockermouth, in Cumberland, 
and educated at a small school at Hawkshead in Lancashire. His 
education left him free to read what books he liked, and to cultivate 
an early developed love of nature. From Hawkshead he went to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1787. Here he took a B.A. degree; 
but he appears to have devoted himself to the study of Italian and 
the Latin and English poets rather than to the mathematics which 
were the speciality of his college. If the University did little for 
him, however, his vacations, to follow Mr. Brimley, served to pre- 
serve his native poetic spirit. He now began to ' take that interest 
in observing the passions, characters, and actions of the men and 
women around him, which, supplying him with the incidents, the 
feelings, and, to some extent, with the very language of his most origi- 
nal minor poems, flnally enabled him to rear the noblest edifice of 
modern song, where, uniting in himself the philosophical breadth of 
Coleridge with the minute touches and more than the homely pathos 


of Giabbe, he forms into one organic whole the profounde&t specula- 
tions on society with the simplest annals of the poor.'* In 1790 ha 
made a tour on the Continent, then excited with the brilliant pro* 
mises and prospects of the French Revolution. Kow were written 
the Descriptive Sketches, taken during a pedestrian Tour among the 
Alps, which, with an earlier poem, The Evening Waih, appeared in 
1793. At this period he was without means, and equally opposed 
to die Law and the Church as professions. While casting about for 
employment^ a young friend, Baisley Calvert, left him a legacy of 
900/. Upon this seasonable bequest he retired with his sister to 
Bacedown Lodge, near Crewkeme, in Dorsetshire ; and we have it 
upon his own authority that, with some small poetical gains, his 
simple tastes enabled him to make this modest sum sufficient for the 
next seven years of his life. His first work had attracted the atten- 
tion of Coleridge ; and, chiefly to enjoy his society, Wordsworth and 
his sister removed to Alfoxden in Somerset. This is the epoch of 
the production of the Lyrical Ballads, which joint collection by 
Coleridge and his friend, appeared in 1798, at Bristol. The famous 
preface that originated the still-echoing, if not enduring, contro- 
versy as to poetic composition, did not appear until the second 
edition was published in 1800. Stated generally, the views advo- 
cated by Wordsworth consisted in a disregard of the conventional 
diction which had come to be the indispensable attire or uniform 
of poetry, and the substitution of a simpler and more natural 
phraseology* * My main endeavour as to style,' he somewhere says, 
*has been that my poems should be written in pure intelligible 
English.' The opponents of this reform alleged that its adherents 
degenerated into babyism and trivialities. In short, the theory, 
though now essentially admitted, is held to have been greatly over- 
stated, and Wordsworth's very poems, by the superiority of those 
in which he has deviated farthest from his own principles, have 
been adduced in refutation of his contention. 

With the proceeds of the Lyrical Ballads, the Wordsworths and 
Coleridge started for Germany. In 1800 Wordsworth removed to 
Orasmere; and in 1802 married his cousin, Mary Hutchinson. In 
the same year his income was increased by 1,000/. recovered from 
his ffither's estate ; later, in 1813, he was made Stamp Distributor for 
Westmoreland, an office which became more lucrative as years pro- 
gressed. Finally, he received a pension from the Civil List, and 
was made Poet-Laureate in 1843. The competence thus secured to 
him enabled him to obey the dictates of his genius under particularly 

• Brimky's Esictyt, 1860, 182 : WcrdtwrWt Poem*, 


feyonrable circumstances; and, until the end of the long life, 
passed (frequent tours excepted) in the beautiful Lake district, poetry 
vas his main pursuit and pleasure. It maj here be added that, 
in 1813, he settled at Bydal Mount, where he liyed for the last 
thirty-seyen years of his life. 

We may briefly enumerate the chief of Wordsworth's works after 
the Lyrical Ballads, In 1Q07 appeared the two volumes of Miscd- 
ianeoua Poems, which were attacked so fiercely by JeflBrey. To this 
succeeded, in 1809, a prose pamphlet against the *ConTention of 
Cintra,' the Excursion, 1814, which Jeffrey greeted with the well- 
known critique, beginning, *This will never do,' and afterwards 
boasted he had crushed ; the narratire poem of the White Doe of 
Rylstone, 1815; Peter Bell and the Waggoner, 1819; the collection 
of Sonnets entitled the River Duddon, 1820 ; Ecclesiastical Sonnets, 
1822; Yarrow Re-visited, &c., 1835. In 1842 he issued a classi- 
fied collection of his works; and, in 1850, after his death, a long 
poem entitled the Prelude; or. Growth of a Poefs Mind, an Autobio^ 
graphical Poem, which had been commenced as far back as 1799 and 
completed in 1805, was first published. 

It was long before these works obtained their present popularity. 
Bat, firm in his conviction (we use his own words to a correspon- 
dent) that * his inspiration was from a pure source, and that his 
principles of composition were trustworthy,* Wordsworth was en- 
abled to ' beat his music out ' in spite of hostile critics. He lived 
to see his own fame ; and he could add his personal satisfaction that 
* none of his works, written since the days of his early youth, con- 
tained a line that he should wish to blot out, because it pandered to 
the baser passions of our nature.' No one has better defined his 
genius than his gifted coadjutor in the Lyrical BaUads, To sum- 
marise a characterisation which is too lengthy to reproduce entire, 
Coleridge claims for his friend a perfect appropriateness of words 
to meaniDg, and a frequent curiosa felicitas of diction ; a freshness 
of thought and sentiment, and perfect truth to nature in his 
images and descriptions ; a union of deep and subtle thought with 
sensibility ; and, above all, a pre-eminence of imaginative power. 
But the reader should himself study this excellent appreciation in 
chapteirs xiv. and following of the Biographia Literaria, If there 
be a shorter definition of the Seer of Kydal Mount, it is that of 
Macaulay : — * He was the high priest of a worship in which Nature 
was the idol.' ' She,' he says in those famous lines * written above 
l^ntcm Abbey* -^ 



* never did betray 

The heatt fhab loved hor ; 'tis her inriTH^^ 
Throngb all the years of this onr life, to lead 
From joy to joy : for she can so inform 
The mind that is within ns, so impreaa 
With qoietneas and beanty, and so feed 
With lofty thoughts, that neither evil tongneSi 
Bash judgments, nor the sneers of selfish men, 
Kor greetings where no kindness is, nor all 
The dreary interconrse of daily life, 
Shall e'er prevaU against as, or disturb 
Onr oheerful faith that all which we behold 
Is fnll of blessings.' 

From its compactness and brevity we have already more than once 
included specimens of the Sonnet among the limited extracts in 
this Yolnme. Wordsworth was a master of 'its scanty plot of 
ground ; ' and some of his efforts are among the noblest in the lan- 
guage. The following is a well-known example :— • 

' The world is too mnch with us ; late and soon, 
Getting and spending, we lay waste onr powers : . 
Little we see in Nature that is ours ; 

We have given onr hearts away, a sordid boon I 

This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon ; 
The winds that will be howling at all hours, 
And are up-gather'd now like sleeping flowers ; 

For this, for every thing, we are out of tune ; 

* It moves us not.— Great God ! Fd rather be 

A Fagan suckled in a creed outworn ; 
So might I, standing on this pleasant lea, 

Have glimpses that would mako me less forlorn ; 
Have sight of Frotens rising from the sea; 

Or hear old Triton blow his wreathM horn.* 

109. Sontbey. — ^Wordsworth died at the advanced age of eighty. 
A life as honourable, and nearly as long, was vouchsafed to the second 
of the Lakers, Robert Sontbey (1 774-1843). Southey was born 
at Bristol. At fourteen he was sent to Westminster School, whence 
he was expelled for writing a satirical paper on corporal punishment. 
In 1792 he was admitted to Balliol 0>llege, Oxford, but left in 1794. 
In this year, burning with the new theories and opinions of the 
French Kevolution, he composed * in a vein of ultra-Jacobinism,' a 
youthful Drama entitled Wat Tyler (surreptitiously printed in 1817) 
' as one who was impatient of the oppressions under the sun.' In 
1795 he published, with Mr. Bobert Lovell (who, like himself, had 
married one of the Miss Frickers of Bristol), a small volume of 
Toems by Bion and Moschu^, their respective pseudonyms. It w&s 
about this tiir.e, also, that he made the acquaintance of Coleridge^ 


who married a third Miss Fricker; and by him Scuthej ^ma 
assisted in the composition of his epic of Joan of Arc, 1796. His 
next poem of any length was yftfl/g />/y th^- Thmirn^^^ 1801, an im< 
rhymed, irregular, narrative poem of considerable power, based 
upon the Arabian mythology, and the moral of which is * the war 
and victory of faith, the triumph over the world and evil powers.' 
This divides with th e Cures of Kehama. 1810 (for which Hindoo 
mythology forms the groundwork), the honour of being the most 
meritorious of the author's works. He himself thought that the 
Innp^ Tnfifr |<»fl.l t^le of Modoo^ 1805, based upon the forgotten tra- 
dition of the colonising of America by the Welsh, was the one by 
which he should be chiefly remembered, but the work lacks interest 
RoderkJcj the last <f the Grotha, 1814, — ^the theme of which is the 
fall of the Gothic monarchy in Spain ; the Visum of Judgment^ in 
hexameters, 1821, Byron's merciless parody of which is perhaps 
better known than the original; and A Tale of Paraguay ^ 1825, are 
the titles of his chief remaining poems of any length. 

To return to the period of Southey's marriage. After spending 
some time in Portugal (1795-6), a residence which afterwards gave 
riso to Letters from Portugal, 1797, and acting for a short time as 
Private Secretary to Mr. Corry, Chancellor of the Exchequer for 
Ireland, he settled at Greta Hall, near Keswick, to spend a long 
and indefatigable literary life. A pension, in 1807, added some 
140/. per annum to his income, and, in 1813, he succeeded the 
poetaster Pye as Laureate. Besides the poems above mentioned, he 
poured forth a number of prose works, some of which, from their ad- 
mirably lucid, idiomatic, and unaffected style, are more popular than 
his poetry. Such, for example, are the I4fe of Nelson, 1813, styled by 
Lord Macaulay * beyond all doubt the most perfect of his works ;' 
and the Idfe of Wesley, and the Rise and Progress of Methodism, 1 820. 
Lives of Bunyan, 1830, and Cowper, 1836-7, also proceeded from 
his pen, besides a bulky History ofBrazU, 1810, which he regarded 
as the most meritorious of his prose efforts, a History of the Penin- 
sular War, 1823-32, the curious semi-fictitious, semi-autobiographi- 
cal Doctor, 1834-47, and a host of miscellaneous works, periodical 
articles not included. After his first wife's death he married, in 
1839, Miss Caroline Bowles (1787-1854) a minor poetess of 
some repute — witness the lines entitled the Pau/peit's Death Bed, 
The last few years of Southey's life were clouded by mental disorder, 
from which he was only relieved by death. 

Devotedly attached to letters, Southey passes, at the same time, 
for one of the most amiable and domesticated of men. He was, 


sajs Thackeray, genially, * an English worthy, doing his dnty for 
fifty noble years of labour, day by day storing up learning, day 
by day working for scant wages, most charitable out of his small 
means, bravely faithful to the calling he had chosen. . • I hope 
his life will not be forgotten, for it is sublime in its simplicity, its 
energy, its honour, its affection. In the combat between Time and 
Thalaba, I suspect the former destroyer has conquered. Kehama*s 
corse frightens very few readers now ; but Southey's private letters  
are worth piles of epics, and are sure to last among us, as long as 
kind hearts like to sympathise with goodness and purity and love 
and upright life.' f 

110. Coleridge.— Daring the Bristol period of Southey's life he, 
Lovell, and others, had joined in a scheme together with Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) for a so-called * Pantisocracy '— a 
Transatlantic ' Communist republic, purged of kings and priests.' 
Unfortunately the prosaic * lack of pence ' prevented the contem- 
plated settlement on the Susquehanna. Coleridge at this time was 
tbree-and-twenty. He had been educated at Christ's Hospital and 
Jesus College. As a schoolboy he all but apprenticed himself to a 
cobbler ; and upon leaving Cambridge, to which he had obtained an 
exhibition, he enlisted, under an assumed name, in Elliot's Light 
Dragoons. Bat he made a far worse soldier than Sir Bichard Steele, 
and was happily rescued from this fate by the intervention of friends 
who obtained his discharge in 1794. In the same year he became 
acquainted with Southey, in conjunction with whom he wrote a drama 
entitled the Fall of Bohesjpierre. These were the days of that un- 
realised ' Pantisocracy ' above referred to. In 1795 he married, and 
in the following year published a small volume of poems. The 
appearance of Wordsworth's first volume had attracted him to that 
poet's Dorsetshire home ; and shortly afterwards \hb Lyriocd Ballads 
fere commenced. In this partnership (according to the Biographia 
(^tY^am) the endeavours of Wordsworth were to be directed to giving 
' the charm of novelty to things of every day,' — to awakening the 
mind to natural beauty, while Coleridge was to work upon * persons 
and characters snpematural, or at least romantic; yet so as to 
transfer from our inward nature a human interest and a semblance 
of truth sufficient to procure for these shadows of imagination that 
willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitutes 
poetic faith.' To this division of labour we owe, on the part of 
Coleridge, the marvellous Bime of the Ancient Mariner, The Bark 

• Published by his Son and Son-in-law In 1849-50 and 1856. 
t TUackeray, The Four Qeorges^ 1866, 213-14. 


Ladie, and the faultless poem Love, At this time he officiated as 
an Unitarian preacher at Tannton and Shrewsbury. In 1798, by 
the generosity of the Messrs. Wedgwood, he was sent to Germany to 
complete his education. Here he acquired an extensiye knowledge 
of German literature, and became deeply imbued with transcendental 
philosophy. Having returned in 1799, he published an excellent 
translation of Schiller's Wallenstein, At Grasmere he issued a 
series of Essays entitled The Friendy * an unfinished project designed 
to convey a consistent body of opinions in Theology, Philosophy, 
and Politics.' The Tragedies of ReTnorsey 1813, and ZapoyUiy 1817* 
and the fragment Christabel (an almost perfect specimen of musical 
versification), 1816, are his chief remaining poetical productions. 
In prose he published successively The Statesman's Manual, or the 
Jiible the Best Cruide to Political Skill and Foresight, 1816 ; Bio^ 
graphia lAteraria, 1817; Aids to Efflection, 1825; while his Table 
Talk and some notes of his Lectures on Shakespeare appeared posthu« 
mously. In 1810 he left the Lakes; and in 1816 entered the home 
of Mr. Gillman, a medical man at Highgate, where he died in 1834. 

Ill health and the pernicious use of opiimi fostered the natural 
want of energy and intellectual irresolution which distinguished this 
highly gifted poet and critic, and to these causes may, in some 
degree, be attributed the dreamy character of his best poems and 
the fragmentary nature of his literary remains. An admirable (if 
sometimes tedious) talker, his extensive knowledge and weighty 
judgments found their best expression and infiuence through the 
medium of conversation. Thomas de Quincey, one of the most 
illustrious of his admirers, — and an opium-eater too, — ^has described 
him as (in his judgment) ' the largest and most spacious intellect, 
the subtlest and most comprehensive that ever existed among men.' 

The son and daughter of Coleridge were also distinguished as 
writers. The former, Hartley Coleridge (1796-1849), was one 
of the most skilful sonneteers of the Wordsworth school, and the 
author, among other works, of a sound and manly series of bio- 
graphies entitled Lives of Northern Worthies (i.e. of Yorkshire and 
Lancashire), 1833. Sara Colerldgre (1802-1852) was the author of 
JPhantasmiony 1837, a fairy romance, not without charm, the last 
edition of which was edited, in 1874, by the late Lord Coleridge. 

111. Kamb. — ^The verse of Cbarles Kamb (1775-1834), grace- 
ful though it is, would certainly not entitle him to rank after his 
former schoolfellow — Coleridge. But from his friendship with the 
three foregoing poets, and the fact that he is often associated with 
the liake School, it is convenient to speak of him in this place 


lather than among the prose-writers. The son of a lawyer^^ derk 
in the Inner Temple, and educated at Christ's Hospital, Lamb early 
obtained a clerkship in the accountant's office of the East India Com- 
pany, a post which he held from 1792 to 1825, when he was super- 
annuated. The care of his sister Mary, who, in a fit of insanity, 
had caused her mother's death, deyolved upon him, condemning 
him to bachelorhood, and a constant fraternal watchfuloess, which 
he religiously observed until the end of his life. He first appeared 
as a Terse-writer in 1797, in company with Charles Lloyd and 
Coleridge; and again, in 1830, put forth a small collection of 
Album Verses and other Poems, In 1798 was published his ex- 
quisite little tale of Bosamund Gray, and, in 1802, his tragedy 
of John Wbodvil, a cabinet drama after the early English models. 
With the national stage, and, more especially, the Elizabethan 
stage, Lamb was, indeed, deeply conversant ; and in his Specimens 
from the English Dramatic Poets who lived about the thne of 
Shakespeare, 1808, and in the series of Gar rick Plays which after- 
wards appeared in Hone's Every-Bay Book, he did much to revive 
an interest in that fruitful period of dramatic literature. The brief 
critical and explanatory notices which accompany his excerpts are 
conceived in the acutest and finest spirit of criticism. But the most 
origiDal work of Lamb, in the true sense of the term, is the so- 
called Essays of Mia, 1823-33. Of the charm of these productions 
it is difficult to speak adequately. The wayward inimitable grace, 
the odd quips and quirks of paradox, the sensitive critical insight, 
the airy fancy, the happy archaism of the * liambesque ' style are, 
in fact, wholly undescribable. * Not one ' [of the elder essayists], says 
a modem biographer, is ' so unique, so original, so distinguished by 
a special manner of his own as the author of the Essays of Elia, • • 
There is a fantastic chsunn about him — a flavour, as it were, of the 
olive. A fine line of irregular oddity is to be traced through his 
writings, quite singular, and not to be matched in other essay- 
writers. • . He takes his reader by the button, as he would his 
friend, and pours out upon him a current of deb'ghtful humours and 
fine mental oddities, almost too delicate to be seen by the vulgar 

112. CampbeU.— 2^ Battle of the Baltic, Hohenlinden, and 
Ye Mariners of England will preserve the memory of Tbomas 
Campbell (1777-1844) longer than tlie Pleasures qf Hope or 
Gertrude of Wyoming, The first of these last-named poems was 

* Anemoon Ledttrett Second Seriet, 1864, 70; Two EnglUh Bua^Uts:.Zamb 
und Sickens, by Feroy Fitzgerald. 



published in 1799, when the author 'was but twenty-two, and it 
went through four editions in the first year of its existence. Despite 
traces of jurenility, it ranks as a fine didactic poem. Gertrude qf 
Wyoming^ 1809, the scene of which is laid in FennsylTania, shows 
a great advance in finish and diction, and a mastery of the Spense- 
rian stanza equal to that of Thomson. Lord Jeffirey, indeed (whose 
opinion as a critic obtained more attention formerly than it does 
nov), claimed for it a superiority as regards feeling to the Castle of 
Indolence, and more condensation and diligent finishing than eyen the 
Faery Queene itself. LochieFe Warning OConnof's Child, Theodoric, 
and the Pilgrim of Gleneoe, are other of Campbell's memorable poems. 
He was, for some time, editor of the New Monthly Magazine ; and, in 
1826, was chosen Lord Kector of the University of Glasgow, where 
he had been educated, and where he had obtained distinction in his 
classical studies. His prose works include lives of Mrs. Siddons, 
1834 ; Petrarch, 1841 ; Frederick the Great, 1848 ; and the admirably 
discriminative Etfsag on English Poetry, and Introductory Notices 
prefixed to his i^pecimene of the British Poets, published in 1819. 

113. SoMTv Bloomlleld. — ^Two poets made their appearance in 
the beginning of the century, who deserve a brief mention here. 
One was James Soffffi the ' Ettrick Shepherd' (1770-1835)— a 
singular natural genius, who has been made familiar to us by 
Professor Wilson's wonderful portrait of him in the Nodes Ambro- 
siana. He wrote many tales and poems — the best known of the 
latter being the collection of ballads entitled the Queen's Wake, 1813, 
one of which, the legend of Kilmeny, most critics concur in praising. 
Robert Bloomfleld (1766-1823), the other, while working as a 
journeyman shoemaker, composed the Farmer's Boy, 1800, a poem 
descriptive of country life, which obtained a wide and well-deserved 
popularity, that the Sural Tales, 1802, and successive poems of the 
author did not by any means belie. 

114. Moore. — In point of time, Thomas Moore (1779-1852) 
leads a group of poets whose works (although tliey, too, in a different 
manner, forwarded the new impulses of poetry) present a marked 
contrast to those of the &mous trio of the Lakes. Moore was the 
son of a Dublin tradesman, and conmienced literature at the early 
age of fourteen, by sending a couple of short amatory poems to a 
magazine — the Anthologia Mbemica. After taking his B.A. degree 
at Trinity Ck>llege, Dublin, he came to London, in 1799, to study 
law, — not very energetically. In 1 800 he published a lively transla- 
tion of the Odes ofAnaerean, erring rather on the side of softness 
than severity. This he followed up, in 1 801 , by the Poems cf the late 


Thofnas LUUe, in which warmth of painting was carried to a cen- 
surable extent. In 1803, by Lord Moira*s influence, he was made 
registrar of Admiralty at Bermuda ; but after a short residence, 
returned to England, haying transferred his duties to a deputy. 
Henceforth he deyoted himself exdusirely to literature. The Two- 
penny Post Bagt hy Thomas Brown the Younger, 1812, a series of 
brilliant little satires upon Court notabilities ; the admirable series 
ot Irish Mdodies, 1807-34; ih» National Melodies, 1816; the Oriental 
poem of LaUa Rookh, 1817 ; the Fudge FamUy in Paris, 1818~a 
second collection of satiridd poetical epistles ; FahUs for the Holy 
Alliance, 1823 ; and the Loves of the Angels, 1823, are his chief 
poetical works. He was also the author of The Epicurean ; a Tale, 
IS27 ; and of biographies or memoirs of B, B. Sheridan (see p. 153, 
s. 100), 1825, oi Byron (see p. 174, s. 115), 1830, and of the ill-fated 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald, 1831. By the dishonesty of his Bermuda 
substitute, the poet was inrolyed in a heavy debt to the Goyemment, 
but, to his credit, discharged the daim by the labour of his pen. 

Moore was the spoiled child of the fashionable circles of his day, 
— his wit and amiability, his talents, poetical and musical (for he 
was a most fit interpreter of his own dancing lyrics), added to 
a predisposition to so-called good society, eyer made him a welcome 
guest. Of him and his songs. Prof. Minto has truly said, ' He 
came nearer than anybody else in modem times to Bishop Percy's 
romantic conception of the minstrel.' * His Melodies will probably 
remain the most popular of his efforts. His lighter social pieces 
and his genial little satires are conspicuous for their verve and finish. 
ZjallaRoolch^ hia rt \^^- aml-^Um^^ff WftrlTi for which Longman paid 
8,000 guineas, is a wonderful tour deforce. It includes four tales : 
— the Veiled Prophet ofKhorassan, Paradise and the Peri, the Fire 
Worshippers, and the Light of the Harem, — stories which the 
author has steeped in an all-but-genuine Asiatic glow, and decorated 
with a skilful profusion of Oriental accessories. Its success was 
considerable. People refused to believe that its composer had 
never visited the Eist, and the book received the compliment of 
translation into Persian — a fact to which another lively writer of 
£imiliar yerse thus refers : — 

*I*m told, dear Mooro, your lays are sang, 

(Can it be true, you luoky man ?) 
By moonlight, in the Persian tongue, 
Along the streets of Ispalian.* f 

* Enetfdopedia Britanntea, ninth ed^ article Moore, 

t The writer was Henry LuttreU (1771-1861), a onoe weQ-known wit and 
epigrammatist, author of the Advice to Julia and other yerses, 1830-3. 


115. Byron.— The ancestors of Kord Byron (1788*1824), 
faaTing come over with William the Conqueror, were more distin- 
guifihed than those of his biographer. His father, 'mad Jack Byron,' 
was a captain in the Guards ; his mother, a Scotch heiress — ^Miss 
€h>rdon of Q-ight. The former, a handsome roui^ died at Valenciennes 
in 1791, leaving his son to the care of his widow, not the most 
judicious of mothers. In 1798 young Byron succeeded to the title 
and estates of his great uncle, the fifth Lord Byron, the same who 
had killed his relative^ Mr. Chaworth, in a duel. In 1800 he went 
to Harrow, and thence, in 1805, to Trinity College, Cambridge. 
While at Cambridge, after destroying one collection of poenys, he 
put forth another under the title of Hours of Idleness^ 1807. The 
volume was certainly juvenile and mediocre ; but it was scarcely 
fairly treated by the critics. Brougham noticed it contemptuously 
in the Edinburgh, greatly to the irritation of the high-spirited poet. 
He retorted, in March 1809, by a satire, after the fashion of Gifford's 
attack upon the Delia Cruscans, entitled English Bards and Scotch 
BeviewerSf in which there was a good deal of reckless hitting, 
Scott, and some, if critically blamable, yet otherwise inoffensive 
persons, being confused in the general onslaught. The writer 
himself subsequently felt its injustice, and called it ' a miserable 
record of misplaced anger and indiscriminate acrimony.' It had, 
however, the effect of attracting immediate attention to the auda- 
cious young poet who so frankly declined to submit himself without 
remonstrance to the northern scalping-knives. In the year of its 
publication he set out on a continental tour with his fi^iend, Mr. 
Hobhouse, returning home in 1811, just before his mother^s death. 
Shortly afterwards (February 1812) he published the first two cantos 
of a poem in the Spenserean stanza, descriptive of the countries he 
had passed through, entitled Childe Harold's Pilgrijoage. The re- 
ception of this production was as enthusiastic as that of Hours of 
Idleness had been unappreciative. In the now proverbial phrase of 
his memoranda, he ' awoke one morning and found himself famous.'^ 
Murray paid liberally for the copyright. The tone of the poem, its 
sentiments, its magnificent descriptions ; —the prestige and personal 
beauty of the author —his rank — his attractive attitude as * the world's 
tired denizen,' all conspired to make him the darling of the day. His 
popularity was further increased by the rapid series of tales which 
followed: — the Giaour ^ and the Bride of Ahydos, 1813; the Corsair ^ 
andXara, 1814; — in all of which the Eastern garb and glowing 

• Koore'B Life qfLord Syrottf 1844, ch. xiv. 16», . 


Atmosphere served only to throw new lustre over a central hero, 
in whom the different costumes but thinly served to disguise what 
the readers of that day chose to regard as the poet's own physiognomy 
and sentiments. They took the fancy of the public ; and * at twenty- 
foar/ says Macaulay, ' he [Byron] found himself on the highest 
pinnacle of literary fame, with Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and a 
crowd of other distinguished writers at his feet.'* 

Then came a reaction. In January 18 1 5, he married the daughter 
of Sir Balph Milbanke, who in the following year returned to her 
parents. Into the disputed cause of this separation (over which 
BO much ink was, years ago, spilt by a Transatlantic authoress) 
we neither pretend nor desire to enter. It is sufficient to say that 
justly or ui\justly public feeling became greatly excited against the 
poet, and in April 1816, Lord Byron left England never to return. 
In Switzerland he made the acquaintance of Shelley and his 
wife, passed thence into Italy, and settled at Venice. Two more 
tales, Parisina and the Siege of Corinth, 1816 ; the third canto of 
Childe Hdroldy the Prisoner of Chilion, and the beautiful Dream of 
his early love for Miss Chaworth belong to this period. 

In 1817 he sent forth from his Venetian home the dramatic poem 
of Manfred and the Laineniof Taseo ; in 1818, the sparkling ottava- 
rima poem of Beppo ; in 1819, Mazeppa and the first two cantos of 
Don Juan. It was at this time that he commenced his acquaint- 
ance with that Countess Guiccioli, who survived until recent years 
as the Marquise de Boissy. In 1820 appeared Marino Faliero ; and, 
in 1821, the dramas of the Thvo Foscari and Sardanapalus, and the 
mystery of Cain were published together. In the same year came 
out cantos III:, IV., and V. of Do7i Juan, which, like the first two, 
issued from the press anonymously. 

In 1819 Byron had removed to Eavenna; in 1821 he wont to 
Pisa. Here he engaged in a new enterprise, the Liberal newspaper, 
in which his colleagues were Shelley and Leigh Hunt. Only four 
numbers came out. Totliese he contributed the Viaion of Judgment 
(tee p. 168, s. 109), Heaven and Earth, another mystery; the Blues, 
a poor satire on learned women, and a close version of the Morgante 
Maggiore of Fulci, in the eight-line stanza of the original. . 

In 1823 he published the Island and the Age of Bronze ; and in 
July of this year also set sail for Ccphalonia to assist the Greece of 
his earlier poems in her war of independence. He had already ad* 
yanced 12,000^. for the relief of Missolonghi, raised a force to 

* Baayi : Uoor^i Byron, 


attack Lepanto, and done much by his influence and money to composo 
differences and introduce order, when his health, shattered by the 
passions of his life, gaTe way, and, after successive fits of epilepsy, 
he died at Missolonghi, on the 19th of April, 1824, aged thirty-six. 
In the year of his death the last cantos of his unfinished Don Juan 
(being the XV. and XVI., — cantos VI, to XIV. having all previously 
appeared in 1823) were published in London. This poem has 
been styled its ill-&ted author's masterpiece. After commenting 
upon its objectionable features (and they are many) a contemporary 
of the poet says : — * Don Juan is, without exception, the first of 
Lord Byron's works. . . It contains the finest specimens of serious 
poetry he has ever written: and it contains the finest specimens of 
ludicrous poetiy that our age has witnessed.' The judgment of 
1820 still remains unreversed. As a more recent writer has said, 
' There is hardly any variety of poetic power which may not be 
illustrated fcom Don Juan, In the opinion of all competent judges 
it forms the copestone of Byron's fame.'* 

That fame — and the fact speaks much — is not confined to the 
country of the poet, but is wider and perhaps more unmixed in 
foreign lands. Upon the authority of the last-quoted writer we have 
it as the result of extensive investigations that Byron is universally 
regarded throughout Europe as the greatest poet that England has 
produced for the last two hundred years ; nay, the latest of his 
foreign biographers (Karl EIze, 1870) does not scruple to name him 
her supreme lyrical genius — * lyrical understood in its widest sense 
as subjective poetry.' From the already-cited and liberal minded 
critique of LordMacaulay upon Moore's Life we summarise some of 
what he holds to be the more strongly-marked of Byron s excellences 
and defects. First comes the limited range of character : — there 
are but one man and one woman in his works (this, by the way, is 
strenuously combated by his more enthusiastic admirers), — the man 
being himself draped differently by the Oriental trappings of a 
Corsair, a Lara, or a Harold — the woman, a being * all softness 
and gentleness, loving to caress and be caressed, but capable of 
being transformed by passion into a tigress.' Of dramatic skill — 
Lord Macaulay thinks — his genius had none ; but in description, 
in meditation tinged with the gloomy egotism, the despairing mis- 
anthropy that his poetry for years after made a fasliionable affecta- 
tion — he had no equal. Whether these last characteristics were 
unfeigned as he would have them believed to be, may, perhaps, be 
questioned. But, in the errors of his education, in his inherited 

* Quarterly Reviete, Oct, 1871, 873 (cxzxi.) : Bjfron and Tennyson, 


temperament, in his misfortunes, deserved and undeserved, lay 
grounds enough £>r a genuine sadness. 

116. Sbelley.— Like Bjron, P«rcy Byssbe Sbelley (1792. 
1822) was of noble birth. His &ther was an English baronet, 
whose ancestors were on the Boll of Battle Abbey. At a private 
school, and afterwards at Eton, the system of * fagging ' then pre- 
valent threw his morbidly sensitive system into a state of revolt at 


^Tlle selfish and the strong still tyrannise 
Without reproach or check ; * 

And, filled with humanitarian aspirations and speculations, he passed 
to Oxford. He had already published, anonymously, in June 1810, 
one novel — Zasirozzi ; another, 8i, Iriynef or Hie Rosicruciant fol- 
lowed in December, while he was at University College, whence he 
was speedily expelled for writing a pamphlet on the Necessity of 
Atheism^ 1811. In the latter year he eloped with a coffee-house 
keeper^s daughter, Miss Harriet Westbrook. The marriage was un- 
happy, and, in 1814, they separated — apparently against her desire 
— and the poet left England in company with Mary WoUstone- 
craft Godwin, daughter of the novelist [see p. 183, s. 121). The 
year before had appeared, full of strange promise and questionable 
utterances, the poem of Q^een Mah, In 1815 his father made him 
a handsome allowance. In the following year he published his 
blank verse poem of Jlastar; or, the Spirit of Sotitvde ; and his 
unfortunate wife committed suicide by drowning. Shortly after- 
wards Shelley married the lady with whom he had left this country. 
A decision of Lord Eldon debarred him from assuming the guardian- 
ship of his children by his first marriage, a decision which the circum* 
stances will explain, without making it necessary to enter upon the 
merits of an act very differently regarded by tlie friends and the 
enemies of the poet. Mention has already been made of Shelley's 
intimacy with Byron at this date in Switzerland. After a short resi- 
dence in England, during 1817-18, he retired to Italy. His con- 
nection here with Hunt's Liberal we have also referred to. To the 
years between 1818 and 1821 belongall his other important poems — 
the Revolt of Islam, 1818 ; the beautiful Od$ to a Skylark; Rosa- 
lind and Helen, 1819; the tragedy of ITie Oenci, 1819; tlie lyrical 
di^JDAoilPrometheus Unbound, 1820 ; Adonais, an elegy on the death 
of Keats, 1821, and Epipsychidion, 1821. In 1822 he was drowned 
in the Gulf of Spezzia by the overturning of a boat, and, in accor- 
dance with the Italian Quarantine Laws, his body was burned on 
the beach by Byron and Leigh Hunt, his heart only remaining 




nncousnmed. Such are, brieflji the chief facts of Shelley's life. Let 
ns cite a few words bj his talented second wife as to his poetical 
ehaiaeter. After referring to the open-air composition of the Skylark 
and The Chud, two of the shorter lyrics in which, rather than in his 
longer pieces, he was most saccessfol — ^lyrics ' written as his mind 
prompted, listening to the carolling of the bird, aloft in the azure skj 
of Italy, or marking the cloud as it sped across the heavens, while 
he floated in his boat on the Thames ' — she says : — * ' No poet was 
crer warmed by a more genuine and unforced inspiration. His 
extreme senribilitj gave the intensity of passion to his intellectual 
pursuits, and rendered his mind keenly alive to evezy perception of 
outward objects, as well as to his internal sensations. Such a gift is, 
among the sad vicissitudes of lifCf the disappointments we meet, and 
the galling sense of our own mistakes and errors, fraught with pain; 
to escape from such he delivered up his soul to poetiy, and felt happy 
when he sheltered himself fieom the influence of human sympathies 
in the wildest regions of fancy.' From hard realities, from weari- 
ness of beholding oppression, Shelley rose like his own skylark 
into the trackless ether of imagination, which he filled with 
a glorious music and quiver of joyous wings. Morbid his visions 
may have been ; but in no modem poet, Bums alone excepted, is 
the purely lyric spirit so clear-toned and melodious as in the author 
of Prometheus. 

117. Xeats. — The year before Shelle/s death another poet of 
extraordinary promise had passed away — John Seats (1795- 
1821), upon whom Shelley had written his beautiful elegy of 
AdanaiSf closing it, by a singular coincidence, with a strange antici- 
pation of his own approaching end. The life of Keats is briefly told. 
Bom in Moorfields, of poor parents, and self-educated, he commenced 
life as a surgeon, and, in 1817, put forth a small volume of poems. 
In 1818 he followed this by Endf/mion, which was saragely attacked 
in the Quarterly Sevietn, with a result upon the sensitive poet which 
has been diversely described by different writers.f Shelley, in the 
preface to AdonaiSf distinctly refers the poet's subsequent death to 
this shock ; and Byron, following his lead, has perpetuated the idea 
in the well-known lines which end — 

* 'lis strange the mind, that very fiery particle, 
Should let itaelf be anoffed out by an artlole.* 

But, however irritating the adverse review may have been to the 
poet, Byron's opinion, elsewhere expressed, that * a man should not 

• Frtface to ShcUey'a Works, 1850. f Cf. W. H. Bossettra Life^ ch. v« 


let Limself be killed by it,' would be shared by many ; and it is pro- 
bable that, under any circumstances, Keats \ras not constitutionally 
destined to length of days. In 1820, in the hope of regaining his 
health, he yisited Italy, after publishing a second volume of poems, 
containing Isabella, Lamia, the Eve of St. Agnes, and other pieces. 
In the following year he died of consumption at Borne, and was 
buried in the cemetery of the Protestants, where Shelley's ashes 
were afterwards laid. 

It was the Faery Queene of Spenser that first awakened the poetic 
faculty in Keats ; his inseparable companion and darling models, we 
are told, were the Minor Poeme of Shakespeare ; and in the works 
of the Elizabethan writers especially he sought his inspiration. 
Profuse and luxurious imagery, a languorous sense of music 
surrendering itself to the lulling of its own melody, and an inborn 
attraction towards those -^ 

* fair humanities of old religion. 

The power, the beauty, and the majesty. 

That had their haunts in dale, or piny mountain, 

Or forest, by slow stream, or pebbly spring,* 

are the prominent features of his poetry. Deep feeling and passion 
his critics deny him. But it must be remembered, as they have 
remembered, tJiat he died at five-and-twe nty, and that we cannot 
regard as completed that life which closed when the writer had 
barely freed himself from the first excesses of undisciplined genius, 
and yet had produced poems of so rare a quality that his admirers 
have not scrupled to compare them to the earlier efforts of Milton 
or Shakespeare. 

We quote here one of the most beautiful of his sonnets— one, 
moreover, to which attaches the sad celebrity of being the *last 
word' of its author : — 

( Bright Star I would I were steadfast as thou art— 

Not In lone splendour hung aloft the night, 
And watching, with eternal lids apart, 

Like nature's patient sleepless Eremite, 
The moving waters at their priestlike task 

Of pure ablution round earth's human sharoi^ 
Or gasing on the new soft fallen mask 

Of snow upon the moimtains and tiie moors : — 

* No— yet still steodf ast, still unchangeable, 

Fillow'd upon my fair Love's ripening breast. 
To feel for ever its soft fall and swell. 

Awake for ever in a sweet unrest ; 
Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath. 
And 80 live ever,— or else swoon to dcatlu* 




118. &elfflft Bniity &uider. — ^In point of time James Benry 
Xeifflft MuMt (1784-1859), a graceful Tenifier, and an essayist of 
the Speetalar school, hj his poetical JwsenUia, 1801, comes between 
Moore and Byxon, both of whom he sornFed. Hunt was educated 
at Christ's Hospital with Charles Lamb, tried first hiw, and then a 
Government office, and finally became dramatic critic of the News^ 
which he edited with his brother. In 1808 he edited the still-ezist- 
ing ExamineTt for certain strictures in which upon the Prince Begent 
he was, in 1813, imprisoned for libeL In 1816 he published the 
Story of Bindni, which Professor Craik has called ' the finest inspi- 
ration of Italian song that had yet been heard in our modem English 
literature.' In 1822 he went to Italy to assist Byron and Shelley in 
the already mentioned Liberal, The scheme was a failure, and Hunt, 
after his return to this country, endeavoured, in his much-censured 
BeeoUectioM of I/yrd Byron, * to exculpate himself at the expense of 
hisfiiend.' In 1847 he received a pension of 200^. a year. His 
best poem, after the Story of Bimini, is the play of the Legend of 
Florence, 1840. His essays — the Indicator, the Seer, the TaiUr, the 
Companion — ^are charming specimens of graceful literary chit-chat. 
He also wrote a novel, Sir BaJ^h Esher, 1832, the scene of which is 
laid in the days of Charles II ; and two delightful antiqtiarian books 
— the Ibton, 1848, and the Old Court Suburb, 1855— besides several 
other miscellaneous works. 

The life of IValter Savage &aador, 1775-1864, the author 
of Gebir, Count Julian, and the Imaginary Conversations, has been 
written by the biographer of Goldsmith and Dickens.* To this, or 
to that by Prof. S. Colvin f the reader must be referred for the inci- 
dents and tracaeseriea of the long life which dosed in Italy. Gdnr 
(or Gebirue, for the poem was written in Latin as well as in English), 
1798, had little or no success ; Count Julian, 1812, which, in Southey 's 
opinion, contained some of the finest touches of pathos and passion 
he had ever seen, was not enthusiastically received. It is by his 
Imaginary Conversations of Greeks and Bomans, 1824-9, and the sub- 
sequent Pericles and Aspasia, 1836, in which his scholarly prose and 
classic knowledge lends vitality to his personages, that he is best 
known. ' The most familiar and the most august shapes of the Past 
are reanimated with vigour, grace, and beauty. . . "Large utteiv 
ances," musical and varied voices, " thoughts that breathe '' for the 
world*s advancement, " words that burn " against the world*s oppres- 
sion, sound on throughout these lofty and earnest pages. We are in 
the high and goodly company of Wits and Men of Letters ; of Church* 

* Waiter Savage Landor. A Biogn^hjf^ By John Forster. 1869. 
t Men of Letters Seriei^ 1881. 


moD, Lawyers, and Statesmen ; of Partymen, Soldiers, and Kings ; 
of the most tender, delicate, and noble Women ; and of Figures that 
0eem this instant to have left for ns the Agora or the Schools of 
Athens, — ^the Fomm or the Senate of Some.* * Less familiar than 
his prose, but perhaps more certain of ultimate popularity, are the 
delicate ' occasional pieces' scattered through Landor's poems. But 
he himself cared little for the random reader. ' I,' he says, 

* Neither expect nor hope my verse may lie 
With Bommer sweets, with albams gaily drest. 
Where poodle snifts at flower between the leayes. 
A few wfll caU my fruit, and li)» the taste, 
And find not oyermuch to pore away.* f 

119. Otber Poets. — In a period which includes the names of 
Byron and Shelley, of Scott and Wordsworth, it may be anticipated 
that the ^nes minores would not be few. The enumeration of them 
here must of necessity be brief. To take the poetesses, the first 
to be named is Felicia Borotbea Kemans (1793-1835), 
a writer of much touching and chastened domestic poetry, long 
deservedly popular. Next comes Xietitia Stixabetli Xiandon 
[L.E.L.] (1802-1838), whose brief life was terminated ere she 
could be said to haye attained the height to which her poetic talents 
seemed to have destined her. Of the men may be mentioned 
James MContgromery (1771-1854), author of the Wanderer of 
Switzerland, 1806; the West JMie8,lSlO; ihe Pelioan Mand, 1827, 
and other poems ; Seffinald Beber (1783-1826), Bishop of Cal- 
cutta, author of a prize poem entitled Palestine, 1803 ; and also of a 
lAfe of Jeremy Taylor, 1822, and other miscellaneous prose writings ; 
Jobn Clare (1 793-1864), the peasant poet of Northampton, a writer 
with the keenest eye for rustic sights and pictures, whose Poems 
descriptive of Rural lAfe and Scenery first appeared in 1820; 
Sobert PoUok (1798-1827), author of the Course of Time, 1827, 
a blank-verse poem of great merit; and Karttey Coleridire 
(1796-1849), already referred to {see p. 170, s. 110). Another 
writer who deserves notice is the talented John Bookbam Vrere 
(1769-1846), author of the so-called <Whistlecraft' burlesque poem 
in the otiava rima which Byron adopted for Beppo and Don Juan, 
Frere is also known as one of the most successful renderers of Aris- 
tophanes ; and as the author of a translation, made while he was 
still an Eton boy, of the BatUe ofBrunanburh {see p. 12, s. 6), into 
the English of the century. The list, not by any means an 

• Edinburgh Review, April, 1816, 489 (Izxiii.). 
t Appendix to HelUnics, 1859, 247, 


exhaustire one, closes with James (1775-1839) and Horace Smith 
(1779-1840), the talented authors of the dcrer series of parodies, 
entitled the Refected Addresses (t.e. upon the opening of Drury Lane 
Theatre), in which the styles of Crahbe, Wordsworth, Byron, Scott» 
and others, were inimitably mimicked. 

120. Tlie iro^elists: SSrs. &adcliffe. — The Gothic mine 

which Walpole had opened in the Castle of Otranto (see p. 143, 

8. 92), and which Miss Eeeve had worked in the Old English Baron, 

now fell into the hands of a writer who, for her skilful manipulation 

of the spectral and mysterious, but more especially for her power 

of gloomy chiarO'OscurOf it has become customary to term the 

Salvator Bosa of British novelists. The region where 

* hoUow blasts through empty courts resotmd, 

And shadowy forms with staring eyes stalk ronnd ; * 

the stage of 

* bloody deeds. 

Slack snits of armour, masks, and foaming steeds,' * 

belongs of right to Ann Radoliffe (1764-1823), by an odd an- 
tithesis the exemplary home-keeping wife of a barrister and news- 
paper proprietor. Her first fiction, published in 1789, had no 
success. But, in the Sicilian Romance, 1790; the Romance of the 
Forest, 1791 ; and, above all, the Mysteries of Udolpho, 1794, — £he 
two latter being * interspersed with Heces of Poetry,* — she attracted 
an audience which eagerly (one might almost say tremulously) 
welcomed her best, and practically last, work, The Italian^ 1797« 

121. Xiewis, Godwin. — ^The most illustrious of the disciples of 
this school was nKattbew Greirory 3bewto (1776-1818), gene- 
rally known among his contemporaries as 'Monk' Lewis, from the 
immoral work, with that title, which he published in 1795. Tales of 
Terror, 1799; Tales of Wonder, 1801 (to which Scott contributed 
Glenfinlas, the Eve of 8t, John, and some other pieces) ; and the 
Bravo of Venice, 1804, are the chief of his remaining romances, 
which, however extravagant and melodramatic, were generally 
vigorous. Lewis was more than a respectable poet; witness the 
still popular ballads of JDurandarte and Belerma, and Alomo the 
Brave and the Fair Imogens, in evidence of that * finest ear for the 
rhythm of verse * with which Scott has credited him. In private, 
the author of the Monk was an amiable man, and, in his dealings 
with the slaves upon his Jamaica estate^ appears to have been a 
humane and benevolent master. 

The style of Mrs. Kadclifib had many other imitators, whose 

• Crabbc, The Ltbrarft 


ttamoB onr space 'will not pennit us to reproduce. One writer, 
however, who with the rest adventured in this field, IVUllam 
Ctodwln (1756-1836), deserves mention on other grounds — ^namelj, 
as the auUior of the remarkable novel of Things as They Are; or, 
the Adventures of Caleb WUlfams, I19i, described as 'a general 
review of the modes of domestic and imrecorded despotism by 
which man becomes the destroyer of man.' This is enforced in 
the story by the narrative of the miseries and persecutions which an 
aristocratic murderer inflicts upon the unfortunate youth who has 
accidentally acquired the secret of his guilt. 8t, Leon, 1799 ; Fleet' 
wood; or, the New Man of Feeling, 1805, and other novels, animated 
by the same ' roused democratic spirit,' were afterwards produced 
by Godwin ; but Caleb Williams is his classic, and will be read 
for its earnestness and vivid interest long after his political 
sentiments are forgotten. Those sentiments he had set forth in a 
book which, preceding Caleb Williams, was indeed intended to illus- 
trate some of the opinions it advanced, viz. the Inquiry concerning 
Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness, 
1793, a work which, appearing as it did in sur-excited times, obtained 
a dangerous ascendency over contemporary minds. 

Godwin's daughter, already referred to as MCni. SlieUey (1798-- 
1851), was also an industrious romancist. One of her novels, 
Frankenstein i or The Modem Prometheus, 1818 — the story of a 
Botdless monster created by a student, which pursues and haunts its 
miserable maker — survives for the ghastly fascination of the leading 
idea, and the power with which' it is elaborated. 

122. Miss Sd^ewortliv BKtas Austen.— From the Utopian 
theories of Godwin, and the terrors t)f the supernatural fichoQl^ it is 
a relief to turn to Castle R acJcrent, Or mond, the Absentee, Patronag e, 
&c., and the rest oifthe adE&inLbl6 studies oi real life and manners, 
and Hibernian life and manners especially, with which, between 1800 
and 1834 (the date of her last work, Helen), SSarla Sdgrewortli 
(1767-1849) delighted the readers of the first half of the present 
century. Scott praised the rich humour, tenderness, and tact of 
her Irish portraits. But the great charm, more novel to readers 
then than now, lay in the simple naturalness of her fictions. ' Her 
heroes and heroines,' says one of her critics, ' if such they may be 
called, are never miraculously good, nor detestably wicked. They 
are such men and women as we see and converse with every day of 
our lives ; with the same proportionate mixture in them of what is 
right and whftt is wrong, of what is great and what is little.' * 

• Qmiierltf Rcviae, Angiist, 1800, 146 (il.) 


This skill in ninnte realisation of character and foible waft 
carried to still higher excellence by another lady-novolist, Jane 
Ansten (1775-1817). Of her, Scott says— with that generous ad- 
miration for his contemporaries which is one of his most pleasing 
characteristics — * That young lady had a talent for describing the 
involrements, and feelings, and characters of ordinary life, which is 
to me the most wonderfal I ever met with.' Her first novel. Sense 
and Seneilnlityy was published in 1811 ; Pride and Pr^'udice, 1813, 
Mantifidd Park, 1814, and Emma, 1816, followed during her life- 
time ; Northanger Abbey and Perstiumon appeared after her death. 
A fragment of another, The Watsons, and a short story, entitled 
Lady Susan, have (in 1871) been given to the world by one of her 
relatives. The sketch of her life, which accompanies these, makes 
more wonderful the genius of the quiet and placid clergyman's 
daughter, who, living in the retirement of a secluded rural parson- 
age and a remote country home, a retirement broken only by the mild 
dissipation of a four years' residence at Bath, — not brilliant, not 
bookish, — contrived to write a series of novels which (on her own 
ground) have not even yet been surpassed. In a letter to one of 
the most illustrious of her successors, Charlotte BrontS, a well- 
known critic describes her * as one of the greatest artists, [one] of 
the greatest painters of human character, and one of the writers with 
the nicest sense of means to an end that ever lived.' * 

123. Scott. — ^But it is time to speak of Scott himself. Through 
the memoirs of his son-in-law, Lockhart, the life of the great 
* Wizard of the North ' has been made nearly as well known to us as 
that of Johnson. Sir lITalter Bcott (1771-1832) was bom at 
Edinburgh, where his father was a Writer to the Signet. For the 
benefit of his health he was sent in childhood to Sandy-Knowe, a 
farm belonging to his grandfetther, on the Scottish Bolder, a district 
teeming with historical and legendary associations. Here, carried 
about the crags by a garrulous old 'cow-bailie,' he speedily began to 
acquire, according to the autobiographical sketch of his early years, 
a keen love of nature and tradition, ' combined with a very strong 
prejudice in favour of the Stuart family . . imbibed &om the songs 
and tales of the Jacobites.' f At the High School of Edinburgh, to 
which he was sent when eight years old, he did not distinguish him- 
self by any special industry; glancing — ^in his own words — 'like a 
meteor from one end of the class to the other.' f With his school- 
fellows, however, his good-nature, courage, and imaginative faculty, 

* GF. H. Lewes, Life of Charlotte BnmtB, 1860| zvL 368« 
t Lockhart's Memoirs, 1844, 6, 9, 


as evidenced in a talent for tale-telling, made him a special favourito. 
After leaving the High School, he went for a short time to Kelso* 
Here he fell in with a copy of the Rdigues of Ancient Poetry {see 
p. 127, 8. 86), an accident of no small moment to the future romancer. 
Haying been ' from infancy devoted to legendary lore of this nature^' 
his delight at this collection was unbounded, and he overwhelmed his 
companions, and all who would listen to him, ' with tragical recita- 
tions from the ballads of Bishop Percy.' Here, too, in sight of the 
meeting of the song-renowned Tweed and Teviot, his love of nature 
received fresh stimulus. *To this period, also,' he says, 'I can 
trace distinctly the awaking of that delightful feeling for the 
beauties of natural objects which has never since deserted me.' . • • 
* The love of natural beauty, more especially ivhen combined vdth 
ancient ruins, or remains qf our faJtheri piety and splendour, became 
with me an insatiable passion, which, if circumstances had permitted, 
I would willingly have gratified by travelling over half the globe.' 
He was then a boy of twelve ; and, from the words italicised, it will 
be evident that the characteristics which at forty distinguished him 
as the * leather of the Modem Historical Novel' were present with 
hin» from the beginning. 

In 1786, after a brief academical course, he was articled to his 
father. In 1792 he became an advocate; and, in 1796, made his 
entry into literature by some translations from Biirger~the ballads 
of Lenore and the WUd Huntsman, But neither these nor the version 
of Goethe's GotzvonBerlichingeh, by which they were followed three 
years later, attracted much attention. In 1797 he married; in the 
succeeding year settled near Lasswade ; and, in 1799, was appointed 
Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. This office freed him from the 
nncoDgenial drudgery of the law, and left him larger leisure for an 
undertaking of fax higher import than his previous translations — 
namely, the editing of a large number of old Border ballads, which, 
without any definite piirpose of publication, he had been gradually 
accumulating. A ccording l y tw o volume s of the Minstrdey of the 
Scottish Bo rder were published! m 1802, a nd a third in 1803. The 
[udgment'sIiUWll 111 the Selection of ihe texts, and the reverent care 
with which they were edited, at once placed these volumes, in the 
opinion of many, above the famous Reliques, Chalmers, George 
Ellis, Percy himself, all welcomed them heartily — nay, even ' Monk' 
Lewis, whose coldly-received Tales of Wonder (see p. 182, s. 121) were 
eclipsed by the new venture of his quondam colleague, added his 
voice to the others. Not the least attractive feature was the com- 
piWs notes, overruoning with curious noecdotioal antiquarian know 


ledge, and coached in a style so eruditely happy as to have extorted 
from Professor Wilson, when, later, the concealed authorship of 
Wawrley iras canvassed, an impatient — * I wonder what all these 
people are perplexing themselves with: have they foigotten the 
prose of the Minstrelsy ?* 

In writing an account of Scott's life, it is necessary to lay some 
stress upon the publication of these Border ballads. Thedr collec- 
tion had insensibly constituted his training ; their unworked resources 
of legend and incident became his literary mine. They contained, 
as one of his critics said, ' the elements of a hundred historical 
romances;' and to historical romance it might be expected he would 
next turn his attention. Yet, although the first chapters of WaverUy 
were written as early as 1805, the maintenance of his then slender 
poetical reputation seemed to their author of more importance than 
a doubtful experiment in prose. Accordingly the first outcome of 
the Minstrelsy was * a romance of Border chivalry in a light-horse- 
man sort of a stanza,' suggested by the poef s recollection of 
Coleridge's then unpublished Christabelt and called the Lay of the 
Last Minstrel. It appeared in 1805, and * its success,' says Lock- 
hart, ' at once decided that literature should form the main business 
of Scott's life.' Within the next few years poured forth in rapid 
succession — Marmion, 1808; the Lady of the Lake, 1810; Hokeby, 
1812 ; and the Lord of the Isles, 1815 ; to say nothing of the less 
known Vision of Don Roderick, 1811 ; the Bridal of IHermain, 
1813; and Harold the Dauntless, 1817. When these poems first 
appeared, and more especially when the first of them appeared, the 
applause which greeted them was of the most enthusiastic descrip- 
tion. Their novelty, animation, colour, picturcsqueness — ^their skil- 
ful delineations of manners and localities— made readers overlook 
the 'ambling rhyme' and not always happily constructed story. 
* His poetry,' it has been well said, 'admits of a very specific and 
explicit statement. Its chief merit' lies in its power of description 
and narrative. Beyond this it does not pass into the deep regions 
of human nature.' * It is due to this last characteristic (aided, per- 
haps, by the rapidly rising popularity of Byron's Oriental Bomances), 
that, after the first dazzliug effect of the style and subject had sub- 
sided, the later poems were less successful. But the author was not 
without other resources; and before his poetical reputation had 
suffered a total eclipse, he had sought and found a splendid distinc- 
tion in another branch of literature. 

This was inaugurated by the publication in July 18H, anony- 

• Henry Reed, Leetura on the British Poeti, 1868, p. 251r 


WMudy, of the novel of WaverUy; or^ *Tis Sixty Tear* Since, com- 
pleted from the chapters which he had thrown aside some years 
before. From this time forth, until the year preceding his death, he I 
continued to produce in nmntemipted succession the magnificent 
series of romances, r anging oyer the whole period from the eleyenth 
to the eighteenth century, which are generally known as the Waverleif 
^SjH^ As might be expected, the author has preferred the nearer 
to the remoter centuries, eighteen of the total of twenty^nine 
belonging to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, three to the 
sixteenth, three to the fifteenth, one to the fourteenth, and the 
remaining four to the other centuries as far back as the end of the 
eleventh. As a rule, too, he deals with Scottish scenes and Scottish 
characters (his first intention, be it remembered, was to do for Scot- 
land what Miss Edgeworth had done for Ireland), so that, as has been 
suggested by Professor Masson, from whom we have borrowed the 
foregoing data, the name of * The Scottish Noyels* might not inaptly 
be applied to the whole series. They appeared in the following 
order: — Waverley, 1814; Guy Manneriny, 1815; the Antiquary, 
1816; Tales of My Landlord (1st series. Black Dwarf and Old 
Mortality), 1816; Boh Roy, 1817; Tales of My Landlord (2nd 
series, the Heart of Midlothian), 1818 ; Tales of My Landlord (3rd 
series, the Bride of Lammermoor and Legend of Montrose), 1819; 
Ivanhoe, the Monastery, and the Abbot, 1820 ; KenUworth, 1821 ; 
the Pirate and the Fortunes of Nigel, 1822 ; Peveril of the Peak, 
Quentin Durtoard, and St, Fonan*s Well, 1823 ; Redgaunilet, 1824 ; 
Tales of the Crusaders (the Betrothed, the Talisman), 1825 ; Wood- 
stock, 1826; Chronicles of the Canongaie (Ist series. Two Drovers, 
Highland Widow, and Surgeon's Daughter), 1827; Chronicles of 
the Canongate (2nd series, the Fair Maid of Perth), 1828; Anne of 
Geierstein, 1829 ; and, lastly, Tales of My Landlord (4th scries, 
Count Robert of Paris and Castle Dangerous), 1831. Such is the 
roll of these famous works. To repeat their titles is well-nigh un- 
necessary, nor is it needful in this pLoce to recall their personages. 
It is their highest praise that they need no guide to indicato their 
merits. * The novels of Scott will furnish entertainment to many 
generations ; nor is there any race of men so fastidious as to require 
anything purer, so spoilt by excitement as to need anything more 
amusing, or so grave as to scorn all delight from this kind of com- 

In addition to the novels and poems above enumerated, Scott wrote 
a number of miscellaneous works, of which the most important are 

• Lord RiTFscll, 


tho Ufe ofDryden, 1808 ; I^e of Swift, 1814 ; Lives of the NovdUta 
CioTBan&ntyne'BNoveHsti^ Library), 1820; Life of Buonaparte, 1827 ; 
and the Tales of a Grandfather, 1827-80. It iirould be pleasant to 
think of the great writer as finishing his life with nnabated powers 
and nndimmed popularity. But, in later yearsi the fertile brain was 
■orely taxed, and the evening of his life went down upon one of tho 
most gallant struggles ever recorded. At the outset of his literary 
career he had engaged in business relations with some former school- 
fellows, the Brothers Ballantyne, and ultimately^ although the matter 
was not publicly made known, became a partner in their publishing 
and printing business. In the crisis of 1825-26, Messrs. Ballantyne 
failed, and Soott became liable for a debt of some 117|000^. What- 
ever opinion may be held as to his entanglement in af&irs of this 
nature, there can be but one as to the means which he employed to 
extricate himself from his difficulties. He resolved to devote the 
rest of his life to the service of his creditors; and to that resolve he 
adhered, although his strength gave way under the effort. Paralysis 
attacked him in 1830 and 1831 ; and change of air and scene failed 
to restore his shattered health. He hurried back to die in bis 
beloved home, within sound of the ripple of the Tweed. Prac- 
tically, he had already accomplished his end. At the time of his 
death the enormous obligation had been reduced to 54,000/., and, 
shortly afterwards, this amount too was discharged by advances upon 
hia copyright property and literary remains, and the insurances upon 
his life. 

In 1820 Scott had been made a baronet. It had been the dream 
of his life to found a feunily of Scotts of Abbotsford— that Abbots- 
ford which he had reared upon a farm by the Tweed, and where, 
in the zenith of his fame, he had delighted to surround himself with 
the friends of the present and the trophies and memories of the 
past. It was not given to him to realise his wish. One young lady 
long represented the family.^ But he will be remembered by his 
incomparable romances, and by the nobility and goodness of bis 
character. < Gk>d bless thee, Walter, my man ! ' said an oil relative; 
'thou hast risen to be great, but thou wast always good.' Nearly 
his last words to Lockhart were, ' My dear, be a good man.' 

124. Other ITo^elists.— After Waverley, the throng of novelists, 
historical, domestic, naval, military, becomes so thick that we must 
confine ourselves to the bare mention of a few names and principal 
works. First comes ggtnnah More ( 1745-1833), an industrious 
moralist, and author o f Ckelebs i^ Rtjam^ nfg Wife. 1 809. besides much 
other prose and poetry; BKary Xnssell Mltford (1787-1 855), the 

* There are now seTen children of Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Soott, of Abbotsford ; 
four are sons, of whom the eldest, Walter, came of a^ in April 1896* 


author of the delightful series of sketches of rural life and character 
entiUed Our ViUage, 1824-32 ; Jobn Gait (1779-1839), author of 
the Ayrshire Legatees^ 1820, the Anncda of the Parish^ 1821, the 
Entail, 1823, and other stories of Scottish life; the lively and 
rattling im^owisatore, Tbeodore Hook (1788-1841), author of 
Sayings and Doings, 1826-9, Maxwell, 1830, Gilbert Gumey, 1836, 
Jack Brag, 1836, and a score of other farcical productions; the 
naval novelists, Frederick SSarryat (1792-1848) and Michael 
Scott (1789-1835) — ^the former the author of the Kin^s Own, 
1830, Mr. Midshipman Easy, 1836, Feter Simple, 1834, Jacob Faith- 
ftd, 1834, Poor Jack, 1840, and a long roll of seafaring fictions, for 
parallels to the characters in which we must go back to the Trun- 
nions and Bowlings of Smollett, — the latter of two novels only, Tom 
Cringles Log, 1833, and the Cruise of the MMge, 1834, originally 
published earlier in Blaclewood!s Magazine; and G. P. X. James 
(1801-60), &om whose productive pen some seventy historical 
novels have followed his first successes of Richelieu, 1829, and 
Damley, 1830. But these are only a few of the names. After 
Gait come Miss Ferrier, Lockhart, Professor Wilson, Hogg, and 
Mrs. Johnstone ; after Hook, Mrs. Trollope, Mrs. Gore, Lady Bless- 
ington, Lady Caroline Lamb, and Mr. Plumer Ward ; after Marryat, 
Glasscock and Ghamier. Besides these there are the Lrish novels 
of Lady Morgan, Carleton, Oroker, Banim, and Gerald Griffin, the 
Eastern novels of Morier and Fraser, the novels of Mrs. Smith, Mrs, 
Inchbald, and Mrs. Opie, and a host of others, for brief particulars 
concerning some of which the reader is referred to the Biblio- 
graphical Appendix which concludes these pages. 

125. Tbe Pliilosophers. — ^The first among this group of 
writers is Suirald Stewart (1753-1828), Professor of Moral 
Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, author of the Elements 
oftks Philosophy of Mind, 1792, and Philosophical Essays, 1810. Li 
that year he resigned his Philosophic chair to Tbemas Brown 
(1778-1820), author of an Inquiry into the Relation of Cattse and 
Effect, 1804, and Lectures on the Philosophy of the Suman Mind, 
1820, published posthumously. But perhaps the greatest of the 
philosophers of this chapter was Jeremy Bentliai n (1748-1832), 
the celebrated Utilitarian advocate of *the greatest happineaa o f 
the greatest number,' and founder of the science of jurisprudence. 
Bentham's views have been better expressed by others than by him- 
self—one of his most successful interpreters being the Marquis of 
Lansdowne's Swiss librarian, M. Dumont^ by whom his chief work, 
the Traitis de Ligislation Civile et PSnale, was issued in Frenc^i la 


1802, haTing been compiled in that language &om the authoi^s MSS. 
Other philosophical writers of eminence of the period are T. Mm 
SSalfbiui (1766-1834), author of the irell-known Essay on the 
Principles of Population as ii affects the Future Improvem&nt of 
Society, 1798, and David Hicardo (1772^1823), whose chief work 
was the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 1817. This 
book, in Lord Brougham's opinion, diyided with Malthus's Essay the 
daim to the second place among the books produced in this country 
upon the science of economics. 

126. Tbe BtotoriaiM.— The History of Greece, 1784-1810, by 
IxniUam Mitford (1744-1827), although disfigured by pecu- 
liarities of style, and now, to a great extent, superseded by more 
recent works on the subject, has nevertheless a just claim to be con- 
sidered the most important historical work of the early part of the 
nineteenth century. James Mill (1773-1836), a distinguished 
philosophical and political writer, was the author of an admirable 
History of BrUish India, 1818; and Benry BaUam (1777-1859) 
produced successively his View of the State of Europe during the 
Middle Ages, 1818; Constitutional History of England (from 
Henry VII. to George II.), 1827 ; and Litroduction to the Literature 
of Europe (i.e. during the, XVLth, and centuries), 
1837-9, a book which has been frequently consulted in the course of 
these pages. That so vast a field should have been successfully 
occupied by one man is a matter for admiration.^ Lastly must be 
mentioned Sir James Blackintosli (1765-1832), whose Vindicua 
GaUic<8 appeared in 1791, and whose Beview of the Causes of the BevO" 
lution of 1688, beinga£ragment of a twenty years' meditated History 
of England, was published after his dccith, in 1 834. With thia must 
not be confused the abridged History, prepared by him for Lardnei's 
Cydopadia, 1830-1, and completed after his death by other hands. 

127. Tbe Tbeoloffiane. — ^From the numerous writers under 
this head we select, three only :— ixmilam Paley (1743-1805), 
Bobert BaU (1764-1831), and Tbomas Cbalmere (1780^ 
181 7). The first was the author of the following well-known works :— 
Moral and Poliiicdl Philosophy, 1785 ; Hora Paulina ; or. The Ihith 
of the Scripture History of St, Paul, etc., evinced, 1790; Evidences 
of Christianity, 1794; and Natural Theology, 1802— works still 
remaining, for their happy expository power and clear style, un* 
dimmed in their popularity. Hall, a Baptist minister, was one of 

* The li{storian*8 son, Arthur Henry HaUam, 1811-83, by whose early death 
tho la Memoriam of Tennyson was prompted, was a most gifted and promising 


the most eloquent of modem preacheis, and the few sermons he 
published are highly prized. Chalmers iras a volaminons writer, 
and also a preacher of great reputation. * FervU immensusque ruU* 
says one of his admirers, speaking of his eloquence. It 'rose 
like a tide, a sea, setting in, bearing down upon yon. lifting up aU its 
waves, — ''deep calling unto deep ; " there was no doing anything but 
giving yourself for the time to its wilL' * 

128. BasUtt, Cobbett.— The first-named of these writers, 
WUUam Baalittf 1778-1830, was one of the most sympathetic and 
enthusiastic, albeit partial and paradoxical, of modem critics. His 
chief works are his IHnciples of Human Action^ 1805 ; Characters 
of 8hake8pear^9 Pl^s^ 1817 ; Lectures on English Poetri/, 1818 ; On 
the English Condo WriUrs, 1819 ; On the Dramatic Literature qf the 
Age of Etigabeth, 1821 ; Spirit of the Age^ 1825 ; Life of Napoleon^ 
1828-30, &c. unuiain Cobbett, 1762-1885, was a sturdy ex- 
ample of the * John Bull' breed, who raised himself from a compara- 
tively obscure position to a seat in the House of Commons. As a 
political writer he was violent and an agitator; but his Bural Bides, 
his English Grammar, &c., are distinguished by their common-sense 
style and idiomatic language, 

129. Tbe ^Quarterlies.* — The foundation of the Edinburgh 
Beview in 1802 and the Quarterly Beview in 1808 effected so im- 
portant an advance in critical literature that they cannot be passed 
over in silence. The first was projected in Edinburgh by a knot of 
young men, the eldest of whom was only thirty, when society was still 
violently agitated by the French revolution. Sydney Smifb 
(1771-1845), Vranols JelBrey (1773-1850), Benry Brougham 
(1778-1868), were the most celebrated of tUs little coterie. Smith 
is said to have originated the idea, and indeed edited the first 
number, but the management afterwards fell into the hands of 
Jefirey, perhaps one of the ablest editors that ever lived. From 
1803 to 1829 he conducted the Edinburgh solely, and only ceased to 
contribute to it in 1840. 

The influence over public opinion obtained by the Edinbttrgh gave 
rise, in 1808, to the projection by John Murray, the publisher, with 
the assistance of Scott, Canning, and others, of a grand scheme of 
opposition to the proud critics of Edinburgh — the Quarterly Beview, 
the editorship of which was confided to IVUllam Olfford, already 
noticed as the critic of the Delia Crascans (see p. 160, s. 105), and 
who held the editorial reins from 1808 to 1824. The most distin- 
guished of his successors was Jolm Olbaon Kookhart (1794- 

• ITora Bvhseefvce, 18<}3, 183 : Dr* C^tmers^ 


1854), an admizable biogmph6r->witzie8S his lires of Scott, 1830-d, 
Burfu, 1828, and Napoieon, 1829. 

PreriooB to his afisnmption of the editorship of the Quarter^, 
Lockhait had been one of the chief writers in BlaehoootTs MagO' 
fine (established in 1817), a periodical which may fairly claim to 
be the ancestor of all the shoal of modem monthlies. Qilt, Mrs. 
Hemans, Michael Scott, and some other writers already mentioned 
contributed to its pages. But the soul of 'Maga,' as it was 
familiarly termed, was the famous author of the IsU ofPahnSy 1812, 
the CU$f of the Plague, 1816, and the ' Christopher North' of the 
NocUs AmbrosiaruB (1822-35), Jobn ^TUaon (1785-1854), a writer 
of strange eloquence and dominant power. Jn mentioning these 
works of Professor Wilson, it may be noted that some of the 
writers named abore are also celebrated by works other than those 
contributed to the foregoing periodicals. Sydney Smith, one of the 
keenest and frankest of English wits, wrote an admirable book on 
the Catholics, entitled Peter Ptytnle^s Letters, 1808. Brougham, a 
Hercules of yersatility, was the author of a long list of political, 
biographical, and scientific works, and Gifford edited some of the 
Elizabethan playwrights. Lockhart and Wilson both wrote novels 
of Scottish life and manners. 

130. Tbe Bnunatic IRTriten. — The most illustrious names 
in this branch of literature during the period under review are 
those of Joaima BallUe (1762-1851), J. Sbeiidaa Xaowles 
(1784-1862), and Tbonuw IToon TaUtonrd (1795-1854). Only 
two of Miss BaiUie's phiys on the passions, De Montfort and Hatred, 
were produced on the stage— a fact which points to their suit- 
ability for the cabinet rather than the footlights. On the contrary, 
Virginiue, 1820, The Hunchback, 1832, The Wife, 1833, The Love- 
ehaee, 1837, and others by Knowles still hold the boards. Of the 
plays of Talfourd, Ion, a tragedy upon the Greek models, is the best 
Beference has already been made to the Hemoree of Coleridge. Mrs. 
Cowley ('Anna Maria') is the author of a sprightly comedy, the 
Bellas Stratagem ; Miss Mitford and Miss Edgeworth both produced 
plays ; and Monk Lewis was a fertile dramatist, whose Holla is his 
best remembered work. One play of John Tobln (1770-1804), 
the Honeymoon, 1805, must not be forgotten. But the dramatic 
growths of this chapter are barren as compared with some of those 
which precede it— ly circumstance as significant as it is regrettable. 



[deceased authobs.] 

in. SUmiAItT OF THE PXBIOD.-~^132. THE POETS : HOOD.— 183. 1£B8. BBOWIOKO. 
KILL. — 188. THE THEOL0GIAE8. — 139. THE SGDaiTDIO WBITEB8.— 140. 

131. Sunmary of the Period.— Upon the threshold of these, 
our condDdiDg chapters, it -will perhaps be judicious at the outset to 
direct the reader's attention to the limitation of their range expressed 
bj the words placed in brackets under the title. Most of the distin- 
guished writers of this fast-waning century have already gone over to 
the great majority, although some, we hasten to add, still remain with 
us. Dealing, for divers reasons — of which it is sufficient to indicate the 
poverty of biographical material and the difficulties of contemporary 
criticism — witli * deceased ' authors only, it will be obvious that the 
sketch of the * Modem Age' comprised in these chapters must of neces- 
sity be inadequate and imperfect. And, even with regard to deceased 
authors, it is not always possible to separate the measured utterance 
of just criticism from that * full voice which circles round the grave,' 
or to select only those estimates which are unbiassed by community 
of opinion or nncoloured by personal enthusiasm. In the systematic 
labours of intelligent German and French critics, who, it has often 
been observed, regard our contemporaries with something of the eyes 
with which they will be regarded by our descendants, we might 
perhaps trace out the germs of the judgment which is ultimately to 
be passed upon the Wordsworths and Shelleys, the Smolletts and 
Pieldings of our day. But an investigation such as this would 
involve is wholly beyond the province of the present work; and, in 
the succeeding pages, we shall confine ourselves to reproducing the 



views and opinioiu of native critics, at the same time taking a some- 
what larger license of quotation than we have permitted ourselves 
when dealing with remoter periods. 

The consideration of the works of two of the greatest poets of the 
l^ctorian age, Alfred Tennyson and Bobert Browning, is reserved 
for our concluding chapter, for we rejoice to recall that it is only 
during the last decade that their names have been among those of 
which this volume treats. So, too, with Dante Gabriel Bossetti and 
Christina, his sister ; while William Morris and Coventry Patmore 
have still more recently passed from us. The poets, therefore, who 
fall within the scope of the present chapter are but few, the chief 
among them being Thomas Hood and Mrs. Browning. 

In the department of prose fiction — a department in which this age 
rivals the great masterpieces of the eighteenth century — the losses 
have been more considerable. Although in 1875 the British 
Novelist was still represented by more than one eminent writer and 
a host of minor authors, we had no longer the keen satire and 
polished style of Thackeray, the exuberant vivacity and sentiment 
of Dickens, the scholarly versatility of Lytton, or the dashing narra- 
tive of Lever. Nor had we the fervid imagination of Charlotte 
BrontS, or the delightful domestic painting of Elizabeth Gaskell. 

In History, too, our wealth had been great, and our losses also 
great. Macaulay, Grote, Comewall Lewis, Alison, Milman, Buckle, 
had already gone from among us, and come, therefore, within the 
range of this chapter. In two of these cases the loss was heightened 
by the &ct that death cut short the cherished labour of the author's 
life. The great Histories of Macaulay and Buckle are fragments, 
though fragments from which, as from the ruined arc of some un- 
completed Cyclopean wall, the extent of the ground it was intended 
to enclose may still be conjectured. 

In the ranks of the Philosophers a great breach had been made by 
the disappearance of one of the foremost of modern teachers, John 
Stuart MiU. But we must abridge a catalogue which would grow 
too long. The names of Hamilton and Maurice— of Whewell, 
Muzchison and Herschel — of Hugh Miller, of Mrs. SomerviUe — 
■of De Quincey and Mrs. Jameson, are but a few of those deceased 
authors who are included in these forty years of the ' Modern Age.' 

182. Tlie Poets: Hood. — Some of the drollest and most mirth- 
provoking verse of this century, and some of the most touching and 
pathetic poetry ever written, proceeded from the pen of the author of 
the Song of the Shirt (which first appeared in Punch in 1843) and tho 
Dream of Eugene Aram, 1829. Tbomas Hood (1799-1845) was at 
once an engaging writer and a genial and lovable man, His chief 


works, in chronological order, are Odes and Addresses to Great 
VeopU; Whims and Oddities, 1826; National Tales, 1827; the P^a 
of the Midsummer Fairies, and other Poems, 1828 ; the Comie Annual, 
1830-42; Tynley Hall, a novel, 1834; Up the Ehine, 1840; JPoans, 
1846 ; Poems of Wit and Humour, 1 847. ' In most of Hood's works, 
even in his puns and levities, there is a ** spirit of good " directed to 
some kindly or philanthropic object. He had serious and mournful 
jests, which were the more effective from their strange and unex- 
pected combinations. Those who came to laugh at folly remained 
to sympathise with want and suffering. The '^ various pen " of Hood, 
said Douglas Jerrold, " touched alike the springs of laughter and the 
sources of tears." Charles Lamb said Hood caixied two faces under 
his namesake, a tragic one and a comic' * 

133. Mrs. Browningr* — ^But the greatest name among the poets 
of the present chapter is that of a woman, SUzabetb Barrett 
Brownlnff (1806 f-1861). Delicate health as a child, aggravated by 
the mental shock caused by the sudden death of her brother from 
drowning, condemned Miss Barrett to a darkened room and the life of 
an invalid. Yet in this solitude she ranged through all literature, and 
thence sent forth the splendid emotional poetry, quivering with that 
• humanity and impatience of wrong which are marked characteristics 
of her powerful genius. One of her earliest works was an Essay on 
Mind (in heroics) and other poems, written in 1826. She was an 
accompIfBhed-lifiguist and familiar with the Greek and Latin classics 
— especdadly the former, her keen appreciation of which appeaxs in 
the lines entitled Wine ofOyprus, addressed to her firiend, the blind 
HeUenist, Hugh Stuart Boyd : 

f Oh, OTir iBsohylns, the thtmderocu. 

How he drove the bolted bieath 
Tbrongh the clond, to wedge it ponderoos 

In the gnarl^ oi^ beneath 1 
Oh, our Sophoclee, the royal, 

Who was bom to monarch's place. 
And who made the whole world loyal. 

Less by kingly power than grace 1 

Oar Euripides, the human. 

With his droppings of warm teazB, 
And his touches of things common 

Till they rose to touch the spheresl 
Our Theocoritns, our Bion, 

And omr Pindar's diining goals 1— 
These were ciq>-beaxers nndyiog 

Of the wine that's meant for souls.' t 

• Chambers's Cytltfp. of Eng, LiU ii. 678 ; r, also the charming MtmoHaU of 
TAomas Hood, by his Son and Daughter, 1860. . « ^ «. %i « 

t Mrs. Browning was bom March 6. 1806 (nof 1800), at Coxhoe HWl. Oo, 
Purham. Of, R, Browning's NottiaYol Lot Mrs, Browning's IFiw*#»«d. 1889- W. 


196 nANi>fiooK OF English litseatubI!. 

Her next work (]883) — ^'an early failure' she terms it — ^wai 
tlie afterwards re-written translation of Prometheus Bound ; while 
in 1838 appeared Seraphim, and other Poems. The Cry of the ChiU 
dren, printed in Blackwood (1843), made a great stir, and added 
interest to the first collected edition of Poctm (1844), which con* 
tained mnch new yerse. Among this was Lady GtraldMs Court- 
ship, with its well-known allusion to Bobert Bbowiono, whom 
she married in 1846. After her marriage Mrs. Browning settled in 
Italy, and, as a result of the Italian Beyolutions of 1848 and 1849, 
published her Casa Guidi Windows, 1851, followed in 1860 by an- 
other work as earnestly espousing the Italian cause. Poems before 
Congress. FreTious to this had appeared her masterpiece, Aurora 
Leigh, 1857, a blank Terse poem abounding in autobiography, into 
which, we are told in the preface, * her highest convictions upon Life 
and Art had entered.' This Mr. Buskin considered the greatest poem 
of the century. 

134. Otber Poets. — ^Disregarding chronological order for the 
moment, we mention the only other of the poets belonging to 
this chapter who can be at all compared with Mrs. Browning, 
Adelaide Ann Procter (1826-64), the daughter of *Bany 
Cornwall ' (B. W. Procter), and the author of Legends and Lyrics, 
1858 ; Second Series, 1860. Miss Procter's poems have an individual 
beauty and original grace of fancy which folly entitle them to a 
distinct place in English poetry. Bavld acaebetli BEoir 
(1798-1851), ^TUllam Xdmoiietoiuie Aytoim (1813-1865), and 
Alexander Smith (1830-67), were Scotch poets. Moir, the 
'Delta ' of Blackwood's Magasine, was the author of many delicate 
and beautiful pieces. He also wrote the Hfe of Mansie Waueh, 
TaHor in Dalkeith, 1828, a veiy humorous work, and a series of 
excellent Lectures on the Poetical Literature of the Last Half-Century, 
1851. Aytoun, who succeeded Moir as Professor of Literature and 
Belles Lettres in the University of Edinburgh, was for some years 
editor of Blackwood, and was the author of some spirited ballads 
entitled Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, 1849; also of FirmUian, a 
Spasmodic Tragedy, *by T. Percy Jones,' 1854, in which some 
modem forms of poetry are satirised ; Bothwdl, a Poem, 1856, &c. 
To Aytoun also we owe many of the parodies in the 'Bon Gaultier' 
Book of Ballads, in which his colleague was Sir Theodore Martin, 
the gifted translator of Goethe, Horace, Catullus, and the Viia 
Nuova of Dante. Alexander Smith's works are respectively entitled, 
Poems, 1853 ; City Poems, 1857; and Edwin ofJDeira, 1861. He was 
also the author of a couple of novelSi and of Drcamthorp, 1863| 


ft collection of essays, 'written in the conntry.' FromArUrar 
Buffb Clouirli (1819-1861), Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, we 
haye some of the best existing English hexameters in the 'Long- 
Vacation pastoral,' entitled the Bothie ofTober-na- Vuolich, 1848. His 
collected poems also indnde Amours de Voyage, records of continental 
travel in 1848-9, and Mart Magno, or Tales on Board, written shortly 
before his death. Besides these he prepared a revision of Bryden's 
lyantiation of Plutarch, As a typical Bngby boy of Arnold's time, 
and an Oxonian of the Oxonians, Clough is the darling of many 
modems. Much of what he did was of the best, but much in his 
short life was left undone. He lived, rather than wrote his poem, 
says the author of lus Memoir, ' Few men, it is probable, have 
looked on nature more entirely in the spirit which his favourite 
Wordsworth expressed in the immortal lines on Jintem ; fewer, per- 
haps, in this age have more completely worked out his ideal, " plain 
living and high thinking." ' * 

186. Tlie VowelistSi — Belonging by his brilliant talents and 
renatile successes to almost every department of literature — novelist, 
playwright, essayist, poet^ biographer, orator, translator, politician, 
and historian— Edward Bulwer, Kord Kytton (1803-1873), if not 
by genius, yet by actual priority in the field of fiction, worthily 
heads the list of novelists in the present chapter. A patrician, like 
Shelley and Byron, he had already followed the example of the 
formes by publishing, not a novel, but a poem — lamael, an Oriental 
Tale, dated 1820— before he passed to Cambridge, where, in 1826, 
he took his B.A. degree. In 1825 he was awarded the Chancellor's 
Gold Medal for his poem on Sculpture ; he also then published a 
ooUection of verse entitled Weeds and Wild Flowers, G'Neil, or the 
Bebel, followed in 1827* together with the novel of Falkland (after- 
wards suppressed). His next fiction, Pelham, or the Adventures of a 
Gentleman, 1823, was a success, and with it began the author's sub- 
sequent popularity. He was then three-and-twenty. JPelham was 
succeeded by a long line of ^a^om^The Disownedj 1829 ; JDevereux, 
1829; Paul Cliford, 1830; Eugene Aram, 1832; Godolphin, 1833; 
the Pilgrims of the Bhine, 1834 ; the Last Bags of Pompeii, 1834 ; 
Bienzi, 1885; Ernest Maltravers, 1837; its sequel, Alice, 1838, 
formiug, with the previous book, parts i. and ii. of the Eleusinia ; 
Night and Morning, 1841; Zanoni, 1842; the Last of the Barons, 
1843; Luereiia, 1846; Harold, 1848; the Caxtons, 1849, the first 
of the group of so-called ' Shandean novels ; ' My Novel, 1853 ; Whai 

• F. T. Palgravp, 


will he do with it, 1857 ; A Strange Story , published in All the Year 
Round, 1862 ; Kenelm Chillingly, 1873 ; and the Parisians, 1873, 
the last of irhich, at the time of his death, had commenced its 
anonymous course in BlacktoooeTs Magazine, 

Lord Ljtton's poems after (/Neil, to name the more important 
only, are Eva, and other Poems, 1842; Poems and Ballads tr&nslated. 
from Schiller, and prefaced by an excellent life of that poet, since 
reprinted in the author s collected Essays ; the satire of the I^ew 
THmon, 1847, out of some lines in irhieh arose the now forgotten 
little passage of arms with the late Lord Tennyson ; the epic of King 
Arthur, 1848 ; the Lost Tales of Milettis, 1866, a collection of legends 
in original rhythmical strophes, founded upon, though not directly 
imitating, the G-reek metres ; St, Stephen^ s, 1860 ; and a rersion of the 
Odes of Horace, 18G9, with a preliminaiy life. 

The dramatic works of Lord Lyttoii we shall later refer to. It 
remains to notice some of his more important miscellaneous works. 
These are the famous political pamphlet of the Crisis, 1834, which 
ran through no less than nineteen editions in as many weeks ; the 
Confessions of a Water Patient, 1845; and the two Tolumes of 
Caxtoniana, or Essays on Life, Literature, and Manners, by 
'PisistratnsCaxton,' 1863. 

So wide in range and so diverse in character is the roll of Lord 
Lytton's productions that he often paid the penalty of versatility 
in the lack of response by a public not so elastic as himself. But 
he repeatedly courted the most unbiassed verdicts by issuing his 
works anonymously and declining to lean upon his already acquired 
reputation. Goddphin, the Lady of Lyons, the Caxtons, the New 
Timon, were so given to the world, and it was with a start of 
surprise that people first learned, a week or two after his death, 
that the remarkable Coming Bace and the brilliant Parisians 
were the work of his pen. * Whatever the character Lord Lytton 
essayed to fill, he worked at the object he put before himself with 
conscientious thoroughness until he had completed his design ; and 
if he did not in every walk achieve equal distinction, he failed in none. 
His first efforts in poetry are how but little known, and are scarcely 
referred to, except as curious illustrations of Lord Byron's influence 
over his generation ; nor is it likely that King Arthur will belong 
remembered in his Epic ; but in later years liOrd Lytton discovered 
the true limitji. of his poetic power. The vigour, wit, and polish of 
St, 8tephen*s entitle him to high rank in Uie masculine school of 
Dryden and Pope ; the Lost Tales of Miletus have charmed scholars 
with their playful fancy, and the translations from Schiller have 


been ronched by Mr. Carlyle as the versions an English reader 
should consult who wishes to know the lyrics of the great German 
author. Those who are most familiar with LordLytton's essays are 
most fond of them, and are most persuaded that they haye never 
received fit recognition. • . The author of the Lady of Lyons was 
flattered by the preference of eveiy actress on the stage for the part 
of Pauline ; and the audience in the most fastidious of our theatres 
have welcomed Money every night for more than six months past. 
The whole world knows his fame as Orator and Novelist, and re- 
members the singular range of knowledge and experience upon 
which he built up his success.'* * We have no hesitation in a£Brm- 
ing/ says another high critical authority, * that» in the last years of 
his life, LordLytton was not only the foremost novelist^ but the most 
eminent living writer in English lit«rature.'t 

The life of the next great novelist of the 'Modem Age' was 
written under singular advantages, nearly a generation ago, by a 
well-known pen.^ Whether, on the whole, Mr. Forstei^s Life adds 
to or detracts from the personal prestige of the brilliant and genial 
writer whose friend and literary executor he was, our readers must 
judge for themselves. In these pages, the literary rather than the 
personal aspect of an author is the chief consideration, and the 
record of his working life would often alone absorb the whole space 
we can assign to him. Cliarles Sickens (1812-70) was bom at 
Landport, in Portsea, his father being a clerk in the Navy Pay 
Office, and at that time stationed at Portsmouth. As a child, h' 
delighted in reading, and chance directed him chiefly to the works of 
Cervantes, Le Sage, and the eighteenth-centuiy classics which formed 
his father^s little library. But this congenial course of training did not 
last. Thefatherwas transferred to London,fell into difficulties, passed 
into the Marshalsea prison, and his son was obliged to earn his living 
by a very subordinate employment in a warehouse in the Strand, 
In 1824, he was again sent to school (he had received some previous 
education at Chatham), and, in 1827, entered the office of a solicitor 
— a profession which he did not long pursue. Most of his early ex- 
periences have left their traces in his novels. The warehouse period 
is pretty accurately depicted in the earlier chapters of David Cojpper' 
field, as also the later school reminiscences ; those of the prison days 
reappear in Picktcick and Bleak Eouse, while it is doubtless to his 

* 7Vmef,-January 20tb, 1878. 
t Quarterly RevieWy April, 1878. 

X V, Hie L{te of Charlet IHcken*, by John Fonter, the third and ooDdaffinf 
volome of which appeared in February, 1874* 


l<gAl apprenticeship that we owe Uriah Heep, Dodson and Fogg* 
Sampson Brass, and the inimitable Dick Swiveller. 

After leaving the law he set himself to the stndy of shorthand 
(«. chap. zzxviiL of David Copperjield on this head), and commenced 
reporting for the newspapers. Of the amenities of reporting in those 
days he gave a graphic aoconnt, in 1866, at the Newspaper Press 
Fimd dinner. It was during this time that he began his first 
literary work in the shape of the sketches afterwazds published, in 
1 836, under the title of Sketches hy Boz —Boa being a &mily pet-name* 
The success of these gave rise to his association with Seymour, the 
artist, upon the scheme which subsequently grew into tiie fl&mons 
Foitkuimoue Papers of The Pickwick Clvbt published in a complete 
form in 1837. The overrunning humour, the geniality, the fresh- 
ness, and the unflagging spirits of the story were irresistible. And 
here we take leave to quote a few words which explain some currently 
imputed characteristics of the further work of this popular humourist 
' Facetioosness pushed to extravagance was the fundamental idea of 
Picktoiok, The characters were likenesses of actual persons with 
the salient peculiarities and weaknesses exaggerated. • • He 
(Dickens) was tempted to go on colouring highly in works which were 
framed upon a different principle. • • A tendency to indulge in 
melodramatio effects and overdrawn traits soon began to mar 
delineations which otherwise were traced by the hand of a master. 
The vice increased in his later works after he had traversed the 
round of his extensive observation, and fell back upon the artificial 
creations of his fancy. Even his humour which flowed in such a 
Aill tide, and appeared for many years to be inexhaustible, could 
not stream on in the plenitude of its affluence for ever, and as it 
became less spontaneous and brilliant he tried to give zest to his 
characters by magni^ring their eccentricities.'* Thus much in 
anticipation. But he had a long course of triumphs before him 
ere he arrived at those later efforts to which the foregoing remarks 
are most justly applicable, and even then his immense influence and 
popularity remained unaffected by them. To Pickwick succeeded 
Oliver Ikoist and the Life and Adventures of Nicholas Niekleby, with 
its * Dotheboys Hall,' 1839 ; the Old Curiosity Shop, 1840 ; Bamaby 
Budge, 1841 ; the Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit, with 
its mimitable hypocrite Pecksniff 1844 ; Dealings with the Firm of 
Dombeg and Son, Wholesale, Betail, and for Exportation, 1848 ; the 
Personal Historg qf David Copperfidd, its author's * favourite child,' 
1850 ; Bleak House, 1853 ; Hard Times, 1854 ; Little Dorrit, 1857 ; a 

* Quarterly Review, Zeamuj, 1873, 140 (oaaxttO 


Tales of Two Cities, 1869 ; Great Expeetatione, 1861 ; Our Mutmt 
Frimd, 1866; and the unfinished Mystery (f Edwin Drood, 1870» 
Most of these books were published in the serial form of Pickwick^ 
or in the pages of the weekly periodical started by Dickens in 1850 
under the name of Household Words, which after being temporarily 
merged in All the Year Bound again exists under its old name. 
Besides these there was the series of delightful Christmas Stories^ 
which, commenced in 1843 by A Christmas Carol in Prose, wslb oon« 
tinned by the Chimes, 1844 ; the Cricket on the Hearth, 1846 ; the 
Battle qfUfe, 1846 ; and the Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain^ 
1848. The Essays entitled the Uncommercial Traveller (1860), 
American Notes for General Circulation, 1842, Pictures from Italy, 
1846, and a Child^s History of England, 1864, are the most impor- 
tant of his remaining works. 

Dickens died on the 9th June, 1870 ; and the generation for whom 
(to borrow a phrase from that epitaph on Ck)ldsmith which Johnson 
10 obstinately refused to write in English) he had been sive risus 
essemt manendi, sive laerima, affeetuum potens at lenis dominator, 
decreed him a resting-place in Foef s Comer. The time has scarcely 
aniTed for an exact appreciation of his position as a writer. Some 
of his more obvious defects have been hinted at abore ; but his 
merits are far in excess of his fSiults. In his initial lines Mr. 
Forster calls him 'the most popular author of his day and one of 
the greatest humourists the age has produced,' and this qualification 
will, in all probability, be endorsed without reservation by the race of 
readers who have laughed over the wit of Sam Weller, and pitied the 
sorrows of Little Nell — ^have rejoiced in the eccentricities of Micawber 
and Mrs. Gamp, or shuddered with the ghastly horror of Jonas 
Chusalewit. Future critics will classify his a£fectations, and appraise 
his attempts at reforming abuses ; they will note the limitations of 
his art and range of character; but they cannot fail, at the same 
time, to render justice to his yivid imagination, his genial humour, 
his earnestness, his humanity, and, above all, his purity. ' I think 
of these past writers (Sterne, &c.), and of one who lives among us 
now,' said his great rival Thackeray, * and am grateM for the inno- 
cent laughter and the sweet and unsollied page which the author of 
Datfid Copperfidd gives to my children.'* 

The * green leaves * of the Piekwiek Papers had long fluttered into 
English households, and other fictions as genial and humourfhl had 
•neoeeded thei)^, before the name of another writer whom most of us 

en the BugWh Bumouristt, 18M, 810 : SItme mt4 MdemUh, 


delight to hononr made its appearance on librarjr tables. William 
Makepeace Tbackeray (1811-63) was a man of siz-and-thirty 
when Vanitf/ Fair was first issued in monthly cumbers. Bom in 
Calcutta, he had come to England at the age of five. He was 
educated at the Charter House ; afterwards at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was the contemporary of Tennyson, John Sterling, 
and Lord Houghton. He left the university without taking a degree. 
His means were ample, and, until they were reduced by an unfor- 
tunate business connection, relieyed him from the necessity of adopt- 
ing a profession ; and he trayelled leisurely through Europe, visiting 
its capitals. It was at this period that he had the interview with 
Goethe at Weimar, the circumstances of which he relates in a letter 
published in Lewes's life of that poet.* When it became necessary 
for him to increase his income by his own exertions, he for a time 
leaned toward art, which he still continued to study at Paris. * But 
it was destined,' says one of his few biographers, ' that he should 
paint in colours which will never crack and never need restoration. 
All his artist experience did him just as much good in literature as 
it could have in any other way ; and in travelling through Europe 
to see pictures, he learned not them only, but men, manners, and 
languages. He read German ; he knew French well and spoke it 
elegantly ; and in market-places, salons, hotels, museums, studios, 
the sketch-book of his mind was always filling itself.'t 

At the age of thirty, then, he began to direct his attention to 
literature. His earlier labours, not now always to be traced, were 
anonymous or pseudonymous. ' He wrote letters in the Times under 
the signature of Manlius Pennialinus.' He contributed to reviews 
— ^to newspapers. He wrote for Fraser*s Magagine (established in 
1830), for Funch (established in 1841), and for many other publica- 
tions. Much of his work from 1 84 1 to 1 847 is contained in the volumes 
of Miscellanies t published in 1857. Not comprised in these, however, 
are the Paris Sketch Book, 1840 ; the Second Funeral of Napoleon^ 
1841 ; and the Irish Sketch Book, 1843, all published under his 
favourite nom de plume of * Michael Angelo Titmarsh,' — * a name in 
which the dream of the artist still haunted the fancy of the humouristi' 
The list of the Miscellanies is too long for repetition. But in the touch- 
ing Histori/ of Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty Diamond he 
had already put forth his strength, and in the Memdrs of Barry 
Lyndon, Esq,, he had tried the ground of Esmond', The Misodtaniea 
contain, besides, (he YeUoW'Hush Papers, with their wonderful spell- 

• Lewes's Life of Goethe, 1864, 655. 

t Bri^ Memoir nf Thackerayt hy James Hoonay, 1864, 9-l9» 


iog, the Book of Snobs, contributed to Punch ; the excellent parodies 
entitled NoveU by Eminent Sands {m, Bulwer, Leyer, G-.F. B. James, 
Disraeli, &c.)> ^^'^ the Ballads, * His (Thackeray's) poetic vein/ says 
Hannay, ' was cnrionsly original.' 'Foetiy was not the predominant 
mood of his mind, or the intellectnal law by which the objects of his 
thonght and observation were arranged and classified. Bnt inside his 
fine common-sense understanding, there was, so to speak, a pool of 
poetry — ^like the impluvium in the hall of a Boman house, which 
gave an air of coolness and freshness and nature to the solid 
marble columns and tesselated floor.' * The Chronicle of the Brum 
is perhaps his highest poetical effort; but for the genuine 
Thackerean mixture of humour and pathos the reader is referred 
to the Ballad qf Bouillabaisse, the Cane-bottomed Chair, Ho, pretty 
poffs foith the dimpled chin, the bright little paraphrase of Persicos 
odi; and other familiar specimens. 

To return to his prose writings. In 1847f with a completed train- 
ing and a perfected style, he came before the world with his first 
great book — ^which, as usual, had been declined by publisher after 
publisher, like many another masterpiece from Bobinson Crusoe to 
Jane "Eyre, This was Vanity Fair, a Novel without a Hero, written in 
1846>7~8, and which, aided by an appreciative article in the Quarterly, 
gradually compelled its audience. It was * the key with which he 
opened the door of his fame.' Inconsecutiye and irregular as was 
the plot (the incidents succeed each other as in ordinary life), it 
soon * became known that a new delineator of life was at work in 
society, and one whose pen was as keen as the dissecting knife of 
the surgeon. An author had sprung up who dared to shame society 
by a strong and manly scorn, and by proclaiming that it ought to 
loathe [doihe?] itself in dust and ashes. The world was not un- 
willing to read the reflection of its foibles and its vices mirrored with 
so much wit, originality, and genius.'t 

Vanity Fair was followed, in 1860, by the ^story of Pendennis, 
his Fortunes and his Misfortunes, his Friends and his greatest Enemy, 
The author's object was to describe the career of an ordinary Engli^ 
gentleman, * no better nor worse than most educated men . • . with 
the notorious foibles and selfishness of their lives and their educa- 
tion.' The picture is accurate in the last degree, and it is perhaps by 
reason of its undraped, unvarnished truthfulness that we like the hero» 
Pendennis, no better than the hero Tom Jones. Tom Jones was a 
' sorry scoundrel ;' and there is reason for acquiescing in the verdict 

 Brttf Memoir of Thackeray, by James Hannay, 1864, 10. 

t Edinburgh Review, Jannary, 1873. 101 rcxzzvii.) : The WwH ^ Thafieraim 


of a modem critic that Pendennis is a 'poor creature/ But th« 
drawing of the subordinate characters is to the full as keen and fine 
as that of those in Vanity Fair, and the old tuft-hunter, Mi^or 
Pendennis, may fairly stand comparison with Lord Steyne and Sir 
Pitt Crawley, the 'wicked nobleman' and the Tulgar baronet of the 
earlier noTcL 

We must pass more rapidly oyer Thackeray's later works. Vanity 
Fair and JPendentM had appeared in the serial form. His next 
work, the History of Henry Esmond, Esq,, a Colonel in the service 
of her Mqfesty Queen Anne, Written by Himself 1862, came out in the 
ordinary three yolumes of circulating libraries — a fact which partly 
explains its superior artistic unity. Thackeray delighted in the pseudo- 
Augustan age, and has reproduced with marvellous skill its manners, 
thoughts, feelings, and style.* ' Queen Anne's colonel writes his 
life — and a very interesting one it is—just as such a Queen Anne*s 
colonel might be expected to write it ; ' and in this respect alone 
the book is on all hands regarded as a remarkable tour deforce. In 
his next, he reverted to the familiar 'yellow covers,' producing a 
work which divides with VanUyFair thehonourof being his master- 
piece, i,e, — The Newcomes: Memoirs of a most resfpectable Famly, 
Edited by Arthur Pendennis, Esq,, 1855. This contains that admirable 
character of the old Indian officer and gentleman, Colonel Newcomct 
for a parallel to whom one must revert to * My Unde Toby * or Don 
Quixote ; and one of the most charming of the author^s feminine 
creations, — after Lady Castlewood in Esm/md, — ^the colonel's niece, 
Ethel. The moral, if there be a moral to the book, is the evil arising 
firom ill-assorted marriages. The Virginians, a Tale of the last Century, 
1859, narrates the fortunes of Esmond's grandsons. Lovel, the 
Widower, a Novelette, 1860 ; the Adventures of Philip on his Way 
through the World, showing Who Bobbed Him, Who HdpedHim, and 
Who Passed Him by, 1862; and the beautiful fragment of Denis 
Duval, in which he returns to his favourite century, and the progress 
of which was checked by his death in 1863, are the chief of his re- 
maining works. Like Bulwer, like Dickens, he died in harness. 

From the foregoing paragraphs some of Thackeray's minor works, 
such as the series of Christmas stories which appeared from 1847 
to 1854 (including the delicious ' Fireside Pantomime ' entitled the 
Boss and the Bing; or the Adventures of Prince Giglio and Prince 
Bulbo, 1854), have, for want of space, been intentionally omitted. 
But the famous Lectures on the English Humourists of the Eighteenth 

• Of. the alleged apeetator * for Tuesday, April 1, 1712,* containing the stoiy 
fif Jocasta, bk« iU. chap, iii* 

TH£ IfODEftiY A6£ (bEC£AS£D ADTfiOBS). 205 

tleniurp, dellyered in 1851, and the Lectures on the Four Georgeif 
Sketches of Manners, Morals, Court and Tovm Life, deliTored in 
1855-7i cannot be so passed over. The pictures of Hogarth, Steele^ 
Addison, and Fielding in the first-named of these works are in the 
author^s best style, but irith Swift and Sterne his sympathies (and 
many will say rightly) appear to hare been imperfect. * He came 
to the task of painting Swift prgndiced by Swift's ferocity, jnst as 
to that of painting Steele and Goldsmith, prejudiced by their kindli- 
ness, helplessness, and general weakness ;' * and hence the sketches 
of the Humourists hare been called * models of writing, if not of bio- 
graphy.' Indeed, as regards style and beauty of composition, 
Thackeray had few equals. The Four Georges (sufficiently described 
by their sub-title), appeared in 1860 in the OomhUl Magaems, the 
herald Tonture of a long list of shilling monthlies, which date from 
the success of this one, launched under the prestige of the great 
novelist's editorship in January 1860. In it were published his last 
two novels and the fragment of a third, besides the mellow and 
kindly Montaigne-like causeries entitled Roundabout Vapers. 

'"Ml, Thackeray's humour,' says Brimley, 'does not mainly 
consist in the creation of oddities of manner, habit, or feeling ; but 
in so representing actual men and women as to excite a sense of 
incongruity in the reader's mind — a feeling that the follies and vices 
described are deviations from an ideal of humanity always present 
to the writer. The real is described vividly, with that perception of 
individuality which constitutes the artist; but the description 
implies and suggests a standard higher than itself, not by any direct 
assertion of such a standard, but by an unmistakable irony. • . 
It is this which makes Mr. Thackeray a profound moralist, just as 
Hogarth showed his knowledge of perspective by drawing a land- 
scape throughout in violation of its rules.'t ' He had no notion,' says 
another writer, ' that much could be done by telling people to be 
good. He found it more telling to show that by being otherwise 
they were in danger of becoming unhappy, ridiculous, and contemp- 
tible. Tet he did not altogether neglect positive teaching. Many 
passages might be taken from his works — even from the remorseless 
Sook 6f Snobs itself— which indicate the beauty of goodness ; and 
the whole tendency of his writing, from the first to the last line he 

* Thaeieray an Steiftf by J. Hiannay : Temple Bar^ Oct. 1867. The SumoHristi 
was annotated, for the author, by Mr. Hannay, to 'whose information about the 
noyelist we may add that of Anthony Trollope^ in the Men qf Letters Series, 
1S79, and of Messrs. Merivale and Marzials, Great Writers Series, 1891. The latter 
contained some hitherto unpublished facts. 

t Brimley, Etsayi^ 18C0, 25M : Esmond, 


penned during a long and active literazy life, has invonably been to, 
inspire a reverence for manliness and pnrity and truth/ ^ 

Contemporaiy with Dickens, with Thackeray, and with Bulwer, 
the two former of whom he survived, comes another novelist 
endeared to this generation, Cliarles laever (1806-72). Educated 
at Trinity College, DubUn, and Gottingen, Lever began life as 
a physician, afterwards occupying diplomatic posts at Florence, 
Spezzia, and Trieste, at which last place he died. In 1837» he b^an 
a series of racy sketches in the Dublin Magazine under the title of 
the Cor^easUma of Harry Lorrequer, succeeded, in 1840, by Charles 
(/MaUey, the Irish Dragoon, The welcome accorded to the spirit 
and dash of these works assured his popularity and determined his 
career. It is not needful for us to recall the long list of his novels, 
from those above named to his last in the Comhill Magaeine^Lord 
KUgobbin, 1871. Blackwood, the Dublin University, JU the Year 
Sound, Sti Pat^Z'tf— each knew his pen and his unflagging powers. 
Long experience of the ins and outs of continental life give a singular 
variety and zest to his social sketches, and though his types are not 
universal, nor does he sound the deeper chords, yet in the delinea- 
tion of lower Irish life he has had few rivals. 

This age is rich in the works of women. To one in particular 
of the three daughters of a clergyman, living in a small and ob- 
scure provincial parsonage, we owe some of the most remarkable 
of modern novels. Cbarlotte« Siiil]y« and Ann Bronte were 
the daughters of the Eev« Patrick Bront^ perpetual curate of 
Haworth, in Yorkshire. Charlotte, the most gifted of the trio, 
was born in 1816, and died in 1855, having lost her sisters in 
1848 and 1849 respectively. Imaginative composition appears to 
have been an early amusement of the motherless girl|^ for, between 
1829 and 1830, they had produced as many as twenty^two volumes 
of MS., much of which was in a hand as small as the minute 
extract-type of the present volume.t In 1 846, preserving their initials 
under the pseudonyms of * Currer,* * EUis,* and * Acton Bell,* the 
sisters published a volume of miscellaneous poems without much 
success. Each had about this time a novel ready for the press. 
Emily and Ann succeeded in publishing their tales of WtUl 
Heights BXid Agnes Gre y together in 1847; Charlotte's Priyessor 
(afterwards published posthumously) was however declined. But* by 
1847, she had completed a masterpiece — ^the novel of Jane Eyre* 
This, issued by Messrs. Smith and Elder in the October of that year, 

» [Dr. John Brown], N, BritUh Bev,, Fetenary, 1864, 2(9 (xU) 
t r, /'ttc-«mi7e in the ^V"* by Mn, QaakeU, 


attz&eted immediftte attention, and the public interest was subse- 
quently greatly heightened by the disclosure of the author's sex. 
Jane Ej/re was followed, in 1849, by Shirley, and, in 1852, by 
ViUetie, In 1854 the now popular authoress was married to the 
Hey. A. B. NichoUs, and died in the following year. Her novels 
are too well known to need much detailed description here. The 
vigour, the white-heat of imagination, the pulsating eloquence of 
Jane Eyre still hold the modem reader as they did that more pro- 
fessional ' reader ' to Messrs. Smith and Elder's firm, who sat up all 
night to finish the MS. * Jane Eyre ' (we are translating from the 
French reviewer whom the authoress said appreciated her best) ' is 
not only Miss Bronte's finest romance, but it is the finest of con- 
temporary romances.'^ 

Shortly after Charlotte BrontS died, an already well-known 
novelist and personal friend published her Xt/e, 1857, a work 
which, bating some inaccuracies removed from subsequent editions, 
is a model of a biography. Little is known of the life of the writer, 
Mrs. BUsabetb Ckwkell (1810-65), beyond the fact that she was 
the wife of a Unitarian minister in Manchester. Before the appear- 
ance of the life of Mrs. NichoUs, she had published the novels of 
fiffiHi' T^'"^^\ ^"^^1 'a picture of Manchester life,' having for its 
groundwork the depression of trade in 1841-2 ; Buih, and Cranford, 
1853 ; and North and South, 1855. Her subsequent tales are Sylvia's 
Lovers, 1863, a stoty of the last century, which takes place in a little 
Northern whaling village; the beaatiful cabinet-picture entitled 
Co^n PhUlia ; and the unfinished yet ddlightM tale of Wives 
and Daughters, 1 865. The sweet, truth^l, and pttxe domestic pictures 
in this most charming of modem novels of everyday Hfe will not 
require to be further described here. 

Of the novelists of the last epoch, many 'might be as fairly placed 
in this one, since several, e.g. Marryat, Hook, and G-. P. B. James, 
continued to write long after the year 1835, at which this chapter 
begins. To the fictions of Bood, Molr, and Alexander Smitb a 
reference has already been made. Those of »oagrUui Jerrold 
wiU be noticed under the" * Dramatic Writers.* Among the remain- 
ing deceased novelists must be mentioned -flamtiel Itover, 1797- 
1868, an admirable song-writer, and author of the Irish tales of Rory 
O'More, 1837; Handy Andy, 1842; and Treasure Trove, 1844; 
&eitob Bitelile (1800-65), sometime editor of Chambers's Joumat^ 

• M. BmUe Mont^gut, Revue de Deux Mondet^ July 15, 1867. Mr. Augustine 
Blrrell liaa written a life for the Great Writers Series, 1887. Mr. Clement Shorter a 
eagerly expected Charlotte Bronti anct her Circle has just appeared, 1896. 


and author of Wearyfoot Common, 1854, and other tales; 
&emoB (1809-70), editor of Funcht and anthor of seyeral genial 
novels and acting plays; Jamas Haimay (1827-1873), a distin- 
guished critic (to whose labours on Thackeray, Smollett, and others, 
this woik has been more than once indebted), and author of the nauti- 
cal novels of SingUUm Fvuteuoy, 1850, and Euttace C&nyen, 1855 ; 
J. S. &e ran(1814wi873),authorof ITa^ 8ila$, the Hmue by the 
Ckmrchywrdf and other sombre and powerfol works belonging to 
the * Sensational School' of modem fiction; and a crowd of minor 
writers quo9 mme peneribere longum ut. 

136. The BlstoiiaBs. — ^If the New Zealander, so often referred 
to by contemporaiy journalists, should chance hereafter to extend his 
inquiries into the historical literature of this age, he will probably 
arrive at the conclusion that the writer, by whom he was practically 
introduced to the public of this country, was the most brilliant, and 
certainly the most popular, of modem English historians. Tlioiiias 
BablBgtOB BKaeanlaj (1800-1859) was bom at Bothley Temple 
in Leicestershire, his father being the well-known Abolitionist, 
Zachary Macaulay. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge^ 
where, in 1819, he obtained a medal for a poem on Pcwipm ; and, 
in 1821, was elected Graven University Scholar, gaining, in the same 
year, another medal for a poem on Eventide, In 1822, he became 
BJLf and won a prize for an essay on William III. In 1824, he 
was elected Fellow; in 1826, he was called to the bar. As a bar- 
rister he made no great figure, and after his return to Parliament as 
member for Galne, in 1830, did not long continue to practise. But, 
on the other hand, he had early devoted his mind to literatnre ; 
and, between June, 1823, and November, 1824, contributed nui&erous 
papers and poems to [Charles] KnighVe Quarterly Magazine, in 
some of which his bias towards historical composition may be 
already discerned. A more important production than these, how- 
ever, was his essay on a writer whose works had been his favourite 
study from boyhood (he is said indeed to have literally known 
Paradite Lost by heart), namely, the Essay on MUton, which 
appeared in the Edinburgh Seview for 18257 This was the ' fiying- 
post ' of that famous series, which (to use one of his favourite phrases) 
may now, in one way or other, be truly said to be * known to every 
school-boy.' In 1828 appeared, among others, the Essay on Dryden 
(included in the Miscellaneous Writings) and that on HaUam ; in 1831, 
Byron and Johnson \ in \%Z2, Burleigh \ \%Z^,Biti\ 1837. Bacon \ 
1838, Sir W, Temple \ 1839, Church and State; 1840, Clive and the 
Lives qfthe Topes ; 1841, Comio Dramatists of the Sestoratipn and 


Warren Hastings; 1843, Madame jyjrhlay and Addison, In these 
esBsys ' theire is hardlj an important period/ says Dean Milman, 
< at least in our later histoiy, which has not passed under his review. 
. . . Bnrleigh gires ns the reign of Elizabeth ; Bacon, that of 
James L ; Hilton and Hampden, of Charles L and the Kepublic ; 
Temple (with Mackintosh's History), Charles U. and the Bevolution ; 
Horace Walpde, Chatham, Fitt, the Georges ; Clive and Hastings, the 
rise of our Indian Empire. The variety of topics is almost as nothing 
to the variety of information on every topic : he seems to have read 
everything, and to recollect all that he had read.' * 

During his absence in India as President of the Law Commission 
(1834-38), he had found leisure to continue his contributions to the 
Edinhwrgh, But now he was desirous of devoting himself to a life- 
long project, as present to his ambitions throughout as his Epic 
to Milton, namely, the History of England, * from the accession of 
James U. to a time which is in the memory of men yet living.' In 
1847 he lost his seat for Edinburgh, to which he was elected in 
1839, and set to work in earnest at his long-cherished scheme. 
He was returned again for Edinburgh in 1852 ; but his parliamen- 
tary life may be said to have terminated with the reverse of 1847. 
In 1849, to complete the few remaining particulars of his life, he 
was made Lord Hector of the University of Glasgow ; and, in 1857> 
raised to the peerage as Baron Macaulay of Bothley, in Leicester- 
shire. Two years later he died (December 28, 1859), and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

The proposed extent of the famous History which absorbed his 
later ye$Lrs (for, with the exception of Lives of Bunyan, 1854; 
Goldsmith, 1856 ; Johnson, 1856 ; Piit, 1859 ; and Atterbury, 1853, 
writton for the Encydoptedia Britannica, he produced no other 
literary work), has been given from his opening lines. It reached, 
however, no further than the death of William III. The first pair 
of volumes appeared in 1849. Two more, expected breathlessly by 
the public, succeeded in 1855, and a fifth volume was published 
after his death. The extraordinary demand for this book forms a 
memorable event in publishing annals; and, despite its ac- 
knowledged sacrifices to efiect and contrast, its reputation as a 
classic is a fact too common for repetition. The vast aggregation of 
facts and details, the lucid and sonorous style, the animation of the 
descriptions, and the critical vigour of the work as a whole, will 
survive the chippings and scrapings to which certain parts have been 

• Memoir of Lord Macaulay, 1864, xix. Sir G. 0. Trevelyan's Life and Letter* 
ol bis uucle appeared iu 1876, and is now accessible in a cheap form. 


In 1842, Lord Macaulay^had cdme bcforo the world as a poet 
wi^ the spirited Lays of Ancient Rome the volume two of 
his earlier contnDuuons to KmjhtS'^uarterly Moffogine, the Battle 
of Iwy and the kindling fragment of the Armada, The four Eoman 
ballads, too, are fragmentary. The subjects are re^ectively the 
keeping of the bridge by HoratiuSf the death of Virffiniaf the Battle 
of the Lake BeffiUus, and the Prophecy of Capya, The authored 
object, he says in his preface, * has been to transform some portions 
of early Eoman history back into the poetry of which they were 
made.' They were spoken * in the persons of ancient minstrels, who 
knew only what a Eoman citizen, bom three or four years befbre 
the Christian sera, may be supposed to have known, and who are 
in nowise above the passions and prejudices of their age and 
nation.' This standpoint will explain the limits and reservations of 
these noble lays. Action rather than passion is their leading 
characteristic. Thoy are of the race of the Homeric poems and the 
Old English ballads, and deserve the praise of Sidney concerning 
the latter that they ' move the heart more than with a trumpet.' 

Two of Macaula/s characteristics — his powers as a talker, and 
his marvellous memory — deserve especial record. In the former 
talent he fairly rivalled Johnson and Coleridge ; and, as in their 
cases, his complete absorption of the conversation has sometimes 
been made the subject of jealous comment. * His thoughts,' says 
Dean Milman, 'were like lightning, and clothed themselves at once 
in words. While other men were thinking what they should say, 
and how they should say it, Macaulay had said it all, and a great 
deal more.' On the other hand, his retentiveness was as remark- 
able as Scott's or Fuller's. He would quote books and authorities 
in conversation as freely as though he had the works themselves 
under his eye' as he spoke. Nor did his power of recollection lie 
only in his own sulgects, but grasped the last fugitive squib or 
ho'ti-mot as securely as Milton's epic or a broadside for the History. 

The animated spirit of the Eoman BaUads of Macaulay drew 
.from Brougham a wish that he would turn his thoughts to a History 
qf Bome^ — a suggestion which, as it would have further diverted the 
author from his unfinished masterpiece, we may be thankful was never 
acted upon. But the investigations to which the theories of Kiebuhr 
as to the fabulous originals of early Eoman History (warmly advo- 
cated by Tbomas Aniold» 1795-1842, in his unfinished SUtory 
qf Borne) had given rise, were continued by more than one illustrious 
scholar. Such an one was Sir Geor§re ComewaU Kewte 
(1806-63), Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1866-8, and previously 


editor of the EdMurffh Seview, Besides translations of Soeckh on 
the Publio .Economy of Athens, of K. 0. Mulleins Lorio Race, and (with 
Dr. Donaldson) of the latter*s unfinished Literature ofJncient Greece, 
Sir G. C. Lewis wrote an Enguiri/ into the CredibiUiy of the Early 
Roman History, 1855, in which he combats Niebnhr's views, and 
* not onlj the results of his investigations, but the method bj which 
he has arrived at them. He not only rejects Niebuhr's views as 
untenable, but maintains that it is impossible they should be other- 
wise. • • We do not believe that the future historian of Home will 
acquiesce in his sweeping scepticism ; but he will undoubtedly be 
indebted to him for the most ample and complete examination of 
his materials ; and will . derive from his elaborate essay that ad- 
vantage which must always proceed from every fresh examination 
of an obscure subject by an independent and original thinker/ * 
Other works by this author axe On the Origin and Formation of the 
Romance Languages, 1835 ; On the Use and Abuse ofPoliiical Terms ; 
On the Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion, 1849, &c. 

The History of Greece, by Mitford {see p. 190, s. 126), was followed 
in 1 835~40, by a work bearing the same title, but of stricter scholar- 
ship and more extensive research, from the pen of Sr. Connop 
Tbirlwall (1797-1875). Both books have been now superseded 
by the labours in the same field of Ctoorffe Grote (1794-1871)t who, 
after spending nearly thirty years of his life as a London banker, 
retired from business in 1843, and set to work in earnest to write a 
third and still more elaborate history, the materials for which he had 
for twenty years been accumulating. The first two volumes were 
published in 1846; the twelfth and last appeared in 1856. It 
was said by Hallam that he never knew a book take so rapid a 
flight to the highest summits of fame as this history. * All other 
"Histories** of Greece,* wrote Sir Comewall Lewis to the author 
upon its conclusion, * are superseded by your work ;■ and those who 
treat the subject hereafter must take your treatment of it as their 
starting-point. The established character of your ** £[istory *' at our 
Universities, where its political principles would not make it accept- 
able, is a remarkable fact., and is creditable both to you and to 
them.* t Ghrote was Member for London from 1832 to 1841 ; and 
his political principles were those of the little group styled ' Philo- 
sophical Badicals,* | — ^principles which had attracted himto Greciaa 

* Quarterly Review, Harch, 1856, 825, 852 (xcviii.) 

t Pertonal lAf* of Oeorge Orote, by Mrs. Grote, 1873, 225. 

t Defined by J. S. Mill as those * who in politics observe the common manner 
of philosophera— that is, who, when they are discussing means, begin 1^ con- 
sidering the end, and when they desire to produce effects, think Of caiUMto.' 


liistoiy 88 a theme for hb pen. * The idealised democracy of Athens* 
as Mr. Grote regarded it, is an ever-living protest against those 
forms of monarchical, aristocratic, and priestly government which 
he abhorred.'* His next work, Plato and the other Companions of 
Sokrates, appeared in 1865, and dealt with G-reek speculation and 
philosophy. A companion work on Aristotle was in progress at his 
death, and two volumes of it have since been published. Some con- 
tributions to reviews excepted, a small volume of letters on Swiss 
Polities, 1847, is his only other noticeable work. He was elected 
a Trustee of the British Museum, 1859 ; Vice-Chancellor of the 
London University, 1862 ; and President of University College — in 
all of which duties he did active service ; a pleasing record of 
which is contained in the Memoir by Mrs. Grote already quoted. 

The marked politics of Macaulay's History are signified in the 
nickname of * Whig Evangel,' which has been applied to his master- 
piece. The next historian we have to name was as conspicuously a 
Tory, sJthough his opinions cannot be said to have coloured his 
narrative so completely as in the case of Macaulay. In 1 81 i, we learn 
from the Preface to the History of Europe, from the commencement of 
the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons, 1833-42, 
Sir Arohibald Alison (1792-1867), then a young advocate on a 
visit to Paris, conceived the idea of writing the story of the French 
Revolutionaiy War. For fifteen years he collected materials, and for 
fifteen more composed the History of which the title is quoted above. 
In 1852-9 appeared a continuation, — tlie Htsiory of Europe, from 
the Fall of Napoleon in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 
1852. Biifusencss and a faulty style rather than actual inaccuracies 
of statement have been the chief critical charges against the author. 
But a work, which, beside translation into Continental languages, has 
received the honour of being rendered into Arabic and Hindustani, 
can plead a popularity to which the above defects apparently present 
no obstacle. * It* (the * History' of Alison) *i8, upon the whole, 
a valuable addition to European literature, evidently compiled with 
the greatest care : its narration, so far as we [the Edinburgh Rc^ 
view\ can judge, is not perverted by the slightest partiality. Its 
defects, or what we deem such, are matters partly of taste, and 
partly of political opinion. Its merits are minuteness and honesty.' 
Besides the above-mentioned works, Alison wrote a Life of the Duke 
^fMarlboroughf 1847, and three volumes oi Essays, published in 1849. 

A writer who belongs to the previous chapter by a number of 

• Edinburgh Review, July 1878, 242 (oxxxviii.) 


poems and dramas reappears in this as an historian of high order. 
Benry Bart Milman (1791-1868), made Dean of St. PauFs in 
1849, published successively a ^i^^oryo/ theJewSf 1829 ; a History of 
Chnstianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in 
the Roman Empire, 1840 ; and a History of Latin Christianity, 1854-6, 
continuing the last-named work. Dean Milman was also the author 
of a Life of Horace, prefixed to a splendid edition of that poet issued 
in 1849, and copiously illustrated with drawings of coins, gems, &c. 
One of his latest works (1865) was a series of translations from the 
lyric and later Greek poets (including versions of the Agamemnon of 
JSschylus and the Bacchanals of Euripides), being mostly translations 
interspersed in the lectures delivered by him while Professor of Poetry 
at Oxford, a post to which he was elected in 1821. His Histories 
have experienced the fate which awaits most ecclesiastical studies of 
the kind, viz. — opposition, not unmixed with charges of unsoundness 
on the writer's part ; but most critics concur in commending their 
copious minuteness and comprehensive information. 

A work that deserves more than a passing notice is the History of 
Cimligation in England and France, Spain and Scotland, by Benrjr 
Tbomas Buckle (1821-62), a production which was the result 
of long-sustained study and patient accumulation of material. The 
first volume appeared in 1857, and was followed in 1861 by a 
second. Unknown as a literary man — indeed he had mainly confined 
his labours from the age of twenty-one to preparation for his darling 
project, and had not published a line previously — its appearance 
took the public by surprise, and the author suddenly found himself 
famous. He fell a victim to over-work before he had completed 
his design, and died of fever at Damascus, to which place he had 
travelled in the search for health. 

137. Tbe PbUosopbers. — ^For the Edinburgh chair of Moral 
Philosophy, filled successively by Stewart and Brown {see p. 189, 
8. 125), one of the greatest a priori philosophers of this century, Sir 
Umilam Bamilton (1 788-1 856), was, in 1 820, an unsuccessful can- 
didate. In 1821, he was appointed Professor of Universal History, 
and, in 1836, called to the Chair of Logic and Metaphysics, which 
he held until his death. The articles contributed by him to the 
Edinburgh Review, upon which his fame as a writer chiefly rests, 
were reprinted in 1852 under the title of Discussions on Philosophy 
and Literature, Education and University Rrform. Sir William also 
edited the works of Keid, 1846, and, when he died, was engaged upon 
those of Dugald Stewart {see p. 189, s. 125). * Sir William Hamilton, 
says the Edinburgh Review, * has attained to the very highest distinc- 


tion as a philosopher, and in some respects he is decidedly superior 
to any of his illustrious predecessors — Beid, Stewart, and Brown. 
With a remarkable power of analysis and discrimination, lie com- 
bines great decision and elegance of style, and a degree of erudition 
that is almost without a parallel.' Upon this last point there is 
little difference of opinion. De Quincey calls him * a monster of 
erudition,' — a title which may be set beside the * book in breeches ' 
applied by Sydney Smith to Macaulay. 

The life of another eminent writer, jTolin Stnart Mill (1806- 
1873), has been told by himself in his AtUM>graphy (1873). His 
importance, declares a friendly critic,* rests upon no one great work, 
yet ' a multitude of small impressions may haye the accumulated 
effect of a mighty whole, (and) who shall sum up Mill's collective 
influence as an instructor in Politics, Ethics, Logic, and Meta- 
physics ? ' We must perforce limit ourselves to the bare mention of 
some of these * impressions.' Born at Pentonville, the extraordinary 
character of the education he received at the hands of the father, James 
Mill, the historian {see p. 190, s. 126) is fully described in the above- 
mentioned lafe. In 1823, at the age of seventeen, he entered the 
India Office as a clerk xmder his father, who had been appointed 
Assistant-Examiner there in 1821. His education still went on 
under his father's care, and his leisure was devoted to botanical 
studies and pedestrianism. His * first publicly-acknowledged literaiy 
work' was the preparation for the press, and annotation of, Bentham's 
Batumale of Judicial Evidence, 1827. Subsequently he contributed 
to the Westminster Beview, established by Bentham in 1824, 
various articles, one being on Whatel/s Logic, Among other 
papers may be noted, as showing his width of range, an article on 
Poetry and its Varieties, published in the Monthly Repository, 
1833. In 1835, ho became editor of Sir William Molesworth's 
venture, the London Review, afterwards amalgamated with the 
Westminster, to which, inter alia, he contributed important articles 
on Civilization, on Bentham, Coleridge, the Prench poet, Alfred 
de Vigny, and the French publicist, Armand Carrel* But we must 
pass to the enumeration of his more important works. These 
are a System of Logic, 1843, styled by Mr. G, H. Lewes 'per- 
haps the greatest contribution to English speculation since Locke's 
Essay ; ' Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy, 
1844; Principles of Political Economy, 1848; Dissertations and 
Discussions, 1859 (which contained the famous essay On Liberty) ; 
Considerations on Representative Government, 1861 ; Utilitarianism, 
1868 ; Augusts Comte and Positivism, and the Examination of Sir 

» Prof. Bain, /. S. Mill, a CrUicitm, mth Personal Recollectiom, 1882, p. 195, 


WUliam HamilUm's FkUosophyi I860 ; and the Subjection of Wamcn, 
1869. Mill had retired from the India House in 1858, where two 
years previously he had been made Chief Examiner of Indian Corre- 
spondence. In 1865, he was elected member for Westminster, and 
took a distinguished part in parliamentary affairs until the election 
of 1868, when he lost his seat. He died, on May 8, 1873, at 
Avignon, where the wife, to whose intellect and sympathies he has 
so touchingly referred in the Autohiograjphyf is buried. 

Another writer who may be included in this class, although he 
might be ranked with the Scientific Writers, was the lat« Master of 
Trinity, ISirilliaiii uniewell (1795-1866), concerning whose wide 
and varied attainments it has been wittily said that science was his 
forte, and omniscietice his foible. Of his numerous works we can 
only mention the BUtory of the Indttctive Sciences, 1837 ; FhHosophy 
af the Inductive Sciences, 1840; and the well-known Platonic 
JDicdogties for English 'Readers, 1869-61. 

138. Tbe Tbeolofflans. — ^Many of the authors in this class 
might with equal propriety be described as Philosophers or Scientific 
Writers, a fact which affords another example of the difficulties of 
that system of arbitrary classification concerning the conventional 
nature of which we have more than once warned our readers in the 
course of this work. The' exact assignment of the writers in these 
three branches of literature is, however, of minor consequence, as, 
in an outline such as that proposed in these pages, the space allotted 
to Theology, Philosophy, and Science must be wholly inadequate to 
the importance of the subject. In this and the succeeding section 
we cannot pretend to do more than name the principal authors, and 
give the titles of two or three of their works, which, in the case of 
some of the following writers, are especially voluminous. Jobn 
Kitto (1804-54) is chiefly memorable from his well-known Cyclo" 
pcsdia of Biblical Literature, 1843-5, and other works of similar de- 
scription, in which his success is the more remarkable from the serious 
obstacles which total deafness opposed to his literary labours. 
aicbard vm^tely (1787-1863), Archbishop of Dublin, was the 
author, among numerous other productions, of Elements of Logic, 
1826 ; Elements of Rhetoric, 1828; Introductory Lectures on Political 
Economy, 1831 ; and a number of valuable theological works. He con- 
tinued to write until his death. Zsaao Taylor (1787-1865), the son 
of an Independent preacher, to which profession he had himself at 
first devoted his attention, sent forth from his literary seclusion at 
Stanford Bivers, a long list of theological and scientific works, of 
which we can only mention the Natural History of Enthusiasm, 


1829; Fanaticism^ 1833;. and Spiritual Despotism, 1835. He, too, 
coDtinued writazig until late in life, one of his latest prodnctions 
being Ckmsiderations on the Pentateuch, 1863, in answer to Bishop 
Golenso. Other theologians are Frederick Benlsen Maurice 
(1805-72), anthor of Theohgicat Essays, 1858 ; History of Moral 
and Metaphysical Philosophy, completed in 1861, &e., and Benry 
Alford (1810-71), Bean of Canterbniy, irhose greatest produc- 
tion is his Greek Testament^ with notes, 1849-61. Lastly, to 
the list mast be added the name of Semnel IVUberforee 
(1805-73), Bishop of Winchester, author of the L\fe of his father, 
the famous William Wilberforce, 1838, and also of Agathos, 1840 ; 
Eucharisiica, 1839 ; and yarious theological works. 

139. Tbe Sdentmo IVlrlteni. — ^Among the more distinguished 
scientific writers of this chapter must be mentioned Sir Bavid 
Brewster (1781-68), whose chief works are the Treatise on Optics, 
1831, and More Worlds than One, 1854; Sir Jebn BerMbel 
(1792- 1871), author of numerous astronomical works; Sir Bo- 
derick Mnrotaieeii (1792-1871), the well-known President of the 
Geographical Society, ana author of a magnificent work on the 
Silurian System, 1839 ; and Mrs. Mary SemerwiUe (1780- 
1872), author of the Connexion of the Physical Sciences, 1834, and 
Physical Geography, 1848. The works named are only a few of the 
writings of the authors in question. Erom a literacy point of view 
the writer whose name we have reserved for the last is perhaps the 
most remarkable of the group. This is the wonderful Cromarty 
stone-dresser, Bugb Miller (1802-1856), whose progress from that 
humble vocation to the rank of one of the most distinguished of 
modem geologists must serve for a lasting example to struggling 
genius. His chief works in chronological order are the Old Bed 
Sandstone, 1841 ; Footprints of the Creator, 1847; and the Testi- 
mony of the Books, 1857* He was also the author, inter alia, of an 
autobiographical work entitled My Schools and Schoolmasters, pub- 
blished in 1852. The last-named book but one was dearly pur- 
chased by the death by his own hand of the overstrained writer. 
Miller's eminence, in the words of Sir David Brewster, consists, not 
merely in his discovery ' of new andundescribed organisms in the Old 
Sandstone, but from the accuracy and beauty of his descriptions, 
the purity and elegance of his compositions, and the high tone of 
philosophy and religion which distinguishes all his writings. . • • 
With the exception of Burns, the uneducated genius which has done 
honour to Scotland during the last century has never displayed that 


mental refinement and classical taste and intellectual energy -which 
mark all the writings of our author.' 

140. Otber Prose IVrltem. — ^Among the -writers of prose 
whose works are more or less of a miscellaneous character, and do not 
fall easily into any of the foregoing classes, the name of the famous 
* English Opium-Eater ' stands pre-eminent, both for the value and 
▼ariety of his works, and the beauty and fastidious finish of his style. 
Tbomas Be Quincey (1785 — 1859) was born near Manchester, 
his father being a merchant there ; and he was educated at Oxford, 
where he led a singularly reserved and uncommunicative life, ab- 
sorbing himself wholly in the study of French, Latin, and Greek 
literature. Towards the close of his academical career, he made the 
acquaintance of Wordsworth, his visit to whom at G-rasmere {see p. 
165, s. 108) is minutely described in Chapter V. of his AutoUographio 
Sketches, In 1808-9 he moved into Wordsworth's cottage, which 
the latter had vacated for his house at Allan Bank ; and here, in the 
midst of the lake-country, he lived for nearly twenty years. It was 
at this time that the habit to which we owe his famous Confessions 
began to gain ground, and he became a confirmed opium-eater, reach- 
ing at last the appalling dose of 8,000 drops a day. His experiences 
of, and ultimate victory * over, this enthralling drug, are contained in 
the papers published in 1821, in the London Magazine^ which form 
his first literary production. Henceforth he became a frequent 
contributor, and a UtUrateur of established reputation. The Con' 
fessums of an English Opium-Eater, published in a separate form 
in 1822, were followed by a crowd of bnlliaht works, which in the 
edition of 1862-3 occupy sixteen octavo volumes. The bulk of his 
productions were contributed to Taifs Magatine and Blackwood^ 
Among them may be particularised the Dialogues of Three Templars 
on Political Economy, 1824; Logic of Political Economy, 1844; 
SuspiriadeProfundis, 1845 ; the Vision of Sudden Death, 1849 ; and 
the personal recollections comprised in the two volumes of Autohio^ 
graphic Sketches and BeooUections of the Lakes, forming ziv. and 
ii. of Messrs. Black's complete edition of his works above re* 
ferred to. Of individual pieces the famous Essay on Murder 
considered as one of the Fine Arts, published in Blackwood in 1827i 
and the historical sketch of the Flight of the Kalmuck Tartars^ 
may be particularised. De Quincey died on December 8, 1859, at 

• The word * victory * is need advisedly. Mr. Mlnto (Handbook of English Proa 
Literature, 1872, p. 41) points out that he never wholly relinquished the use of 
opium, although he ceased to be its slave. See *H. A. Page's' Life, ed. 1881, li. 
809-339, for a medical view of his case. Prof. Maspon has nlso written a Life, 


Edinboigb, where, for the latter jean of his life, he had diieily 

The eoctni^ £eoiii his article in the Eneyeiopadia Britannica on 
Shakespeare, at pp. 65, 66, gires but a faint idea of Be Qnincey's 
fapreme ezcelleiice, his nerrons, copions, and elastic style of writing, 
in which he can scarcely be said to be approached by any modem, 
Maeanlay alone excepted. For a lengthy analysis of its elements and 
qualities, the reader is referred to Hr. Minto's Handbook of English 
Prote Literature^ where are adequately treated the compositions 
of this great writer, whose eloquent prodnctions have been rightly 
termed ' a combination which centuries may never reproduce, but 
which eye^ generation should study as one of the marvels of 
English literature/ * 

Mrs. Aana Jameson (1794-1860) also requires to be men- 
tioned among, the prose writers of this epoch. Mrs. Jameson was 
a delicate and discriminating art-critic. Her chief worlds are Hand- 
book to ibe BuiUe GaUeries of Art in and near London^ 1842 ; 
Memoirs of the Early Italian Painters, 1845 ; Legends of the Monastic 
Orders, 1850 ; Legends of the Madonna, 1852, &c. 

We cannot do better than devote some of the last lines of our account 
of the prose writers to one who has but recently gone from us, and 
whose strenuous exertions to promote a sound and cheap form of 
literature (the story of which he has told at length in his Passages 
from a Working Life), were unflagging and unfeigned. The name 
of Cbarles Xniffbt (1791-1873) is familiar in many a household, 
where, at the commencement of the century, letters, if represented 
at all, were represented by the Book of Dreams, or the Lives of 
JUustrious Highwat/men, To the Qaarterlg Magaeine, in which his 
contributors were Macaulay, Praed, Henry and Berwent Coleridge, 
Moultrie, and others, we have already referred {see p. 208, s. 135). 
But the works with which his name will remain more permanently 
associated are thei^nn^ Magazine, fL^st issued in 1832; and the 
Penny Oyclopadia, commenced in the following year, and finished in 
1844. In his Struggles of a Book against Excessive Taxation,\ih& author 
gives an interesting accoimt of these two publications, which, how- 
ever excellent, embarrassed him pecuniarily for years. Of his other 
magazines, periodicals, and miscellaneous works, we can only men- 
tion WiUiaiin 8hakespere,a Biography, 1843, written to accompany 
his Pictorial Edition of that dramatist's works, and the excellent 

* Qmrterljf Rwiew, July, 1861, 85 (ex.) 


Popular History of England, a book whicli may be held to have 
fairly attained its author^s object, as tradng out and exhibiting all 
the movements that have gone to form the characters Of the people. 

With many of Charles Knight's enterprises (the Penny Oycio- 
padia especially) was connected a writer to whom ova obligations 
dnring the course of this work have been considerable. Frequent 
xeference has been made in the notes to the valuable History of 'ike 
English Langttage and Literature of GeorgreXi. Craik (1798-1866), 
Professor of English Literature at Queen's College, Belfast. One 
of his earliest works was the Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties^ 
1831 ; begun at the suggestion of Lord Brougham. Hr. Craik was 
also the author of 2^ English of Shakespeare ; the Romance of the 
Peerage^ 1848-50; and other books characterised by sound reasoning 
and conscientious accuracy. 

141. Tbe Bramatio IVHters. — The closing words of the last 
chapter might fitly serve as a prelude to this too brief section of 
our modem literature. Jerrold, Bulwer, and T. W. Robertson are 
the three most prominent names among the deceased dramatists 
of this chapter. The first, Doufflas Jerrold (1803-67), was one 
of the most prompt and pungent of modern English wits. Originally 
a midshipman in the Eoyal Navy, he made his d^but as a dramatist 
in 1829, with the * nautical and domestic drama ' of Black-Eyed 
Susan; or. Ml in the Downs, produced at the Surrey Theatre, with 
T. F. Cooke, the actor, in the principal part of William. The. piece 
grew in popularity, and ran for three hundred nights. ' All London 
went over the water, and Cooke became a personage in society, as 
Garrick had been in the days of Goodman's Fields. Covent Garden 
borrowed the play, and engaged the actor for an after-piece .... 
Actors and managers throughout the country reaped a golden 
harvest' * So did not^ however, the author, whose profits by what 
enriched so many, were but small. His first successful efifort was 
followed by the Bent Day, produced in 1832, and based upon Wilkie's 
picture; Bubbles of the Day, 1842, which Charles Kemble said 
had wit enough for three comedies ; Time Works Wonders, 1846 ; 
and nnmei^us other plays. Jerrold was also one of the pillars of 
Punch, and author of several novels and humorous pieces, such as 
St, Giles and St, James, 1861 ; A Man Made of Money, 1849 ; 
Chronicles of Clovemook, 1846 ; the inimitable CaudU Lectures, 1846 ; 
and the pathetic Story of a Feather^ 1844. 

f lAft and Bemaim <tf Douglas JemUd, by Blanchard Jerxold, 18M, 85. 


Hie chief diamatte irorke of Kord&yttoii are the Lady qf Lyons, 
18S8; Biehelien, 1888; and the comedy of Money, 1840; all stall 
popular on the stage {see p. 199, s. 135). Lord Lytton also pub- 
lished, in 1869, a rhymed comedy entitled Walpde; or. Every Man 
has He Price \ and, in aid of the funds for the establishment of the 
Guild of literature and Art, he -wrote Not eo Bad as we Seem, 1861, 
of vhieh Punch wittily remarked that it vas < Not so Qood as wa 
Expected.' It did not obtain a permanent place upon the stage. 

A generation younger than Jerrold and Lytton, Talir. Xobert- 
•on (1829-71) inaugurated a new school of realistic comedy by a 
series of six plays, which for some years rendered the Prince of 
Wales' Theatre one of the most fashionable resorts in London. In 
1865 the Saturday Beview remarked that 'some noise has been 
made by the production of a comedy called Society*; in 1863 
Ours was 'the pet novelty of the day.' Caste, the great-est of 
the series, followed in 1867, and Uie 'Caste company/ the 
dramatist's biographer* declares, soon 'constituted a regular 
school for young actors — a kind of little Com^die Fran^aise.' 
, Play appeared in 1868, School in 1869, and M.P., when health 
was fiiiling, in 1870. 'Robertson,' says an American critic, 
' was a disciple of Thackeray. . . . His plays employ by means 
of action precisely the expedients that Thackeray employed by 
means of narrative— namely, contrast and suggestion. ... In 
Caste, which is the best of his plays and the epitome of his observa- 
tion and thought, the echoes of Pendennis and Vanity Fair are 
clearly audible. The pieze is not imitative. Its originality 
would never be questioned ; but there can be no doubt as to its 

• The Principal I>ramatie Worit qf T,W,S, S vols. 1889. Edited, with a 
memoir, by bis son. 


TBB MODBRXr AGS {continiied)i 
[deceased authobs.] 


143, BUaiMAST 01* THB FSniOD.— 143. TEKKTSOX AND BROWKINa.— 144. OTEOm 

142. Summary Since the foregoing chapter was penned the 

centurj has drawn more than twenty years nearer to its close, and 
the ' great majority ' to which allusion was then made has there- 
fore been augmented by many a name which the plan of this work 
did not at that time allow us to include, but "which must now be 
reckoned among those of our * deceased authors.' Tennyson, whom 
Wordsworth fifty years ago described as * decidedly the first of 
living poets,' and who so nobly maintained his pre-eminence to the 
last, has now ' crossed the bar/ and ' that which drew from out the 
boundless deep ' has turned again home. Three years earlier, in the 
loved Italy of which he had written 

* Open my heart and you will see 
Graved inside of it, " Italy I " * 

Bobert Browning, a poet of widely-divergent genius, had 'marched 
breast forward ' into the unseen ; and both poets now rest at the 
feet of Chaucer in the Abbey. At Laleham, where he was born, 
the grass grows green round the grave of Matthew Arnold. At 
quiet little Birchington rests Dante Gabriel Bossetti, whom they 
laid * by the pleasant shore, and in the hearing of the wave ; ' his 
Bister Christina, who takes high rank among our female poets> lies 


at HigBgate ; and at Kelmscottthe rooks now caw in the branching 
elms that overhang the grave of William Morris. 

Novels and novelists are still as abundant as ever, but seventeen 
years have passed since Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, in 
whom, as Mr. Birrell has remarked,* it is difficult to * discern where 
the novelist ended and the statesman began/ was laid at Hugh- 
enden. In the same year (1880), as the grave at Highgate reminds 
us, the great * novelist of the Midlands,' George Eliot, joined *the 
choir invisible.' Charles Kingsley sleeps among ti^e heather at 
Eversley. Henry Kingsley, Anthony T^Uope, CKaHes Eeade are 
gone. And less than three short years ago, in far-off Samoa, 
Kobert Louis Stevenson, like the grammarian in Browning^s poem, 
found his last resting-place upon a lofty mountain-peak. 

Sixteen years have sped since the little group gathered in the rain, 
isleet,'. and sunshine of a February day around the grave of Thomas 
Garlyle in the village churchyard at Ecclefechan; and now from 
amonghistorians Fronde also has gone,and John Bichard G-reen ; while 
away in Spain, at Alicante, lies the historian of the Norman Congv€8t, 
Edward Freeman. The tragic death of TyndaU is still &esh in every 
memory ; Huxley and Bomanes are no more ; chief among modern 
men of science, Darwin now rests in the Abbey, close by the tomb of 
Newton, whom in patient unassuming toil he so closely resembled. 

Bedcar holds what was mortal of one of the purest natures and 
the subtlest intellects of modern times, John Henry Newman; 
while in the Cathedral church of Oxford rests Dr. Pusey, whose 
name, like that of the Cardinal, takes the mind back half a century to 
the days of the Oxford movement. Dean Stanley and Archbishop 
Trench among theological writers; Sir Arthur Helps among 
essayists ; John Forster and James Spedding among biographers — 
these and numerous others also call for mention, for they too now 
form part of that * bearded grain ' which the great * Beaper whose 
name is Death' has been so busily harvesting. 

143. Tennyson and Browning. — * Fifty years hence people 
will make pilgrimages to this spot,' said Arthur Henry Hallam of 
Somersby, the birthplace of his friend Alfred, &ord Tennyson 
(1809-1892). One of a large family-^the fourth of twelve children 
of the Bev. George Clayton Tennyson, Bector of Somersby — 
Tennyson was bom at the * Old Bectory ' of the tiny mid-Lincoln 
hamlet, which lies, not among fens, but amid the scenery which he 
himself has described,! with its undulating hills, its grey old 

* In the Obiter Dicta. 

t Cf. /rt JfemoHam, o.-cil., the Cfde to Mmorp, ir., and A Farevell. 


granges, its trees and whispering reeds, its windy wolds from which 
the 'pastoral rivulet' — chief delight to a family of boys^* babbles 
down the plain.' Early a lover of poetry, feeling even as a boy of 
fifteen that the world must end when Byron died, his first verse is 
said to have been written at the age of five ; and after school at 
Louth (1816-20), he and his elder brother Charles {b. 1808), after- 
wards Cbarles Tennyson Turnerp 'crossed the Eubicon,'as their 
preface declares, with Poems by Two Brothers (1827), written be- 
tween the ages of fifteen and eighteen. More fortunate than the boyish 
Hours of Idleness of Byron, these 102 exercises in metre were allowed 
by both reviewers and author to slimiber quietly on the banks of 
Lethe. Passing in 1828 to Trinity College, Cambridge, Tennyson 
became intimate with Artbur Benry Ballam (1811-1833), son of 
the historian. Eighteen months Tennyson's junior, Hallam, a youth of 
great promise, was himself a poet,* critic, and student of philosophy, 
and a member of the little group of ' Apostles,' as the society called 
itself, which included, besides the two friends, Dean Alford, James 
Spedding, Archbishop Trench, Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), 
A. W. Kinglake, the historian of the Crimean "War, and others. 
The meetings of this * Water Club,' as Tennyson has termed it — 
'because there was no wine'— in Hallam's rooms, and Hallam's 
visits to Somersby — the picnics in the woods, the reading of poetry 
on the lawn, the harp-playing by moonlight — are embalmed in some 
of the finest verse of In Memoriam,^ Shortly after entering college, 
where in 1829 he gained the Chancellor's medal for a blank verse 
poem on Timbuctoo, Tennyson issued, when aged twenty-one. 
Poems f chiefly Jjyrical (1830). Of the fifty six poems, thirty have 
found a permanent place in the poet's works, although, like all his 
verse, they have been subject to much revision. In the collected 
edition they extend as far as the sonnet to *J. M. K.' — John 
Mitchell Kemble. Tennyson's early work is, unlike that of 
Shelley, mainly impersonal, possessing somewhat of the coldness 
he attributes to his own Maud, but not like her quite * faultily fault- 
less.' Coleridge, indeed, declared that Tennyson began to write 
verse before he knew metre, and it is noticeable that, marvellous as 
are his powers as an artist, his rhymes, even in his mature works, are 

• Hallam's Hemairu in Prose and Verse were collected by his father, whose 
introductory memoir casts light on In Memoriam. The poems refer largely to 
the Tennysons. The sonnet To My Mother (1831), which speaks of his doubts, may 
be compared with In Menu xcvi. ; and the interesting Lines Spoken in the Character 
qf Pygmalion (1832), doubtless addres&ed by Hallam to Emily Tennyson as 
Galatea, form a beautiful comnSent on the * mimic picture's breathing grace ' of 
In Mem, Izxviii. 

t Bee /n Memoriam, Izzzvii. (Cambridge), and Ixzxiz. (Somersby). 


often faulty.* This may perchance account for his neglect of the 
sonnet) in which Wordsworth had so excelled . Two poems in this early 
collection, howeyer, reveal the lofty ideal of his art— Miltonie 
and Wordsworthian in character — which he always maintained* In 
2%e Poet he claims wide influence^ due to depth of insight : — 

* He saw thro* life and death, thro* good and ill. 

He saw thro* his own sonl, 
The manrel of the everlasting will. 

An open scroll 
Before him lay. . . .' 

Clearness, beauty, and spirituality are prevalent notes throughout 
of Tennyson's work, and in 7%$ PoeCa Mind he already insists upon 
all three. 

At the end of 1832 (dated 1833) thirty poems appeared in another 
volume ; twenty of these have been retained — as far as the lines 
to ' J. 8.,' i.e. James Spedding, to the death of whose brother Thomas 
they make reference. In this volume, at the age of twenty-three, 
Tennyson, in the Lady of Shalott, first touched the main theme of 
his verse, the Arthurian legends : this, though based upon an 
Italian romantic version, is the germ of the later Lanctlot and Elaine 
suggestod by the work of Malory. In (Eiwne, The Lotos Eaters, and 
Chorio Song are seen instances of the strong classical influence which 
is so marked a feature in Tennyson's verse, both in detail and, at 
times, in subject, as may be evidenced by the names of his latest 
works, the Tiresias volume (1885), the Demeter (1889), and the 
Deaih of (Enone, his last (1892). The Tao Voices is an indication 
of his interest in speculative thought, of which Li Memoriam is the 
most notable example. The May Qtieeti and Lady Clara Vere de 
Vcrc also appeared in this volume. Arthur Hallam, while travelling 
with his father in 1833, died at Vienna, and for the next nine 
years Tennyson was practically silent,, while his elegy on his friend 
did not appear till 1860, seventeen years after Hallam's death. 
Undoubtedly the mental and spiritual experiences of Tennyson after 
the loss of the friend upon whom he had leaned so much gave 
depth and breadth to the two volumes of 1842, and these at once 
placed him in the front rank of poets. The Epic and Morie 
WArihwTt Sir Galahad^ Lancelot and Guinevere, mark his growing 
interest in the legends of Arthur, and the first two reveal a deep 
interest in the course of contemporary thought. LocJaley Hall rang 

• E^. see the PcOaee of Art (1832), and In Memoriam (185C). In the latter 
one rhyme in eight is defective— 168 in alL See Mr. J. Jacobs* Study of the 
poem, 1894, p. il, and the list gives in his Appendix. 


through the land like a trumpet blast. Uly»$e8 Tiyidly pictures the 
restless enterprise of modem life, under the guise of the aged Ithacan 
king. Dora and The Gardener* ft Daughter show the idyllic grace of 
what Mrs. Browning happily termed * Tennyson's enchanted reyerie.' 
In 1847 The Princess, the daintiest of Tennyson's longer poems, 
appeared ; merum sal, like the i?a^ of the Lock, and like it destined 
to undergo much alteration, for not till the fifth edition of 1853 did 
it receiye its final form. It deals in playful seriousness with the 
question of women's position and education, and is akin on the one 
side to liOve^s Labour's Lost, and on another to Spenser^s legend of 
Badigund in the fifth book of the Faerie Queene, The real ' heroine 
of the piece,* to borrow Tennyson's own words,* is not, however, the 
princess who gives her name to the poem, but Lady Psyche's little 
babe ; and the songs in which the child-influence is accentuated, 
although not in the first edition of the poem, were part of the 
original conception. The year 1860 — the year of Wordsworth's 
Prelude, of Browning's Christmas-Eve and Easter-Day, and of 
Dickens' David Copperfidd, was also the year of In Memoriam, of 
Tennyson's marriage to Miss Emily Sellwood of Horncastle, and of 
his election, after Wordsworth's death, to the post of Laureate. At 
Farringford, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, where he settled in 1853, his 
life was as secluded as that of Wordsworth at Eydal Mount, and 
although, in 1872, he purchased Aldworth, on Blackdown, Surrey, 
where he died, Farringford always remained in his possession. The 
Crimean war (1854-6) drew from him the Charge of the Light 
Brigade, the popularity of which led him to send a thousand copies 
to the soldiers in Eussia; and Mattd (1855), *of aU the author's 
poems perhaps the most powerful and the most intensely lyrical,' as 
Mr. F. T. Palgrave has truly called it, and the one which the poet 
himself classed with Guinevere, as the finest he had written, is 
artistically marred by its association with the same event ; for the 
Crimean war was no such struggle as that marked by a Marathon 
or the destruction of an Armada, and this can hardly fail to affect 
the judgment on the exquisitely musical dramatic poem in which it 
is interwoven as a main motive in restoring a morbid nature to 
sympathy with others by acting and enduring with them. 

With Maud what may be termed Tennyson's first period may be 
said to dose. It had extended over twenty-five years (1830-55), 
and in it the lyric and true idyllic prevails. The years 1869-1872 

• See Tennyson's letter of 1882 to Mr* Dawson, in the second edition of the 
latter*s Study cf the Princess, The poet wrote oonfirming Mr. Dawson's con- 
ception of the r^e of the child in the poem. 



may be called bis epic, or ratber narratiTe; peridd^6r Te & B y aoft 
produced no true epie — during wbicb ho paUished eleres out of tbe 
twelve fdiflU of tie King, as well as tho popular -Eheek AsrdeUi 
volume (first called IdylU qf the Hearth) in 1864. From 1876 to 
188ibis strength was largely spent on bis least successful work, tha 
drama. He produced three historical plays >^QuMn Mary (1875)9 
Harold (1876), and Bechet (1884). The Falcon was acted in lft79» 
The Cup in 1881, and the unfortunate Promue of May in 1882» 
The jomantic pastoral The Foresters was both fteted ahd printed 
ten years later, in 1 892. Tennyson's work throughoutis^ in the main^ 
singularly well sustained, and, like Browning, he maintained iris pro- 
ductivity to the last, so that a fourth ' period ' may conveuiently 
be made from 1885-1892. With this may be classed the BaVada 
of 1880, a return to his older form with an increased dramatie 
power, which was heartily welcomed— a Sophbelean autumn, iii 
which bloomed the fine vigour of The Bevenge, the Le8r4ike power 
of Bispah, and the lines In the ChUdreiCs Hospital, -whidiy 
criticised as they were, have been characterised by Mr. Palgiave as 
' the most absolutely pathetic poem known to me.' The Tiraias 
volume of 1885, Locksley Hall Sixty Years Later (1886), Bemeter 
(1889), and the Death of (Enone (1 892) belong to this time. In them 
his interest in life and contemporary thought is still marked ; and of 
the author of By an Evolutionist, it was Huzley who said ' Tenny*^ 
son's grasp of the principles of physical science was equal to that of 
the greatest experts.** 

The chief poem of the first period, Tennyson's most finished work; 
and one of the most remarkable of the century, is In Memoriam^ 
consisting of 131 closely connected groups of stanzas written in a 
metre used by Ben Jonson and Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and 
employed by Bossetti at the very time when Tennyson was writing 
his poem.f An elegy like Lycidas, Adonais, and Thyrsis, it is mucU 
more ; like them it abounds in personal references, it abounds atsd 
in philosophical reflections, not thrown, as in Browning's La Baisiagi 
into argument, but expressed in little * swallow-flights of song : \ 

^ If these brief lays, of Sorrow born, 
Were taken to be such as closed 
Grave doubts and answers here proposed* 

Then these were such as men might scom ; 

Her part is not to part and prove. . . 

• Of. an article in the New Review^ July 1896, by Wilfred Ward. * 

t Of. B. Jonson's Undfntoods^ srxxiz. (an Et^y, it will be noticed)* Bossetn 

wroVd );&AJig ^isUr'i Sliep in 1847 ; it was pnbilshe^ in the (^iM in Jfttfhar^ 

I860, before Xn JUimoriam, 


Nor dare she tmst a larger lay. 

But rather loosens from the lip 

Short stoaUotc-JliglUs of song^ that dip 
Their wiugs in tears, and skisi away.' * 

When the clouds are heavy and the rain falls, the swallows in 
their wayward flight skim the surface of the pools ; but when the 
rain ceases, and the clouds break and the blue sky appears, the 
swallows quit the earth and ' sweep in ever-highering circles np ' 
toward heaven. So the poet in his poem rises from the gloom of 
sorrow and the mists of doubt to the height of serene faith, not by 
a regular series of * stepping-stones,' but with the irregular flight 
of the bird, tending upward, but ever and anon sweeping do^ffuward* 
—breaking 'the low beginnings of content *-^and returning to 
former moods, even to former words and phrases. The poem may 
be ter^ned an imaginatiye record of the feelings of the poet during 
the two years and a half after the death of his friend. Hallam died 
at Vienna, on September 15, 1833 ; and Tennyson, in the opening por- 
tion, artistically associates the gloom of autumn, when the chestnut 
is pattering to the ground, or the equinoctial gale is howling, with 
his own downcast state. Beginning thus in the decay of autumn, 
the poem closes in the period of hope and of promise — spring. 

The first Christmas (1833) with its mist ushers in the first cycle of 
the poem (xxviii.-lxxvii.), acycle of doubt, of questioning, and of woe. 
Carlyle, indeed, describes the poet in 1844 as *a man solitary and 
sad, • • , dwelling in an element of gbom, carrying a bit of 
Chaos about him, which he is manufacturing into Cosmos,' and a 
little later as ' a truly interesting son of earth and son of heaven, 
who has almost lost his way amongst will-o'-the-wisps ;' yet no poet 
is really to be identified with all the words he artistically utters, and 
Tennyson himself has made known that ' the "I " in the poems is 
not always the author speaking of himself, but the yoice of the 
human race speaking through him.' f The sequence of time is 
closely marked throughout; spring (xxxviii.-xxxix.) is followed by 
the first anniversary of Hallam's death (Ixxii.), the equinocticd 
storm— typical of the poet's state of unrest— being artistically con- 
trasted with the calm of the next anniversary in the second cycle 
(Ixxviii—ciii.)— a cycle of Teace, the keynote of which is struck at 
once in the words ' and cdlnUy fell our Christmas eve.' New Year 
(l83d)>4Bpring, summer, and the second anniversary in autumn an 

* In i/emoWom, zlviii. 

t Cf . Mr. A. Gatty'B KA/ to In Uemoriami third ed. 1885. See also th« 
KUtietwHth Century^ Jan. 18d8. 



all indicated, and daring this cycle of peace the poet, no longer 

filled with donbt and questions, lores to calmly linger npon the past. 

He recalls the old days at Trinity, the pleasant holidays at Somersby, 

he re-reads the letters of his friend on the lawn of the old home 

' where first we gazed upon the sky ; * and the cycle closes with a 

description of the parting from this Somersby home, so that when, 

in ciy., the third brief cycle is entered npon with the Christmas of 

1835, it is in a new home — a change which prepares ns for a further 

break &om the old grief, and for the restored communion with his 

fellows with which the poem now deals^—* I will not shut me from 

my kind.' 

' Bing out the old,rinff in the new, 

• • «  . • • 
Bing out, ring out my mournful rhymes.* 

As he now dwells npon his friend's character (ciz.>cxiv.), it is as a 
type — ' a noble type, appearing ere the times were ripe ' — of what 
mankind may and should be ; and from the retrospective mood of 
czx.-czzzi., in which the poet, so to speak, stands apart from, con- 
templates and reflects npon what he had previously written, he 
rises to a risioa of human progress, and a profession of faith in 

' That God which ever lives and lores, 
One Gk>d, one law, one element. 
And oue far-off diyine event. 
To which the whole creation moves.* 

Thus, as the poet himself has told us, ' altogether private grief 
■wells out into thought of and hopes for the whole world. It 
begins with a funeral and ends with a marriage, begins with death 
and ends in promise of life ; a sort of Divine Comedy, cheerful at 
the close. It is a very impersonal poem, as well as a personal/ 

If In Memoriam was the work of seventeen years, the Arthurian 
legends — which have also occupied the mind or the pen of Spenser, 
Milton, Dryden, Scott, and Wordsworth, and, among recent writers, of 
Matthew Arnold, William Morris, and Swinburne — claimed Tenny- 
son's attention for half a century. The Lady of Shalott appeared 
in 1832 ; Salin and Balan, the last of those * Idylls * which were 
begun in 1857, was issued in 1885. Tenpyson when buc twent}'- 
four * meant to write a great poem on Arthur, and began it with the 
Morie d^ArtJiur* of 1842, a poem which that ' deep-mouthed Boeotian' 
Walter Savage Landor considered ' more Homeric than any poem of 
our time.' True to his plan throughout, Tennyson adapted the 
legend to modern life, as is seen in the lines termed TJie Epic which 
precede it. It was the 'general decay of faith right thro* the 


world/ the influence of Grerman thought seen in works like Strauss^ 

LebrnJesttf soon to make Mary Ann Evans (* Geozge Eliot y Stranss* 

sick/ as she translated it (1846); geological pronouncements 

concerning the age of the world ; theories of development as set 

forth a little later in such a popular work as the Vestiges of Creation 

(1844), that suggested this application and gave the poem an 

immediate hold upon the popular mind. When some cherished 

views seemed crumbling into dust, like the phantoms in his own 

Holy CrmU, Tennyson in silver tones sounded the bugle-note of 


* The old order changeth, yldding place to new. 
And Qod fulfil* Mfrue^la many ways, 
Lest one good custom should corrupt the world*' 

The 'Arthur' of spiritual life might be sore smitten, seemingly 
unto death, but only to ' come again and thrice as fair.' 

The first two of the Idylls were privately printed in 1857} as 
Enid and Mmue, The True and the False; and these, with some 
changes, were published in 1859 together with two others, Elaine and 
Guinevere, the ' Nimue ' being renamed Vivien, Mr. Gladstone in 
reviewing these poems remarked that, 'though the Arthurian 
romance be no epic, it does not follow that no epic can be made out 
of it. . • • We do not despair of seeing Mr. Tennyson achieve, on 
the basis he has chosen, the structure of a full-formed epic.^ Some 
indeed would daim the fulfilment of this, and Mr. Button has even 
gone so far as to say that Tennyson has < written what is far more 
perfect as a work of art, though less imposing as a work of genius, 
than Paradise Lost'l* Truer criticism is that of Mr. Stopford 
Brooke : ' The Idylls of the King, as a whole, borders on the epic; it 
is not an epic. Its form forbids us to call it by that name, and I 
suppose that Tennyson, feeling this, gave it the name of the Idylls of 
the King.'f The poems, like all Tennyson's work, abound in 
beauty, yet as a work of art they present serious and manifest 
inconsistencies, and among these is an evident uncertainty of 
design or of execution. The second series of the poems, for instance, 
which appeared in 1869, was termed the * Completion * of the Idylls : 
it consisted of The Coming of Arthur, The Holy OraU, Pdleas, and 
Ths Passing qf Arthur, * This last,' the poet informed us, * the ear- 
liest written of the poems (it is the Morte d* Arthur of 1842, with 
additions), is here connected with the rest in accordance with an 

« LUerary EssaySt ed. 1888, p. 400. 

t TennysoHt hit Art- and Relation to Moiem Lift, 1894. For ICr. Brooke*i 
eritioism of the IdylU^ see his pp. 246-374. 


early project of the author/ The first two of these poems introdnce 
a wholly new element — ^that of allegory ; and this was accentuated 
in the fdlegorical Gareth and Lynette, issued in a yolnme with the 
Last Tournament, in 1872. This volume, in the closing lines 
addressed * To the Queen/ still farther insisted on an allegorical 
meaning :-^ 

( accept this old imperfect tale, 
Kew-old, and thatUwing Sense at tpor teUhSmd 
' Bather than that gxaj king, whose naine,.a ghost, 
Streams like a cload, man-shaped, from mountain-peak^ 
And deayes to cairn and cromlech still ; or him 
Of QeofCrey's book, or him of MalleorV 

These latter being Geoffrey of Monmouth (see pp. 19-20} and 
Sir Thomas Malory (see pp. 21, 43), who is Tennyson's chief sourco 
for his legends. That the epic conception finally commended itself 
to the poet is manifest— in spite of the * Completion ' of 1869 — by 
the late interpolation of JBalin and Balan (1885), and the final 
division (in 1889} of Geraint and Enid into two poems, so as to 
make the traditional twelve epic * books ' — a number sacred since 
the days of Virgil, whose modesty, Pielding playfully suggested, led 
him to write but one half of the number contained in the Iliad and 
the Odyssey, Of the Idylls as a whole Mr. Stopford Brooke has 
well said, ' the poem is not plainly an allegory, nor is it plainly a 
story. , , . We glide from reality to vision, and from vision to 
reality. The things are not amalgamated/ In the Faerie Qtieene 
(see p. 6i) Arthur was the embodiment of all the virtues treated 
of separately in the various books of the poem ; in Tennyson^ 
Arthur is something highei* still — he is th^ soul itself. ' By King 
Arthur,' the poet himself has owned, '/ always meant the soul, 
and by the Bound Table the passions and capacities of a man.' As 
such, the ' Morte d'Arthur ' of earlier days became in the final plan 
the * Passing of Arthur ; ' for as with Browning so with Tennyson, 
the belief in immortality was passionately strong. In the 
partially sustained allegory Guinevere represents human nature, 
beautiful and attractive, but failing, and bringing failure upon 
others through imperfect subjection to the spiritual. But, so far as 
this main allegory is carried out — and it is not consistently or 
uniformly borne in mind — it cannot estope notice that it 
practically makes Lancelot, and not Arthur, the real hero ; for he it 
is in whom 

*the wholesome flower 
And poisonous grew together, each as each, 
Not to be pluck'd asimder.* 

trIr modebn aqe (deceased authobs). 231 

He ifc is "Who is both Arthur's ' mightiest ' and Guinevere's slave 
he it is who, by virtue of his very humanity, is divided in his 
allegiance to the things of heaven and the things of earth. 

The 'old imperfect tale ' therefore has serious imperfections even 
in the hands of a literary artist such as Tennyson, who was him- 
self convinced that ' a small vessel on fine lines is likely to float 
further* down the stream of time 'than a great raft.* But from 
the Idylls, as from his other verse, what a fleet of such little 
vessels detach themselves! Possessed of an exquisite power of 
otservation — as is seen in his descriptions of nature and of the sea 
—Tennyson was endowed with a singular gift of word-painting, and 
his imagination ever tended to cast around his creations a ' purple 
mantle ' such as he himself wore. His conception of his art was, 
he said, * to get the workmanship as nearly perfect as possible,' and 
Browning well termed him *in poetry— illustrious and conyummate; ' 
adding^ also ' in friendship — noble and sincere ; ' * and one other 
friend of Mb later years has told us that ' the simplicity, sensitive- 
ness, freshness, and almost divine insight of a child were joined 
• . . to the dignity, sagacity, humour and knowledge of age at its 
noblest.* f 

Erom the Laareate we turn to another * great poet, a very great 
poet indeed, as the world will have to a^ree/ said Landor long ago — 
the * good friend' to whom Tennyson dedicated his TiresiasyolvLme, 
ftobertSrownlnir (1812-1889). This 'Dan ton of modem poetry,':^ 
our "Wagner in verse, the * subtlest of writers, ^as the simplest of 
men, and he learned in serenity and happiness what he taught in 
song.' § A Londoner, like Chaucer, beside whom he now rests, 
he even as a child of eight sagely doubted whether to devote himscli 
to poetry, art, or music ; at twelve he already had his little MS. 
volume of Byronie verse ready, and at fourteen came under the 
more lasting sway of Shelley, ' the Suntreader ' of his first published 
poem. Like Milton, but beginning even earlier, he was definitely 
trained for poetic work, with a parental devotion such as is seen in 
the early life of Buskin. At twenty-one he published — anony- 
mously — his poem Patt^twc, the Fragment of a Confession (1833), which 
so fascinated Dante Gabriel Eossetti that he copied at the British 
Museum the whole thousand lines of the unknown writer. Browning 
as instinctively turned to dramatic utterance as Tennyson to lyric 

* Dedication of his Selections^ Series I. 

f. Mr. Kaowles {Nineteenth Century^ January 1898), from whose article several 
of the above quotations of the poet*8 words are taken. 
1 Augustine Birrell, Obiter IHcta, 
I Edmund Gosse, ilTetc Review^ 1890, p. 196 ; reprinted in his TertonaJiOj 1890. 


232 ^A^n)^ooK of skolish litsbatubs. 

and idyllic, and he terms Pauline * my earliest attempt at poetry 
always dramatic in principle, and so many utterances of so many 
imaginary persons, not mine.' Barely indeed has a first work 
been more typical than this interesting ' almost muddle of a poem,' 
Mr. Stopford Brooke has called it, realistically condensing the poet's 
own criticism that ' good draughtsmanship and right handling were 
far beyond the artist at that time/ It shows an inclination for 
dramatic monologue, which culminated thirty-five years later in the 
Sing and the Book ; an eager probing of the great questions of life, 
which marks his Terse throughout ; a phase of doubt, through which 
we know him to have passed, and in so doing to have indirectly 
given rise to one of the most widely known of modern hymns ; * it 
expresses a belief in God, in Christianity, in immortality, which pre- 
vails even to the epilogue to Asolando ; it reveals a close observance 
of nature, often obscured, but appearing from time to time, usually 
in the background ; a love of music prophetic of Aht Vogler and the 
other 'musical' poems; while its description of Caravaggio's 
'Andromeda ' is a foretaste of what will develop into Andrea del Sario 
and Fra Lippo Lippi, The poem, as well as Paracelsus (1836) and 
the much-abused Sordelh (1840)— all instances of defective art 
combined with fragmentary beauty — also shows the poet's interest 
in the ' development of a soul — little else,' he has said, ' is worth 
study. I at least always thought so.' This interest, however, might 
perhaps be more truly defined as one in the crises which reveal 
development, for Mr. Pater's remark is true, that * the poetry of 
Kobert Browning is pre-eminently the poetry of situations ; ' yet 
Mefi and Women, the name given to the volume of 1855, aptly 
defines the subject of the poet's verse. It deals mainly with 

* Man*8 thoughts and loves and hates : 
Earth is my vineyard, those grew there.' f 

And with his abounding vitality and his wide sympathy, what a 
gallery of men and women has he vividly painted, in spite of all 
peculiarities in his delineation. Musical himself, his lines at 
times are harsh and rough ; artistic himself, his verse may even be 
ungainly in its realism. Eocked to sleep as an infant to the sound 
of snatches of Anacreon ; acting even in childhood, as his Develop^ 
menH charmingly tells us, the story of Troy; growing up even to 

« The Nearer, my Ood^ to Thee of Sarah Flower (afterwards Sarah F. Adams : 
see Appendix E.), of whose sister, Eliza Flower, Mrs. Orr {Life ofBrotening^ p. 37X 
says, * It in spite of his denials, any woman inspired Paidiney it can have been no 
otner than she.* 

f Epilogue to the Paechiorotto volume^ 1878t X AsoJando volume. 


keep a diary in G-reek, yet the classical aroma which breathes from 
the verse of Tennyson is almost wholly absent. Still the words 
written by the one who afterwards became his wife, in regard to 
his little paper-covered booklets entitled Bella and Pomegranates 
(18U-6), are true: — 

* From Browning some ^ Pomegranate ** which if out deep down the middle 
Shows a heart trithin blood-tinawed of a veined humanity? 

'He values thought more than expression; matter more than 
form ; and, judging him from a strictly poetic point of view, he has 
lost his balance in this direction, as so many have lost it in the 
opposite one.* * Yet that this side of the question may be — ^and 
very often has been — unduly emphasised may be inferred from the 
words of so true a judge as Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton, who 
speaks of hundreds of passages ' in which the music is quite new, 
quite his own, and entirely beautiful* 

Eobert Browning, * writer of plays,' produced seven : Strafford 
(1837) ; King Victor and King Charles (1842) ; The Betwm of the 
BriLsea and A Blot in the * Scutcheon (1843) ; CoUmbe^e Birthday 
(1844); Luria and A SouCs Tragedy (1846); as well as the 
lyrical drama of Hp-pa Passes (1841). Three of these plays were 
acted with distinct success.! Pippa, the most popular of 
Browning's longer works, is charmingly redolent of the pleasant 
hills of Asolo, where the poet wrote his last volume, Asolando ; and 
its variety, its power — the tragic intensity of the scene between 
Sebald and Ottima — its pathos, as in the scene on the Buomo steps, 
and its lyrical beauty, give it a very high rank. 

The little Dramatic Lyrics of 1842 contained a gem in My Last 
Duchess f then named Italy ; and in it also appeared the popular 
Pied Piper of Eamelint written for Macready's little son. The 
Dramatic Bomarices and Lyrics (1845) contained such poems as How 
they Brought the Good yews from Ghent, the Italian in England, The 
Lost Leader, and The Tomb at St, Praxed*s, of which Mr. Euskin 
wrote : ' Hobert Browning is uneraing in every sentence he writes of 
the Middle Ages : always vital, right, and profound. • . • I know 
no other piece of modem prose or poetry in which there is so much 
told ... of the Eenaissance spirit. It is nearly all that I have 
said of the Central Eenaissance in thirty pages of the Stones of 
Venice put into as many lines : Browning's also being the ante* 

* Mrs. Orr, Handbook to Browning, p. 10, ed. 1893. 

J See Mr. Goase's artiole. The Early Writings cf Browning, Century Magazine^ 
1 ; reprinted in his Browning Pertonaliay 1890, pp. 15-74» 


c'cdcnt work.*  In Men and Women (1855) the high-water mark of 
Browning's Terse is often seen. These fifty poems included Fra 
Lippo Lippit Andrea del Sarto, and the Grammnrian*s Funeral ; the 
Toccata of Galuppi and Muster Hughues — Abt VoglcTy the greatest 
of the musical poems, did not appear till 1864 ; Evelyn Hope, By 
the Fir€9ide, the EpUtle of Karshish, The Statue and the Bust, and 
others ; the whole closing with the well-known One Word More, 
addressed to his wife. He had married Miss Barrett in 1846 (see 
p. 196); a^'ter fifteen years of married life she died, in 1861, at 
Casa Guidi, Florence, and the lines Prospice, in Dramatis Persona 
(1864), referring to this, were written soon after her death. 

The Bing and the Book (1868-9), Browning's greatest work, a 
poem of 20,000 lines, is founded on a * square old yellow hook,' 
part print, part manuscript, which the poet bought in Florence, in 
June 1860. This old volume contains eighteen pamphlets stitched 
together by an amateur hand, these being chiefly the pleas, in 
liatin, of the four lawyers concerned in the trial of Count Guido 
Franceschini of Arezzo and four accomplices for the murder of his 
wife, Pompilia — who had fled from his home with a priest, Capon- 
sacchi — and her reputed parents, in 1698. The evidence adduced 
is in Italian, as well as two popular accounts of the famous trial, 
published at the time, one takiog the side of the husband, the other 
that of the wife: these two pamphlets certainly suggested two 
divisions of the. poem. Half Borne and The Other Half Borne, 
Browning's facts are wholly taken from this old book and from a 
pamphlet which he afterwards found in London ; f nor are there 
wanting hints, sufficient for one who had acquired the poet's 
mastery over dramatic monologue, for that peculiar feature of the 
poem by which the various speakers are made to tell the same story 
from different points of view; the extension of the * books' to 
twelve being doubtless suggested by considerations similar to those 
mentioned for the Idi/Us of the King^ So large a field would the 
discussion of this great poem present that we must limit ourselves 
to the bare mention of a few impressions. To Browning's friend 
Oarlyle it was ' a wonderful book, one of the most wonderlul poems 
ever written. I re-read it all through ; ' and he graciously added, 
* all made out of an Old Bailey story that might have been told in 
ten lines, and only wants forgetting.* To Mr. Swinburne the 
Guido is * so triumphant a thing that on its own ground it can be 
matched by no poet ; ' to B. L. Stevenson the Pope was *one of the 

• Modem. Paintert, ir. 377-fl. 

t lira. Orr's Handbook gives an aoconnt of this pamphlet* 


noblest poems of the century ; ' to the Edinburgh Review of 1869 
it appeared that * in English literature the creative faculty of the 
poet has not produced three characters more beautiful or better for 
men to contemplate than ' the Pope, Pompilia, and Oaponsacchi. 
That the -wrorkmanship is uneven may be taken for granted ; but 
it is Mr. Pater who declares that great art depends not on the form 
but on the matter. ' It is on the quality of the matter it informs 
or controls, its compass, its variety, its alliance to great ends, or 
the depth of the note of revolt, or the largeness of hope in it, that 
the greatness of literary art depends.' * 

Browning's productivity, like that of Tennyson, lasted till the 
end, but with the Bing and the Book his chief work was done. In 
1871 appeared the charming Balausiion's Adventure, with its 
* transcript' of the Alcestis, followed by the Herakles — in AristO' 
phanes^ A'pology, 1875 — and the Agamemnon, 1877; scholarly but 
not pleasing renderings of the Greek. Prince Hohenstiel Schwangau 
(1871), Fifme at the Fair (1872), The Red Cotton Nightcap Country 
(1873), and TJie Inn Album (1875) were followed by the grotesque 
Pacchiorotto in the volume of 1876. La Saisiaz (1878), an argu- 
mentative poem on immortality suggested by the sudden death of a 
friend at a little villa of that name near Geneva, and by the 
' Symposium ' which had just appeared in the ' Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,* On the Soul and Future Life, may fairly be taken as the 
poet's contribution to this discussion ; for the arguments of the 
various contributors — ^Huxley, P. Harrison, and others— are 
obviously present to his mind. The poem abounds in local colour, 
and in its treatment may be compared with the earlier religious 
poems, Christmas-Eve and Easter-Day (1850). The Dramatic Idyls 
of 1879-80, containing some ringing verse; Jocoseria (1883); 
Ferishtah's Fancies (1884); Parleyings with Certain People (1887), 
and Asolando, his last volume — written at Asolo — of the success of 
which the poet heard as he lay dying in the huge Kezzonico Palace at 
Venice in December cf 1889, close a list of works of which it has been 
prophesied : ' Among the whole English -speaking peoples, in propor- 
tion as they grow in thought and in spirituality and in the love of 
men and women, the recognition and the praise of the main body of 
Browning's poetry will also grow into a power the result of which 
we cannot as yet conceive.' f 

144. Otber Poets.— Among those who dwell on the slopes of 
Parnassus XOaUbew Arnold (1822-1888), son of Dr. Arnold of 

« See the end of his essay on ' Style/ in Appreciations, p. 36, ed. 1889. 
* Stopford Brooke, Contemporary Review, Jan. 1890. 


Bugby, finds a place. A Newdigate prizeman in 1843, he had issued 
several volumes of verse — the anonymous Strayed Seveller in 1849, 
Empedodes (1852), Poems (1853-6)— before he was called to occupy 
the chair of Professor of Poetry at Oxford (1867-1867), where he 
lectured on Translating JSbm^and on The Study of Celtic Literature, 
A strain of melancholy runs through his verse, which contrasts with 
the hopefulness of Tennyson and the 'glorious optimism' of 
Browning. His ear was quick for the ' melancholy long withdraw- 
ing roar' of the Sea of Faith, and earth too often seemed 

'a darkling plain 
Swept with oonf osed alarms of struggle and flighty 
Where ignorant armies clash and fight.* 

He is at his best in * a mood of regret,' it has been said, and in his 
elegies he excelled. The greatest, Thyrsis, written on the death of 
his friend Clough (see p. 197)} should be read in connection with The 
Scholar- Gipsy; in Rugby Chapel he mourned his father; in the 
uneven Westminster Abbey his father's biographer. Dean Stanley; 
while the Memorial Verses * on Wordsworth reveal one of the two 
great literary influences under which he wrote — that of the Lake 
poet, whose protigi, indeed, he was ; and of the Greek writers^ of 
whom he speaks in his sonnet To a Friend as ' propping ' his mind 
*in these bad days.' The classical influence may be most broadly 
illustrated by Empedocles on Etna and Merope (1858). An 'apostle 
of culture,' his work is marked by high finish : his sonnets, more than 
Miltonic in their limited number, are largely so in excellence. Among 
his narrative poems, Sohrab and Sustumde^a with an Eastern theme^ 
a vein traceable in the Oriental Eclogues of William Collins (1742), 
and even earlier, also in the poems of Southey (p. 1 68) and T. Moore, 
(p. 173), and in more recent days in the notable work of E. FitzGerald, 
mentioned below. Balder Dead indicates the influence of Northern 
myth, first seen in the verse of Thomas Oray,f and culminatingin that 
of William Morris. Bante Gabriel Rossettl (1828-1882), son 
of an Italian patriot, refugee, and man of letters, was ' a man who 
lived a solitary life, and became eminent in two arts,' as poet and 
painter. He was a member of the little band of seven — ^Holman 
Hunt, Millais, and the poet's brother, W. M. Bossetti, being among 
them — who in that year of Bevolutions, 1848, founded the 'Pre- 
Baphaelite Brotherhood.' Most of his first volume, the Foejns of 

* The oharming lines on his household pets at Oobham must not be omitted | 
OeUt's Oraoe and Kaiser Deady on the two dogs, and Poor Matthias^ the canary, 
t See his Qdet viii. and iz. ; the latter is based upon the Balder myth. 


1870, was written before he was twenty-live, and his only other 
original volume appeared in 1881 as Ballads and Poems, * The most 
retiring man of genius of his day,' his outlook was not upon con- 
temporaiy life : he is distinctly * Komantic,' and as such his best and 
most vigorous work is in his Ballads:— 2%« While Ship relates the 
familiar tragedy of 1120, as dramatically told by *the butcher 
of Rouen, poor Berold ; * the Staff and Scrips a medieval legend 
altered and weakened ; Sister Helen, a powerful poem ; Rose Mart/, 
Eastern in character ; and his greatest narrative, The King^s Tragedy ^ 
dealing with the death of the poet-king James I. of Scotland. It 
was the weird and the supernatural, which, true to the Romantic 
spirit, is usually present in these, that largely attracted him to such 
subjects, for * any writing about devils, spectres, or the supernatural 
generally, always had a fascination for him.' * The well-known 
Blessed Damozel — a subject which also occupied his brush — and Mg 
Sister's Sleep — a purely imaginative poem — ^appeared in the short- 
lived Germ, the official organ of Pre-Baphaelitism, of which four 
numbers were issued in 1850. A truly romantic interest attaches 
to Bossetti's first volume ef 1870, for upon the death of his wife in 
1862, after two years of wedded life, the poet, to borrow the quaint 
Fuller-like remark of his friend Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton, ' like 
Prospero, literally buried his wand,' and for seven years the poems 
lay in the grave, whence they were disinterred in 1869. The volume 
of 18^1 first contained in a complete form The House of Li/Bf a 
somewhat mystical sequence of 102 sonnets, often held to be his 
greatest work, and from it may be borrowed lines to describe the 
spirit in which the poet-painter wrought ; — 

* Under the arch of life, whexe love and death. 
Terror and mystery, guard her shrine, I saw 
Beauty enthroned ; and thongh her gaze struck avre, 
I drew it in as simply as my breath.' f 

In his sister Clirlstlna Hossetti (1830-1894), *the soul whose 
breath among us was as a heavenward song,' ^ we had the most 
spontaneous poet since Shelley. Unlike her brother, and unlike 
Tennyson, who so carefully revised their poems, *she always wrote 
just as the impulse and the form of expression came to her, and if 
this did not come she wrote not at all ' ; § yet not even Tennyson nor 
Hr. Swinburne, whom that poet termed ' a tube through which all 

• Frefaoe to the Poetru (ed. 1891, p. zxviii), by W. M. Kosaetti, who has also 
(1895) edited his brother's Letters, 
t Sonnet Ixxvii. t Swinburne. 

i W. M. Bossetti, quoted by Mr. Watts-Dunton, Nineteenth Century^ Feb. 1895. 



things blow into music,' * is at times more melodious or more 
finished in point of art than she who may divide with Mrs. Browning 
the claim to the first place among our female poets. The success- 
ful Goblin Market and other Poems of 1862 was soon followed bj 
the Pruice*8 Process volume in 1866, and then, except for somo 
charming nursery songs, no further Terse appeared till A Pageant 
and other Poems in 1881, her other works being chiefly of a devo- 
tional character. Her longer pooms are, like those of her brother, 
Romantic, but ^vith a more fairy-like grace ; her lyrics are unequal ; 
her sonnets— as in ilfonna /7ino77ii>/a/a~neariy perfect; and of her 
devotional poetry, didactic though it be, it has been truly said ' she 
does not preach, she prays.' But it was not given to her to sound all 
the stops of the organ of life : * she never realised evil. Linng 
such a retired life, more like a cloistered nun than anything else, 
she knew little of the outside world or its ways, and refused on 
principle to have any distrust.* Somewhat in the spirit of tho 
Bomantic poets, the gaze of Sir Benry Taylor (1880-86) was 
backward, not on the legend, however, but on the life of the Middle 
Ages, and in the greatest of his five ' plays,' Philip van Artevelde, 
1834, we breathe the air of the days of Froissart. This noble his- 
torical romance in dramatic form, though slow in action, is, like all 
his verse, rich in thoughtf To BdwardFitzOerald (1809-1883) 
it was given to produce a marvellous rendering (1859) of the 
Quatiains of Omar Khayyam, the astronomer-poet of Persia. 

' A golden Eastern lajv^ 
Than which I know no version done 
In EDglish more divinely well,* 

wrote Tennyson, J and under the name of the Persian poet a nineteentli 
century ' Kitcat * of literary men now holds its periodical gatherings. 
The merit of FitzQerald's work, however, was not at once recog- 
nised, and in this at least it resembles the Hwomdy (i.e. Homely) 
Bhymcsoi the Rev. ^XTllllam Barnes (1820-1886), author of 
three series of Poems in the Dorset Dialect, 1844, 1858, 1863. 
Devoid of passion, and avowedly narrow in range, Barnes is a true 
pastoral poet, original, tender, human, racy, and humorous. In the 
case of James Thomson (1834-1882), the second poet of that 
name — see p. 123 — 'fame, long expected, arrived — but only to look 
into the face of a dying man.* His City of Dreadful ^iffht, 1880, 
ft powerful poem, has been termed the ' Epic of Pessimism.' With 

* For the inflnence of Hlsa Bossettl on Swinburne see the Critical KU'Katt 
.of Hr. Gosse (p. 163, 1896), who terms her * one of iho most perfect poets of the 

t Hb InteiwMag AuloMoigfrapTiv appeiit^ In 1^86. % Tiretids nAnm; 


regard to ibe virile yeree of that passionate champion of woman, 
Mrs. AnsruBta 'Webster (1840-1894) time will decide whether 
in J%0 Sentence (1687), one of her* four dramas, we haye, as Hr* 
W. M. Bossetti would claim, ' the supreme thing amid the work of 
ftU British poetesses/ 

In cmwrles Stuart Calverley (1831-1884) we lost, < perhaps 
the best parodist in the language,' pne 'whose wit was refined 
common sense,' ]!l£r« Leslie Stephen has said; and the recent death 
of WUUam llEorrls (1834^1896) has deprived us of an artist in 
more senses than one. Notwithstanding the keen interest of theauthor 
of the EartUy Paradise in social questions for many years past, he 
had in t|iat work proclaimed himself but the HdU singer of an epiptjr 
day,' one who bad no power ' to ease the burden of your cares,' one 
who frankly asked * why should I strive to set the crooked straight? * 
In these days his gaze also was toward t^e Middle Agei and in his 
earliest verse, 7%e D^ence oj Guinevere (1868), * its splendour, its 
gold and steel, its curiousness in armour and martial gear, lived 
again; and its inner. sadness, doubt, and wonder, its fantastic 
passions were reborn.'* His chief work» The Earthly Paradise ( 1 868-> 
1870), contains in its 40,000 lines a Etorehouse of legend and tale. 
' Certain gentlemen and mariners of Norway/ he tells us, ' having 
considered all they had heard of the Earthly Paradise^ set sail to 
find it,' in the days when 'nigh the thronged wharf Geoffi»y 
Chaucer's pen moved over bills of lading ; ' and finding in a dim 
Western land cerQn Greek settlers, they twice a month assemble to 
telltales after the manner of the /^tfcam^roji and Chaucer's great poem* 
The twenty-four tales illustrate the three marked inflaenees on on? 
modem poetiy to which we have already had occasion to refer. 
There are classical tales, told by the Greeks, which may remind us 
also of Morris' own Jjffe and Death of Jason (1867), and his 
renderings of the .Xkeid (1876), and the Odyssey (1887). There 
are medieval legends; and there are Norse tales, such as The Lovers 
of Gudrun and The Fostering of Aslaug, Morris himself visited 
Iceland, and considered Mts legend, song and story a very mine 
of fioble and pleasant beauty and high manhood/ His Sigurd the 
VoUung (1876) is usually held to be his masterpiece. He also 
rendered, with Mr. Magniisson, the Story of Sfrettir the Strong 
(1869), and the Story of the Vblsmngs (1870). His House of the 
Welfinge appeared in 1 889. Our old epic Beowdf was not forp:ottett, 
as we have seen,! ^d it speaks in semi-modern English through 

* AjSuf^vr lADsr, OcnUemporar^f Reetieuf, 18V9. 
t 6e6 p. 8 and Appendix A) Ez^^t I, 


the Oaxtonian type of one of the last of those medieyal-looking 
Tolmnes which issaed from hie Eelmscott press, by means of which 
he stroTe to influence modem printing, jnst as for a quarter of a 
century he had so snooessfiilly influenced the decoratiye arts. 

Space forbids more than the mention of the more recent loss ot 
Oowentry Patmore (1823-1896), best known by his widely 
popular Angd if the House, 1854, criticised by Geo. Brimley and 
praised by Mr. Buskin as ' the sweetest analysis we possess of quiet 
modem domestic feeling.' This was followed by kindred poems, 
T7U EBpousaU, FaitJ^ful for Ever, and I%e Victories of Love; also 
by the Unknoum Eros, 1877i and Amelia, 1878, in which higher 
metrical work is seen. Here allusion must suffice to Bichard Monck- 
ton Milnes (Lord Houghton), to Sir Francis I>oyle, Hon. Boden 
Koel, and John Nichol; to the Fables in Song (1873) and King 
Poppy ilS92) of &ord Aytton, < Owen Meredith' (1821-.1891), 
son of the novelist ; to that ' poet of little things and little moments ' 
Uniliam AlUnirliani (1824-1889) ; to the Tigorous lyrics and 
hexameter ^fM^ro^Af a (1858) of Charles Eingsley ; the Verses on 
Various Occasions of CSardinal Newman ; the Spanish Gypsy and 
other Terse of 'George Eliot'; and the pleasant lines of B. L. 
SteTenson. Nay, even the rugged Carlyle himself yentured into 
verse — and fared therein as badly as King Alfred ! * 

145. Tlie Wove lists. — ^Few novels have made more stir at tlio 
time of their appearance than those o f Benjamin PlaraelL Earl 
of fieaoonsfield (1804-1881), of Jewish extraction and son of Isaac 
Disraeli (see p. 323}. The first of these, the sparkling, audacious 
Vivian Gray ( 1826), * spiced with that most appetising of all condi- 
ments — scandal,' bore on its title-page the words of Ancient 
Pistol, * Why, then, the world's my oyster, which I with sword will 
open ; ' and the long process by which this hard-shelled creature was 
conquered, not by the sword but by the brain and tongue, lends an 
interest, apart from purely literary considerations, to the romantic 
career of one who is truly ' a great example of the steady perseve- 
rance of genius. . . • (for) Few men have sustained so long a series of 
defeats, so much ridicule and contempt, and have been so undauoted 
by disaster and misfortune.' After startling society by his first 
novel as a youth of two<and-twenty ; spending three years in some- 
what Byronic wanderings in Spain, Greece, and the Levant ; and 
then publishing half a dozen novels in which, as in his later works, 
the efi&ct of these Eastern wanderings is traceable, he entered Par- 

• P6r Calvcrlcy, Lord de Tabley, William and Mary Howltrt, and others, sco 
Pictioaary, Appendijc B» 


liament in 1837. The story of his maiden speech at the close ol 
that year has often been told, how he stood in .'green coat, a waist- 
coat coTered with gold chains, and black tie, without a collar . . . 
ft feuse pale as death, coal-black eyes, and long black hair in curls,' 
amid the laughter and the jeers of those who interrupted his 
speech, till, when forced to resume his seat, he did so with the pro- 
phetic words, * Ay, sir, I will sit down now ; but the time will com© 
when you will hear me ! * Thirty years later he was Prime Minister ; 
again from 1874-1880; in 1876, a peer of the realm; at his 
death, his soyereign, as a personal friend, yisited his graye ; and 
each succeeding springtime still sees his statue nearly buried in 
flowers. *He had the faculty,' says the eminent foreign critic* 
from whom quotation has already been made, ' of foreseeing his 
destiny, and because he foresaw it he perseyered.' ' It came at 
last, as eyerything does if men are firm and calm,' he had himself 
said in his S$fbil, Much of the interest in his noyels was un- 
doubtedly ephemeral. Coningsby (1844) was a political manifesto 
in fiction of the ideas of the leader of the * Young England ' party ; 
but it contains a gallery of brilliant portraits. Syhii> ( 1 845), the 
result of a tour in the North of England in 1844, dealt with a 
burning^ s^fiia-l prnbl^m^ and its yiyid and dramatic pictures of the 
misery of the factory and other folk may be compared with the 
work of Mrs. Gaskell's quieter pen (see p. 207), or with Mrs. 
Browning's lyric Cry of the Children* Another element in the 
interest excited by these works was that the writer was neyer 
purely imaginatiye ; he continually glanced at prominent people, so 
that ' keys ' to his stories were often forthcoming from other hands 
to explain real or supposed allusions. In Venetia (1837) this takes 
the form of making Byron and Shelley figure prominentl}'. Tancred 
(1817) contains perhaps his most original work, and it glows with 
an Eastern glamour. After it he bade farewell to fiction for nearly 
a quarter of a century, and Lothair (1870) — delightfully burlesqued 
by Bret Harte — of which the author said that more copies were sold 
than of any noyel for half a century, had a success due as much to 
the brilliant political career of its author as to its own merits. 
Ceasing in 1880 to be Premier, he produced his last work, Endymion, 
which, like the orb beloved by the shepherd of that name in Grecian 
legend, shone, if it shines at all, solely by reflected light. 

In contrast with this eyentful life stands that of the much greater 
noyelist 'Georgre Sllot,' Mary Ann Cross (1819-1880), who, 
during her first twenty years at Griff House, near Nuneaton, fol« 

« Georg Brandos, lord Beaeorufield: A Study, English translation, 1880. 


lowed by eight at Foleshill, Coventiy, -was storing her mind with 
those pictures of Warwickshire life which were to earn for her the 
name of the * Novelist of the Midlands/ After the death of her 
father, in 1849, she, at the age of thirty-one, caine to London, where 
for thirty years (1850-1880) she lived a most retiring life, varied 
by frequent visits abroad. Not till the age of thirty-seven did she 
attempt fiction. Her first literary work had been a translation of 
Stranss' Leben Je^u in 1846, and after her arrival in London, where 
she first wrote for and partly edited the Westminster Seview, her 
speculative intellect soon brought her in contact with minds like 
those of Herbert Spencer and George Henry Lewes. In 1880 she 
married Mr. J. W. Cross, who, in 1885, told the story of her life 
through her letters and journals. Her twenty years of work as a 
novelist fall naturally into two portions, the first being a brief 
period of four or five years of ' spontaneous ' production, beginning 
in 1867 with three very successful Scenes from Clerical life {Amos 
Barton^ Mr. GUfiVs Lorn Story ^ and Janefs Bepentanee\ and closing 
with her greatest work of art, Silas Mamer (1861). Between these 
lay her most popular tale, Adam Bede^ which in 1859 divided public 
interest with such an epoch-makiug book as Darwin's Origin of 
Species ; and The Mill on the Floss (1860), a work of genius indeed, 
but one which has been defined as a ' masterly fragment of fictitious 
biography in two volumes, followed by a second-rate one-voluma 
novel, the three connected into a single whole by very inadequate 
links.'* The productivity of this short period— three novels and 
three novelettes— contrasts strongly with that of the remaining 
sixteen years, 1861-1877, during which only four novels appeared : 
— the Florentine historical tale, Bomola (1863); Felix Holt, a 
decided failure (1866) ; Middlemarch (1871), the pictures of country- 
life in which vie with those of Adam Bede, but the note of melan- 
choly struck in the words of the * Prelude' is maintained through- 
out, and mars its mtisic ; in 1876, after another long interval of 
five years, appeared Daniel Deronda, In these later works 'the 
canvas of laborious culture is too often visible through the colouring 
of the picture. We find so much to think about, that we crave a 
little rest for simple enjoyment ; ' f or, as the writer herself once 
put it, * I think of refining when novel readers think of skipping.* 
Her pose in the earlier works is that of the graceful upright basket- 
bearers of the Erectheum ; in the later works she may support a 
heavier intellectual burden, but, Atlas-liko, she bends beneath it ; 

* B. H. Hutton, Etsayi on tome Modern Guides qf English Thought^ 1887, 
t Frederic Harrisoa, Fortnightly Review, vol. zzxTii. 1885. 


and it is no mere half-trnth that Mr. Etiskin uttered when he said 
that great things in art are done with ease^— like the sweep of 
Giotto*8 brush to form the perfect circle. The Hransition' is 
marked by Bomola, ' She could put her finger on it as marking a 
well-Klefined transition in her life.' * • • . Marvellous as a psycho- 
logical study, it is artistically deficient in structure, and still more 
so as a picture of Italian life, as Browning, Mazzini, and others 
have declared : for Geox^e Eliot did not know Italy a» she knew her 
natire Midlands. Except for a very brief visit in 1860, sh^ had 
passed only thirty-four days in the city where her scene is laid. 
Spontaneous work was impossible, and the labour involved in its 
prodaction was enormous. ' In her own words, '' I began it a young 
woman — I finished it an old woman." ' * 

Her mind was speculative, highly cultured, and observing, as is 
seen in the shrewdness of her compact observations on life ; keenly 
sensitive by nature, she craved and gave sympathy, and desired to 
make her readers see ' some of the poetry, of the pathos, of the 
tragedy, and the comedy lying in- the experience of a human soul  
that looks out through dull grey eyes, and that speaks in a voice of 
quite ordinary tones.' f Hence also her delightful pictures of child* 
life, such as that of Eppie in Silas Mamer, Intensely earnest'^* my 
books,' said she, 'are. deeply serious things to me' — she is a stern 
teacher of duty and of retribution, and insists that ' our deeds are like 
children that are bom to us ; they live and act apart &om our will. 
Nay, children may be strangled, but deeds never.' *When the 
story,' says Professor Bowden, * concerns itself with the ruin or 
restitution of moral character, every other interest becomes sub- 
servient.' :|: * The inexhaustible charm of Geoige Sand,' says another 
critic, § * the microscopic vivacity of Jane Austen, the pathetic oddi- 
ties of Charles Dickens, the terrible Hogarthian pencil of Balzac 
and Thackeray, were all deliberately foregone by a novelist who 
Veadso deeply, who looked on life so profoundly, and who meditated 
60 conscientiously, as George Eliot.' ' One rises from the study of 
her works,' declares a third, || 'profoundly impressed with their 
thoroughness, their depth, their rich colouring, their marvellous 
humour, their laborious conscientiousness, their noble ethical 
standard, and their weariness — the weariness of a great speculative 
intellect which can find no true spring of elasticity and hope.' 

* Life and ZetUrs^ p. 301 of the one-volame edition. 

t Amos Bart<m, ch. r. QT. also what is said of Dutch pictures In Adum Bed*^ 

1 Contemwarp Review, 1870. S Frederic Harrison, loc cif. 

f Bl H. ttutton, 7^ ci^ 



A contrast as yiyid as that between the anthor of Coningdty and 
of Adam Bed$ exists between the work of the latter — * the most 
philosophic artist or most artistic philosopher in recent literature ' — 
and that of the romance writer, Sobert ZiOiUb SteFenson (1850- 
1894). George Eliot made a definite study of the * science of 
character/ and, like an eminent living writer, produced at least one 
distinctly ' pyschological novel/ Stevenson has left no doubt as to 
his position; his work has been to lead an emphatic reaction 
against this. ' It is one thing,' he has said, ' to remark and to 
dissect with the most cntdng logic the complications of life, and of 
the human spirit; it is quite another' *to embody character, 
thought, or emotion, in some act or attitude that shall be remarkedly 
striking to the mind's eye. This is the highest and hardest thing 
to do in words, the thing which once accomplished equally delights 
the schoolboy and the sage ; ' Hhe first is literature, but the second 
is 8omething besides, for it is likewise art' Stevenson, who in his 
verse and prose has given us many a glimpse into his own life, was 
bom and educated at Edinburgh. Sprung from a family of distin- 
guished lighthouse builders, he was destined to build Bell Eock 
towers and Skerzyvores of a kind that should cast their light the 
wide world over, and to erect beacons that should be guides beyond 
the rugged shores of Scotland. The spirit of romance was upon 
him, as upon Scott, Dumas, and Hugo, from his childhood. * Give 
me a highwayman, and I was full to the brim ; a Jacobite would do, 
but the highwayman was my favourite dish,' he says of the days of 
his youth ; and that youth he retained to the end. Despite deep 
draughts from the goblet of life there was no growing old, even a 
life-long struggle with disease could never wholly dim the brightness 
of his buoyant nature ; and his mature verdict on a psychological 
novel — even that of a writer like George Meredith — was : * How 
often I have read Guy Mannering, Boh Boy ^ or Bedgatmtlet, I have 
no means of guessing, having begun young. But- it is either four 
or five times that I have read The EgoisV All his early woik 
appeared in magazines. An Inland Voyage (1878) was followed by 
Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879), and by the New 
Arabian NigJUs in 1882. But it was in The Treasure Island (1883) 
that he first definitely took his stand as a writer of romance, and 
won both reputation and reward. Prinxje Otto (1885) and The Master 
of Ballantrae (1889) had but a partial success; but of ITie Strange 
Case ofDr, JekyU and Mr, Hyde (1886) it has been truly remarked 
that it was a classic from the day of its birth. Kidnapped also 
appeared in 1886« and waa ultimately followed by a sequel, CatrUma* 


Latterly he worked in conjimction with his stepson, Mr. Lloyd 
Osbourne, in The Wrecker (1892), of which he privately wrote: *It 
didn't set np to be a book, only a long tough yarn with some pic- 
tures of the manners of to-day in the greater world . . . the world 
where men still live a man's life.'* Weir of Hermiston (1896) 
was left incomplete when he died in 1894 in Samoa, whither he had 
gone in search of health, and whence, during the last four years of 
his life, he wrote to his friend, Mr. Sidney Colvin, those Vailima 
Letters which appeared in 1895. Writer of romance as he was, he 
had the keenest insight into the realities of life, and his essays, 
Memories and Portraits (1887) dealing with his own life, and the 
earlier Virginihus Puerisque (1881), with that of others, are full of 
searching criticism. His verse Underwoods (1887) has, like all he 
wrote, the charm of his own personality ; while his humour, unlike 
that of George Eliot, which appeared only in her works, mani- 
fested itself in his life, bubbling out in playful sketches and verse 
among the snows of Davos or beneath the skies of Southern France. 
If this and the faculty of romance were bom with him, it was other- 
wise with his style. He has himself told how * all through my 
boyhood and youth I was known and pointed at for the pattern of 
an idler, and yet I was always busy on my own private end, which 
was to learn to write. I kept always two books in my pocket, one 
to read and one to write in.'-f He wrote descriptions of what he 
saw ; he compcsed dialogues as he walked ; he played the 'sedulous 
ape,' as he terms it, to the styles of Hazlitt, Lamb, Wordsworth, 
Sir Thomas Browne, Defoe, Hawthorne, Montaigne, Baudelaire, 
Oberman, Ruskin, Browning, — yes, even to Sordello I — Dumas, and 
various others ; and that, * like it or not,* declares he, * is the way 
to learn to write ... it was so, if one could trace it out, that all 
men have learned.' 

Among those who, like George Eliot, spent their best strength in 
picturing English country life, that business-like novelist who served 
for thirty years as an official in the Post Office and whom Stevenson 
playfully credited with chronicling a certain amount of ' small beer,' 
jBbiitliony TroUope (1815-1882), deserves a place. A prolific 
writer, like his mother and his brother, Tbomas Adolplias 
Trollope, his realistic pictures of 'Barsetshire' contain his best 
work. 2%e Warden (1865), Barchester Towers^JDr, Thorne, Framley 
Parsonage^ and The Last Chronicle of Barset (1866-7) all belong to a 
series marked by much rather photographic but life-like conception 

• FafKmaZ«//<?r«, p. 106, ed. 1895, 

t Memories and Portraitt, X887 ; A College Magazine, 


of character. He also wrote a ' political ' gienp of novels, of wbich 
7^ Prime Minister may be taken as a type, and his Orley Farm 
has a place by itself. Blnab Maria Knlocky afterwards Mrs, 
Craik (1826-1887), in John Halifax, Gentleman (1867) limned a 
picture of ideal English middle-class life which forty years have 
not served to dim ; and the Tom Brown's Schooldays of Thomas 
BuirlieB (1823-1896), which appeared in the same year, still 
retains its freshness. Piccadilly^ the bright satirical society novel of 
Ziaareiice011p]iant(1829-188S), was publishedin 1870, and what 
fate awaits the popular Trilby (1894) of the -artist-author George 
Bu Kaorler ( 1 834-1 896 ) it would be premature to prophesy. By 
several writers fiction has been used for social aims. Barrieft 
Martineau (1802-1876), a busy writer, produced in her earlier 
days a number of once famous but now forgotten Tales — * an unread- 
able mixture of fiction . ^ . with raw masses of the dismal science,' 
Mr. Leslie Stephen terms them : — Illustrations of Political Economy 
(1832.4), of the Poor Law, and of Taxation (1834). Deerhrooh (1839) 
was her best tale, and the Feats on the Fiord, a children's tale 
(1841), was loDg popular; but she correctly gauged her own ability 
when she owned in her valuable dutohiography (1877) that ' she 
could popularise, though she could never discover nor invent.* 
Charles Kingrsley (1819-1876) also had — ^largely under the in- 
fluence of Carlyle and Maurice — a keen interest in social questions, 
as, his Yeast (Hrst published in Fraser, 1848) and Alton Locke 
(1850) give evidence; while in his Westward Ho (1855), which 
divides with Two Years Ago (1857) the claim of popularity, he gave 
a stirring picture of Eb'zabethan days; in Hypatia (1853) he pic- 
tured life in Alexandria with a distinct sense of its application to 
modern times ; and in Hereward the Wake (1866) gave a sketch 
from the days of the Conqueror. The novels of his less widely 
known younger brother, Benry Xingalej (1830-1876), may 
perhaps ultimately rank higher. Among these are Geoffrey Handyn, 
1859, and The Hillyars and the Burtons, 1865, based on his experi- 
ences in Australia ; and Bavenslioe, 1861. As far as mere popularity 
is concerned few works have (^ceeded the historical romances of 
^XTllUam Barrison jainsworth (1805-1882), the * Lancashire 
novelist.' In some at least of his forty tales — the best of which is 
perhaps Old St. PauVs — vivid conception of scene and incident, com- ' 
bined with a swift directness of touch, do much to compensate &ff 
the absence of any depth of character. To Charies Iteade (1814> 
1884), however, has been assigned the palm of historical fiction. Sir 
Walter Besant has termed his medieval romance TTie Cloister and the 


Hearth (1861) ' the greatest historical noyel in the langaage/ '*' and 
Mr. Swinburne places it ' among the very greatest masterpieces of 
narrative ; ' * a story better conceived, better constructed, or better 
related, it would be difficult to find anywhere/ f Bcade began 
fiction with his charming tale Peg Wbffington (1853), which 
hod in 1852 appeared as a play under the name of Masks and Faces, 
His earliest works, indeed, were plays, and nearly all his successful 
stories were afterwards arranged for the stage. He also manifested 
much interest in social questions, as in It is Never too Late to Mend 
(1856) and Put Yourself in his Place (1870). Griffith Gaunt or 
Jealousy (1865), less pleasiog as a whole, may in some respects be 
placed beside and even above The Cloister and the Hearth, Among 
sensational novelists 'WllUam 'VlllLle Collins (1824-.1889) 
maintained supremacy with his Woman in White (1860), Armadale 
(1866), The Moonstone {\^Q^),^Tidi The New Magdalen (1873); while 
by 1895 four hundred thousand copies of East Lynne (1861), by Mrs. 
Benry Vood (d. 1887), had been sold, and of her MrSi Ham' 
hufton*$ Troubles ( 1 862) nearly a third of that number had appeared^ 
The novel of adventure has found vigorous if quite humblo expres- 
sion through the long series of Scatj^-huntcrs, Headless Horsemen, 
and other exciting creations of Captain KayneSeld (1818-1883), 
of Irish birth, who has embodied in his fiction much of his own 
experience in America, as store-keeper, negro-overseer, schoolmaster, 
actor, hunter, Indian warrior, soldier, and journalist. 

140. Tbe Blstorians. — ' A paradoxical figure, solitary, proud, 
defiant, vivid, no literary man in the nineteenth century is likely to 
stand out more distinctly than Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), 
both for faults and genius ; ' and it is quite possible, the writer of 
these words t adds, that it will be ' as the author of the French 
JRevolutiont the most unique book of the century, that he will be 
chiefiy remembered.' Certainly there can be no doubt as to the 
unique character of the position Carlyle long occupied — a position 
left vacant since the days of Dr. Johnson — as the acknowledged 
head of English letters ; yet it was not simply as the writer of 
history, biography, or pamphlet, but as a prophet— the * Chelsea 
Seer,* a * spiritual volcano ' — ^thd,t he exerted an influence so potent 
that Walt Whitman could . say : ' Consider for one moment the array 
of British thought , .'. of the last fifty years . . . but with Carlyle 
left out ! It would be like an army with no artillery.' The effect 
of his stiri'ing words on the Kingsleys and the Buskins in earlier 

• See the preface to liia edition of that work, 1894. 

t Essay on Charles Reade. $ B. H. Button. 


days may be judged from the record of Mr. Fronde: 'To the 
young, the generous, to every one who took life seriously, who 
wished to make an honourable use of it, and could not be content 
with making money, his words were like the morning rereiUee/ It 
may be true that * as a revolutionary or pentecostal power on the 
sentiments of Englishmen, his influence is perhaps nearly spent, 
and, like the romantic school of Germany, will descend fix>m the 
high level of faith to the tranquil honours of literature,' to quote 
the words of Dr. James Martineau.* But if this be so, a large 
share of such honour will rest on the * wild savage book' of which the 
'most angry and desperate man of genius then in the flesh 'ex- 
claimed on the January night of 1837t as he flung from the house 
after penning its last words : ' I know not whether this book is 
worth anything, nor what the world will do with it, or misdo, or 
entirely forbear to do, as is likeliest; but this I could tell the world : 
You have not had for a hundred years any book that comes more 
direct and flamingly from the heart of a living man. Bo what you 
like with it, you ' f Conceived in 1832, the first volume was com- 
pleted in 1834, and lent to John Stuart Mill, who, in the March of 
1835, staggered into Carlyle's parlour, * the very picture of despera- 
tion,' to tell the news that, through the carelessness of a servant, the 
manuscript had been burned ! Carlyle had no notes ; every vestige 
of his work was gone. In despair he began again ; but not till 1837 
did the book appear. It may be said to mark an epoch in historical 
composition, for it was published twelve years before the first 
volumes of Macaulay'a History ; and Carlyle and Macaulay had this 
in common, that both sought to use as the material of history all — 
even the most ephemeral — records of the past, so as to reconstruct, if 
possible, a living and moving picture of bygone days. Carlyle's 
strength may be said to lie mainly in his treatment of incident ; he 
might almost endorse the view of Mr. B. L. Stevenson that ' the desire 
for knowledge, I had almost said the desire for meat, is not more 
deeply seated than this demand for fit and striking incident.' The 
fall of the Bastille, the march of the women to Versailles, the raising 
of the huge arena on the Champ de Mars in the ' Age of GK)ld,' the 
lumbering of the king's yellow * Berline ' to Varennes, J the deaths 
of the King, of the Queen, and of the ' sea-green incorruptible ' 
Bobespierre, when he, too, with his broken jaw bound in dirty 
linen, passes in the tumbril to the guillotine on the Place de la 

* JEiseufs PhUosophiealand Theological, 1879. 

t Froude's Th» Carlyle, A History of his Life in London, 1834-81. 1. 89, ed. 1890. 
i Carlyle is now known to be inaccurate as to the number of hours occupied 
in the flight he so graphically describes. 


K^volutioD — those and other incidents are flashed upon the reader 
with the utmost elaboration of every detail. * In other writers,* 
sajs Professor Dowden, ' we may read more correctly the causes 
and the effects of the French Eevolution. If we would feel the 
suck of the maelstromi, and explore its green, glimmering terror, we 
must accompany Carlyle.* * '-^ 

The life of Carlyle has been told at length by his friend and 
disciple Mr. J. A. Eroude, who may perchance be better remembered 
for good and for evil in this connection than as a historian. Born 
at the little Border village of Ecclefechan in Dnmfrics— where his 
&ther, a mason, had built the tiny cottage, now, like the later 
Chelsea home, a kind of pilgrimage place — Carlyle was educated at 
the neighbouring Annan grammar-school, and then at Edinbni^h 
University, in the hope that he would enter the Church of Scotland. 
He became a mathematical teacher, however,f kept a school at 
Kirkcaldy (1817-1818), then took to literature, and wrote — as he 
long continued to do — ^for various Eeviews. A knowledge of 
German made him useful as a pioneer in the introduction of German 
literature, and led to a lifelong admiration for G-oethe, whose 
Wilhelm JHeiaier he translated in 1824 ; a Life of Schiller appeared 
in 1823-1824, and a volume on German Bomance in 1827. He 
had, in 1826, married Jane Baillie Welsh, and in 1828 settled for 
six years at a lonely moorland house at Craigenputtock in his native 
county. Here he wrote his remarkable and largely autobiographical 
Sartor Eesarius, which originally appeared in Fraser's Magatnne^ 
1833-1834, and was separately published in^ 1838. In 1834 he 
moved to Cheyne Bow, Chelsea, his home for nearly fifty years ; 
here, after his long struggle, he won the fame to which allusion has 
been made, and here in 1881 he died. His historical works, other 
than the Fr€nch Bevoltdion, are the Life and Letters of Oliver 
Cromwell (1845), in which he did much to make living and to re- 
establish the fame of the great Protector ; his History of Frederick 
the Great (1858-1865), in ten volumes, was the labour of thirteen 
years; and his L\fe of John Sterling , 1851, maybe classed with 
the histories on account of its bearing on modem thought. He also 
issued a long series of social and political works — Chartism (1840), 
Past and Present (1843), Laiter-day Pamphlets (1850), Shooting 
Niagara, and after) dealing with the Beform Bill of 1867. These 
are obviously more or less ephemeral. More permanent are some 
of his numerous biographies of great men, the best-known and 

* TranuripU and Studies. Ohapter on * Victorian Literature.* 

t His first publication was a translation of Le^endrc's Geometry ^ 18S4. 


most popular being the -widely-circulated lectures on Heroes and 
Hero WorMp (1811). 

Among other historical -writers "whose style has an attraction 
apart from the matter of their -work, Tames jantbony Fronde 
(1818-18.94), to whom allusion has already been mode, finds a place. 
His History of England from the fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada (1856-1870) has had its accuracy seriously im« 
pugned ; but even those who hare criticised it have been reluctantly 
obliged to acknowledge its charm of style. Among his numerous 
other works may be mentioned the four series of Short Studies on 
Great Subjects (1867-1883). ToUn ItleHard Green (1837-1883) 
produced in his Short History of the English Beople (1874) the most 
popular history since that of Macaulay, and a work of which six 
editions were called for -within a year. Indeed, what ' Macaulay 
did for one period of English history. Green did for it as a whole. 
From ti mass of scittered details he constructed a series of pictures 
which are ftdl of life.' A literary artist of consideiable skill; his 
work is not without inaccuracy, which arose both from the condi- 
tions under which he wrote, and from the magnitude of his attempt 
to combine in one whole the labours of special students of constitu- 
tional, social, literary, and economic history, jaiezander ^XTllliam 
Xinfflalte (1809-1891), author of the Invasion of the Crimea {IS6Z^ 
87), may probably, in spite of some notable descriptions in that 
work, be better remembered as the author of Eothen (1844), a record 
of travel in the East, which first made him known, jartliar 
Ventbyn Stanley (1815-1881), long a familiar figure as Dean of 
"Westminster, produced while Professor of Ecclesiastical History at 
Oxford, Lectures on the Eastern Church (1861) and on the Jewish 
Church (1863-1865), marked, like his other works, by a fascination 
of style. His Life of Dr. Arnold of Rugby (1844) took its place at 
once among our best biographies. Charles Merlvale (1808^ 
1893), Dean of Ely, in his History of Rome under the Empire 
(1850-1864) produced a work which is still regarded as a standard 
authority. ... _ , ^ 

At the head of ITie 'NewlSchool' of historians, fn'Vhom ^ 
tendency to subordinate literary style to what is of greater import- 
ance to' the student, if not to the general reader — Fact — stands 
Xdward JSLm Freeman (1823-1892), whose History of the Norman 
Cbw$««*^ (1867-1879), "with two supplementary volumes, in 1882, 
on William n., is his chief work. It is a veritable mine of research, 
dealing with the political rather than with the social sidr of the 
Conquest. Freeman is credited with having contributed two impor- 


taut doetriii€S to modern historical stady : the ' continnity of man's 
doiirgs in Etax>pe from the earliest times to the present daj/ us 
exemplified in his brief but excellent General Sketch tf Ektropewit 
History (IS72), and ' the value of geography and archaeology 4Mhandh 
maids to the historian/ one part of which at least is set forth in his 
Historical Geography, Bit Toliii Itobert Beeley (1834-1895)4 
Professor of History at Cambridge — in succession to Ch. Kingsleyv 
1 869-^08 Freeman was at Oxford, was most widely known in connec- 
tion with his Ecceffemo{\ 866). His L^e and Times of Stein (1878) 
is a most valuable contribution to our knowledge of Germany during 
the Napoleonic wars. His Expansion of England appeared in 1883. 
"Walter F. Skene (1809--1892), historiographer of Scotland^ in his 
Celtic Scotland (1876-1880) contributed to our knowledge of thepre# 
Teutonic period not only of Scotland, but of the whole Island ; 
while the labours of Jobn Sherren Srewer (1810^1879) at the 
Hecord Office for nearly a quarter of a centoiy have given access to 
much that is at least *• history in the making.' His chief work is 
TheBeign of Henry VIIL from his Jceession to the DecUhof Wolsey, 
lieviewed and Illustrated from Original Documents, edited by his 
friend, Jas. Gairdner, in 1884. Sir Tbonuui Bniklne May 
(IS15-1S86) wrote,, in 1861-1863, as a continuation of Hallam, a 
Constitutumal History from 1760-1860; but his chief work, and one 
retrognised as authoritative, is his Privileges, Proceedings, and the 
Usage of Parliament (1844), continually revised in subsequent 

147. Tbe PliiloBoplierB and TlieolofflanB.— The name of 
Thomas Carlyle again calls for mention here, for his Sartor 
ResartuSt dealing with the * Philosophy of Clothes,' contains the 
essence of all his spiritual teaching, and in the second of its throe 
books records his own spiritual struggles. It is a counterblast to 
materialism. * The tiniverse is but one vast Symbol of Gh>d : nay, 
if thou wilt have it, what is man. hinnself but a Symbol of God ? ' * 
Nature is * the living visible Garment of God : * man is a ' Soul, a 
Spirit and divine Apparition/ deep hidden under the * Garment ot 
Flesh ; ' and similarly of all things material, ' the thing visible, nay, 
the thing imagined, the thing in any way conceived as visible, 
what is it but a Garment, a Clothing of the higher celestial In- 
visible?' t And the beginning of all wisdom, says Carlyle^ is to 
look fixedly on all such clothing till it becomes transparent, aii^ 
the spiritual is clear to view. In his Journal lie farther writes 
thus: '^hat the Supernatural differs not from the Natural is a 
* Book III. ch. iii. f Book I. ch. tIH. 


great fxuih vhich the last century (especially in France) has been 
engaged in demonstratiDg. The Philosophers went &r wrong, how« 
eyer, in this, that instead of raising the natural to the tupematural, 
they stroTe to sink the snpematoral to the natural. The gist of 
my whole way of thought is to do not the latter, but the former. 
I feel it to be the epitome of much good for this and following 
generations.' Thomas Hill Creen (1836-1882), Professor of 
Moral Philosophy at Oxford, a deep thinker and *an earnest and 
noble spirit deroted ... to the actiye service of his fellow-men/ 
exerted a strong influence upon modem thought. A leading expo- 
nent of Kant, he applied his keen logic to a searching criticism of 
English philosophy from Locke to Hume in two elaborate Introduc- 
tions to the latter's Treatise on Human Nature (1874-5); and 
afterwards to the positions of Herbert Spencer and Q. H. Lewes. 
His constructive work appeared after his death in the Prolegomena 
to Ethics, 1883. "WllUam Xlngdon Clifford (184.5-1879), 
eminent also as a mathematician, opposed the modern Hegelians 
and looked back with reverence to leaders of the English school of 
thought such as Berkeley and Hume, while holding that their views 
need modification under the modem teaching of Evolution. His 
Lectures and Essays (1879) are termed by Mr. Leslie Stephen, one 
of the editors, * a collection of fragmentary though luminous sugges- 
tions.* Professor Thomas Benry Buzley, most widely known 
for his scientific attainments, also frequently dealt with philo- 
sophic subjects, and in 1879 produced a monograph on Hume, 
Oeorge Benry Ziewes (1817-1878), a busy miscellaneous writer, 
chiefly notable for his Life of Goethe (1855), wrote a vivacious 
and popular Biographical Histon/ of Philosophy (1845-6), in 
which he skilfully interwove the personal history of thinkers 
with an account of their views, but, if we may once more quote 
Mr. Leslie Stephen, * the book represents rather the impressions 
of a very quick and brilliant journalist than the investigations 
of a profound student.' His Problems of Life and Mind (1874- 
1879) show him, as indeed in the main he always is, a follower 
of Comte, whose works Barrlet Kartlneau freely translated in 

In theology one of the most potent influences of modem dajs 
bears the name of the Oxford Movement, for * Oxford men started 
it and guided it. At Oxford were raised its first hopes, and Oxford 
was the scene of its first successes. At Oxford were its deep dis- 
appointments, and its apparently fatal defeat. And it won and lost 
as a champion of English theology and religion a man of genius 


whose name is among the illnstrions names of his age/ * Jolui 
Henry Vewman (1801-1890). The atmosphere of change at 
the time of the Beform Bill of 1832 was not confined to matters 
political; the Irish Church Bill of 1838, which, among other 
changes, seemed to many to do but scant justice in abolishing ten 
out of twentj-two Protestant bishoprics in a land where but one in 
nine of the inhabitants held that form of faith, filled the minds of 
others with a deep alarm which found expression in the Assize 
sermon on National Apostasy by the retiring, unobtrusive Jolui 
Xeble (1792-1866). He was Professor of Poetry at Oxford (1831- 
1841), and was widely known as the author of The Christian Year 
(1827); the last thirty years of his life he was vicar of Hursley, 
near Winchester, where he lies buried. Newman ever regarded the 
date of this sermon, July 14, as the ' start of the religious move* 
ment of 1833.' f Two weeks later there was held at the parsonage 
of Hugh James Bose, the ' Hadleigh Conference* among a few friends. 

* We felt ourselves/ says one of these, ' assailed by enemies from 
without and foes within. ... In Ireland ten bishoprics suppressed. 
We were advised to feel thankful that a more sweeping measure 
had not been adopted. What was to come next ? ' % ^® proposed 
a kind of Church Defence Association ; another a petition of clergy 
and laity to the Archbishop of Canterbury : while three Oriel men 
—Newman, Keble, and Bicliard BurreU Fronde (1803-1836), 
brother of the historian, determined by a series of Tracts dealing 
with the doctrines, services, discipline, policy and claims of the 
Church to effect a 'Second Beformation ' § in public opinion. 
Hence the name 'Tractarian' Movement. Newman wrote the 
early brief tracts, the first of which appeared on September 9, 1833, 
and although the accession, in 1835, of Sdward Bonwerle Pnsey 
(1800-1882), who for seven years had been Begins Professor of 
Hebrew and a canon of Christ Church, at once gave the movement 

* a name, a power, and a personality,' so that it became known as 
Puseyism, and abroad throughout Europe ' the terms Puseismus, 
Pudisme, Puseista^ found their way into German lecture-halls and 
Paris salons, and remote convents and police-offices in Italy and 
Sicily/ li yet in Oxford, the true home of the movement, it was still 
Newman, who, like a magnet, by his < extraordinary genius drew all 
those within his sphere/ f and by hia four o'clock sermons in the 

• Preface to DeanR. W. Obnroh's Oaiford MwtemefU (1833-18tf), 1891 
t Apologia^ p. 100, ed. 1891. 

iWm. Palmer's Narrative cfEeentty 96-100, ed. 1883» 
Froude'8 Remains^ i. S65. 18S8-39. 
Dean Cbaivb, p. 1«(^ Y Sir F. Dojrlt*i Rminitemeei, p. lil 


Unirersity ehnxieh of St. Mutfa, of-which he was Ticar, ' eveated a 
monl atmospheEe in which men judged the qaestione in debate.' 
Even * light-hearted undergradoates would drop their toiees and 
whisper, ** There's Newman," when, head thrust forward and gaze 
fixed as thongh cm some vision seen only by himself, with swift, 
noiseless step, he glided by. Awe fell on them for.a moment as if 
it had been some apparition that had passed.'* Tremendous, 
therefore, was the e£fect when in Tract No, 00 (1841) Newman seemed 
openly to lean to' Eome, CSondemned by the heads of Houses in 
Oxford, condemned by the Bishops, he retired to the neig^biAiring 
Littlemore, ' on my deathbed as regards my membership with the 
Anglican Chureh,' as he himself puts it. In 1843 he re^^ued bis 
liTing at St. Mb37's ; in 1845 he confirined the opinians of those 
who had long proclaimed thi6 to be the ultimate goolof .his.moTe« 
ment, by entering the Boman Church : ' an act»' says Mr. Gladstone, 
' which has never yet been estimated at anything like the fulLamonnt 
of its calamitous importance.' In 1879 he became Cardinal,, and in 
1890 died at the Oratory, Edgbaston, Birmingham, which he had 
long since established. His works fill thirty-four volumes. His 
sermons are marked by great ispirituality, and the beauty of a pure, 
lucid style. His best known prose work is his Apologia pro Vita Sua 
(1864), an account of the first forty years of his life, wrung from him 
by controversial words written by Charles Kingsley. His best known 
lines are Lead, Kindly lights written in 1833, when becalmed on 
an orange boat in the Straits of Bonifiicio on his passage from 
Palermo to Marseilles. Fusey defended No, 90, and continued 
iUl death the work which Newman had begun. His Oxford Idbrary 
4f Fathers, commenced in 1838 with Augustine's Confessions, and 
ultimately including forty-eight volumes, was a direct outcome of 
the Oxford movement; while as Professor of Hebrew, Pusey wrote 
a minute, comment on the Minor Prophets (1862, &c.). 

Jobn 'WllUam Colenso (1814-1883), for thurty years Bishop 
of Natal, also made no small stir in the world by his criticism of 
the Pentateuch — The Pentateuch and the Book of Judges Oriticalfy 
Examined^the seven parts of which appeared firom 1862-1879. A 
state of wild excitement followed the issue of the early volumes of 
this advanced historical criticism ; calmer seas awaited the launch- 
ing of the later ones, but all that the Bishop was called upon to 
endure for his views must be read in the story of his life.t «Foaepli I 

Barber Xilgbtfoot (1828-1889), Bishop of Durham, was one of ' 

the most learned of commentators. His Commentaries on the 

• PriQci|>al SluOriH John Ktble, im, p. 10. fByfSk Qeo. W. Ck«r 1888, 



EpisHea of St Paul appeared in 1865-1875, and his editions of 
the Epistles of Clement of Bojne in 1869 (second edition enlarged, 
1890), and of Ignatius and Polycarp in 1885. Another student of 
the life and works of the great Apostle was Joliii 8a«l Bowson 
(1816-1885), Dean of Chester, who, with his friend, W. J. Gony- 
beare, produced a standard work in the Life and Epistles of St, 
Paul (1852). Richard Cbeneyix TreDch (1807>1885), Aidi- 
bishop of Dublin, who became widely known for his books on 
Words (1851) and English, Past and Present (1855), also wrote Notes 
on the Parables (1841) and on the Miraeles (1846). The Bampton 
lectures of Henry Parry Uddon (1829-1890) on The Divinitg 
of Christ (1866) have passed through numerous editions, and are an 
acknowledged text-book. As Canon of St. Paul's, Liddon, a life- 
long friend of Pusey, was for twenty years known as an eloquent 
preacher; but perhaps no preacher of modem days, both by uttered 
and printed sermons, has exercised a more widespread influence 
than Cbarles Baddon Spurgreon (1834-1892). 

148. Tbe Solentlflo Writers. — ^Among modem men of 
science Charles Barwin (1809-1882) stands pre-eminent as Hhe 
most important generaliser, and one of the veiy few successful 
observers in the whole history of biological science,' to quote the 
words of another leader in such ioyestigation — Q-. J. Komanes. 
Hie* name is inseparably associated with the far-reaching doctrine 
of Evolution, yet, to borrow once more the words of the one whom 
we have just quoted, ' the few general facts out of which the theory 
of evolution by natural selection is formed — yiz, stmggle for exist- 
ence, survival of the fittest, and heredity— were all previously well- 
known facts,* and Hhe greatness of Mr. Darwin . . . rests upon the 
many years of devoted labour whereby he tested this idea in all 
conceivable ways^ amassing facts firom every department of science, 
balancing evidence with the soundest judgment, shirking no difficulty, 
and at last astonishing the world as by a revelation.' Charles 
Darwin, grandson of Erasmus Darwin (see p. 160), and on his 
mother's side of Josiah Wedgewood, the potter, was bom, and 
partly educated, at Shrewsbury. At sixteen he passed to Edin- 
burgh University (1825), and thence, in 1828, to Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where he became B.A. in 1831. Before taking his M.A. 
degree in 1837, he had spent five years as naturalist during the 
scientific expedition of H.M.S. * Beagle ' (1831-1836), an expedition 
which was the forerunner of the later yoyage of the * Challenger,' 
with which the name of Sir Charles TiryviUe Thomson ( 1830- 
1882) is associated. During this long cruise he circamnayigated 


tlie world, after spending three years on the coasts and main- 
land of iionth America. About three years after his return he 
married his cousin, Miss Wedgewood, and in 1842 settled at Down 
House, near Beckenham, Kent, where he lived till his death, 
passing his half-inyalid life in patient research. The epoch-making 
Origin of Species, in which he set forth his views on natural selec- 
tion and other kindred points, appeared in 1859 ; The Descent of 
Man, which excited so much comment, was published in 1871 ; and 
these two are his chief works. Eat of his very first publication, 
The Journal ^ Besearches (1839), dealing with his geological obser- 
vations during the 'Seagle' voyage, Professor Geikie declares 
that it ' alone would have placed him in the very front of investi- 
gators of nature/ The Structure and Bistrilmtion of Coral Beefs 
(1842), Observations onVolcanic Islands (lSii)f and Geological Obser- 
vations on South America (1846) are other geological works arising 
out of this voyage. His labours as a botanist, aside from the wide 
field of observation indicated in the Origin, are embodied in special 
studies on the Fertilisation of Orchids {IS62), Climbing Plants {1S66), 
Insectivorous Plants (1875), Self-fertUisation of Plants (1876), the 
Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the same 8peczes{lS77)$ and 
the interesting Pouter of Movement in Plants (1880). His zoological 
labours form the basis of his famous Descent of Man, and are also 
recoided in some special monographs, with which we may connect 
his Expression of the Emotions (1872) and his last work, a monument 
of patient study, on the Action of Worms in tlie Formation of 
Vegetable Mould (1881). He was, says Professor Huxley, 'the 
incorporated ideal of a man of science,' and he adds an even nobler 
testimony : ' Acute as were his reasoning powers, vast as was his 
knowledge, marvelloas as was his tenacious industry under physical 
difficulties which would have converted nine out of ten into aimless 
invalids, it was not these qualities, great as they were, which im- 
pressed those who were admitted to his intimacy with involuntary 
veneration, but a certain intense and almost passionate honesty by 
which all his thoughts and actions were irradiated as by a central 

Of Sir Cliarles X.yell (1797-1875) Darwin himself said : « The 
science of geology is enormously indebted to Lyell — more so, I 
believe, than to any other man who ever lived.' f His Principles o/ 
6^er)^^(1830-1833) was continually revised during the forty-two 

* Introdactory note to Charles Dartoin In the Katare Series, 188S, from 
which Mr. Romanes* words have also been quoted* 
X Life and Letters o/ Daruin, i. 76. 



remaining yean of his life, so as to meet the requirements ol 
advancing science. Its importance laj; as has been pointed out 
with regard to Darwin's work, not in the fact that the principles 
advanced were wholly new, but that they were now supported by 
such an array of evidence that * it produced an influence on the 
science greater and more permanent than any work which had 
been previously written or has since appeared.** It practically 
gave the death-blow to what is termed the * catastrophic* school ot 
geologists, for it sought to account for former changes on the earth's 
surface by reference to causes now in action ; in other words, it was 
' against an appeal to miracle when a cause could be found in the 
existing order of Nature/ Eetuming to those who specially devoted 
themselves to biological studies, we must mention Professor Tlioiiias 
Benry Bnzley (1825-1894), who won fame both fur original 
research and as a popular exponent of scientific thought. All that 
he wrote is marked by a dear, vigorous style, whether in technical 
works like the EUmetUary Physiology (1866), or the Physiography 
( 1 877), or in the Lay Semums ( 1870), Critigues and Addresses (1873)> 
and Science and Culture (1881). His interest in speculative thought 
has already been mentioned when speaking of his Hume* In 
Oeorge Jobn Romanes (1848-1894) we lost another eminent 
exponent of evolution, who, in the narrower field, made a special 
study of the Medus<B, and in a wider one treated of more general 
subjects in Animal Intelligence and the Scientific Evidences of Organic 
Evolution (1882), and of the interesting phenomena connected with 
the Mental Evolution in Animals (1883) and that in Man (1888). 
The work of Pmilp Henry Ck>see (1810-1888) on anemones— 
Actinohgia Britannica (1858>1860) — may at least call for mention, 
as, within its own rauge, it has not yet been superseded. In* 
another field of science Professor Jobn TyndaU (1820-1893), 
who was connected for forty years with the Boyal Institution, 
where he succeeded Faraday as superintendent, was known rather 
as a leading populariser of scientific fact than as an original investi- 
gator. His best-known work was the lectures on Heat considered 
as a Mode of Motion (1872). He also published lectures on Light, 
Sound, Electricity, and Fermentation, as well as works upon the 
Alps (1871), and the various Forms of Water (1873), 

The interest in economic as in evolutionary and other scientific 
questions has been an increasiug one. Benry Fawcett (1833-^ 
1884), who was accidentally blinded early in life (he was twenty- 

 Professor Bonney, Charlei Lyell anci Modem Geolofff, p. 78. 1895. 



five) by his fother while they were shooting together,* roee, not- 
withstanding, to eminence as an economist and as a statesman. 
Boon after his Manual of Political Economy (which was repeatedly 
revised up to I880) had appeared in 1863, he was elected professor 
of that subject at Cambridge, and discharged the duties of his post 
until his death. Bonamy Prtce (1807-1888), besides his Prac 
iical Poliiical Economy (1878), had previonsly studied The Principles 
of Cwmncy (1869), and Currency and Banking (1876). Professor 
mnuiun Stanley Jevons (1835-1882) gained Emropean fame 
as a statistician, and his economic work has been compared with that 
of Eicardo (see p. 1 90). He produced in Money (1875) an interesting 
monograph on that subject, after haying, in his Principles of Beience 
(1874), applied his wide and varied research and speculation to the 
qaestions of logic and scientific method. The work of Walter 
Bagebot (1826-1877) is referred to in our dictionary appendix. 
&eoBe Z«wl (1821-1888), bom at Aneona, of Jewish parentage, 
became Professor of Commerce at King's College, London, and 
embodied the labours of a lifetime in his History of British Comn 
merce from 1763-1870, published in 1872 ; while Tames Bdwfn 
Tborold Rogers (1823-1890), Professor of Political Economy at 
Oxford, produced (1866-1888) a most yaluable History of Ayri- 
culture and Prices in England from 1259 to 1793. Compiled 
entirely from original and contemporary records, this work is of 
greater interest than its name might suggest, for there is hardly an 
object of domestic life which is not mentioned, and it is a treasure- 
house for stadents of our old life and manners. 

149. Otber Prose. — The writing of Biography, Memoirs, and 
Beminiscences is one of the more prominent features of recent 
literature,f and a few works of this kind, e,g. Stanley's JUfe of Dr. 
Arnold and Carlj^le's Life of Sterling, have been inddentally men- 
tioned. Jobn Forster (1812-1876), who early made a name for 
himself by his popular Life and Adventures of Oliver Goldsmith 
(1848), remained a biographer throughout life. This life, written 
and re-written a dozen times, was finally reissued in 1854 in an 
expanded form as The Life and Times of Goldsmith ; but in this 
final form the ' Times* seriously detract from the unity of the ' Life,' 
for the central figure is unduly crowded--at times even into the 
background — by those of the contemporaries. A Life of Walter 

 See the Life, by Leslie Stephen. 1885. 

t Mention may be made for the student of two tisefnl series ; that of the Men 
of Letters, nearly forty monographs by yarious workers, some of whom are among: 
the * deceased authors* of this chapter; and the Greai Writers series, about 
thirty inozpeoBiye Yolomcs, each accompanied by an excellent bibliography. 



Savage Landor (1869) was followed by that of Dickens (see p. 199), 
and one Toliune of a projected IAf$ of Swift had been completed 
when Death laid his hand upon the writer. Raines Speddlnir 
(1808-1881) made a lifelong stndy of Lord Bacon and his times, 
and the seyen volumes of the edition of The Works of Francis Bacon 
(1857-1859), in which he had the aid of B. L. Ellisand D. D. Heath, 
remain, and will doubtless long remain, the standard edition. The 
lengthy Life and Letters ofJBacon (1862-1874) and the briefer Life 
a/nd Times of Bacon (1878), which contains what is most essential in 
the larger work, apart from the Letters, are often held to take 
somewhat too lenient a view of some debatable portions of the 
Chancellor's career. The Evenings with a Reviewer (1881), first 
priTately printed in 1848, is a reply to Macaula/s well-known essay 
(I837)f and may be commended to those who appreciate the calm 
and masterly dissection of an nnwary opponent by one who writes 
with a full knowledge of his subject. Much of the work of Oeorge 
Sorrow (1803-1881), which after half a century still retains to a 
large degitee its freshness, is so full of autobiography that it maybe 
considered here. His Bible in l^in (1843), giving an account of 
his five years* 'joumeyings, adventures, and imprisonments . • - in 
the Peninsula/ is a record of intense interest. His Lavengro (1851) 
and Bomany Bye (1857) both abound in autobiography; indeed, 
' Sorrow's charm is that he has behind his books a character of his 
own, which belongs to his works as much as to himself ... his 
restless, puazling, teasing personality pervades and animates the 
whole.' * His love of gipsy life, of open air, of field sports, and of 
some of the coarser pastimes of a half-bygone day, begat criticism, 
but, gays Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton, another of his editors, * no 
man's writing can take you into the country as Sorrow's can. 

The foundation of the Reviews (see p. 191, s. 129), the number 
of which has considerably increased, has obviously led to a great 
development of essay writing, often of an inevitably ephemeral 
character. With the mention of the name of Sir Artbor Belps 
(1813-1875), best known as the author of a series of dialogues 
termed Friends in Council (1 84 7-1859), but also something of a poet, 
historian and essayist, we may pass to that of Abrabam 
Bayward (1801-1884). A busy essayist, who for many years 
contributed to the Quarterly and other Beviews, he first became 
known, in 1833, by his translation of Faust, which Tboinas 
Carlyle, the chief of modem essay writers, considered the best of 
QUI versions of the poem. Selected Essays from his works were 

* Angustiue Birrell. Preface to Lavengro, 1898. 


260 HANDBOOK O^ fiXOtlStt tlTSttAfUllB^ 

issued in 1878. Incidental reference has already been made to 
KatUiew Arnold as a prose writer when mentioning his Oxford 
lectures (see p. 236). He was, indeed, eminent as a critic, eren as 
he was as a poet, and his Essays on CHticism (1865), of which a 
second series appeared in 1888, form a valuable collection of critiques 
on the poetiy of Milton, Gray, Wordsworth, Byron, Keats, Shelley, 
and some foreign writers, as well as dealing with a few more 
general subjects, such as the scope of criticism itself and the study 
of poetry. By reason of his Literature and Dogma (1873) and his 
Latt Essays on Chwrch and Religion (1877) he occupies a place 
among the more negative thinkers on religious questions, and as 
such might have claimed mention in a former paragraph. Four 
other Oxford men also call for notice: ^ohn Addlngton 
Symonds (1840-1893), whose delicate healthy even from early 
days, obliged him to spend much of his time abroad, produced a 
number of scholarly works which, however, necessarily suffered, at 
times, from the enforced seclusion of his life. Chief among these 
are his volumes on the Renaissance in Italy (1875-1886) ; while his 
Sketches in Italy and Greece (1874) and the Italian Byways (1883) 
are collections of essays reminding us of his travel abroad, just as 
his Shakespear^s Predecessors (1884) and the monographs on Sir 
Philip Sidney, Ben Jonson, and Shelley recall his continued interest 
in the literature of his native land. VSTalter Pater (1839-1894) 
also wrote on the History of the Renaissance (1873), twelve years 
before the appearance of his best work, Marine the Epicurean (1885). 
This was followed by Imaginary Portraits (1887), Appreciations^ a 
volume of reprinted essays (1889), and Plato and Platonism (1893). 
The most distinguished student of Plato, however, and one who was 
long the most prominent figure in Oxford life, was the widely-known 
Master of Balliol, Benjamin Jowett (1817-1893), whose trans- 
lation of Plato's Dialogues (1871), accompanied by luminous intro- 
ductory comments, forms a noble monument of devoted scholar- 
ship. Mark Paulson (1813-1884), Rector of Lincoln College, 
a student of narrower range, produced numerous essays and a 
monograph on Milton, but his chief work was the Life of Isaac 
Casaubon (1876), perhaps the best biography we have dealing with 
the work of a ' scholar * of the Renaissance type, somewhat after 
the kind depicted by Browning in his Grammarian's Funeral, 

The progress made in recent years in English scholarship cannot 
taM to be suggested by the names of Josepb Boswortli (1789- 
1876) and Sdwln Ouest (1800-1880). Bosworth's JEZm^w/* af 
Anglo-Saxon Grammar (1823) was the first work of its kind ia 



EDgli&h, and his chief work, the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, appeared 
nearly sixty years ago, in 1838. It can but be a subject of regret 
that the recent re-issue, begun in 1882, of the work of one who was 
a pioneer should not be more final in its form. Guest's History of 
English Rhythms .also appeared in the year following the accession 
of Victoria, and the new edition by the Bosworth Professor of 
Anglo-Saxon at Cambridge, Dr. Skeat, was likewise issued in 1882 
This able work was produced when many of our older poems existed 
only in manuscript, and the £Eict that societies such as the Early 
English Text Society, the Chaucer Society and others have now 
made most of our chief manuscripts accessible in print, together 
with the critical stimulus afforded by a body such as the Philological 
Society — of which Guest was a main founder—and by German 
workers, has so altered the conditions of English study that it 
can only be a matter of satisfaction that the laborious research of 
Guest should now require supplementing from other sources. 

The study of Shakespeare has gone hand in hand with that of 
the older works, and among Shakespearian students Charles and 
Mary Cowden Clarke, J. Payne Collier, and Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps 
claim recognition. Cbarles Cowden Clarice (1787-1877), a 
well-known lecturer and writer on Shakesperean and kindred sub- 
jects, had early in life taught John Xeats to read when the poet 
attended his father's school at Enfield ; and a little later he taught 
him a higher form of reading when he introduced him to the Mary- 
land of Spenser's great poem. In 1845, after sixteen years of 
labour, Mary Novello, his wife, issued her Shakespeare Concordance; 
and to this a valuable supplement was added in the Shakespeare 
Key of 1879, the joint labour of husband and wife. Well would it 
have been if Jolm Payne Collier (1789-1883) had clung to the 
principle set forth in the Miltonic motto prefixed to his first work : — 
' I have done, in this, nothing unworthy of an honest life and studies 
well employed ; ' for even in his valuable History of English 
Dramatic Foetry (1831), a book awkwardly arranged indeed, but 
abounding in new matter, there are signs of ' that series of in- 
sidious literary frauds ' which have marred his whole work. This 
tendency culminated in the Notes and Emendations to the Text of 
Shakespeare (1852), said to be founded upon marginal manuscript 
comments on a copy of the second Folio of 1632 by a contemporary 
hand, but manifestly the work of the Editor. Similarly his reprint 
of Henslowe*s Diary (1845) contains entries not to be found in the 
original. Valuable as much of his work undoubtedly is — e,g» the 
interesting descriptive Dibliographical Catalogue of old books — ^yet 


caution is continually needed in placing reliance upon it. The 
labours of JAmes Orcbard BauiweU-PtallUpps (1820-1889), 
long known without the last addition to his name, are of a more 
reliable character. His lAfeof 8hakapeare appeared in 1848, and 
his Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare (1881) — largely augmented 
in the last edition of 1887— though it cannot be regarded as final, 
is particolarly valuable to the student as containing reprints of 
rare documents, etc., upon which its statements are based. Like 
Collier and the Clarkes, he edited the poet's works ; and among his 
multifarious labours was that of superintending a valuable series 
of photographic reprints of forty-eight early quartos of the plays, 
as well as of the first Folio of 1623. 

The name of IxrilUun Cbambers (1800-1883) as publisher 
and writer is honourably associated, like that of his brother, 
Hobert Chambers,* Vith the successful attempt to bring within 
reach of the people a wide range of information ; and much of the 
labour of Professor Benrj Morley (1822-1894) as lecturer, 
editor, and author, was devoted to bringing home to the minds 
and hearts of hearers and readers the treasures contciined in our 
books. In his chief work, English Writers, begun in 1864, resumed 
in 1887 in the autumn of life, and continued till his death, he wrote 
more especially for the student, and aimed at tracing the develop- 
ment of our literature from the earliest times to the present day. 
Ten volumes had appeared when he died ; the eleventh was completed 
by another hand, and the histoiy closes with the death of Shake- 
speare. \irilltain Mlnto (1845-1893), successor to Professor 
Bain at Aberdeen, was known as journalist, novelist, and critic, but 
will doubtless be best remembered by his excellent Manual of 
Efifflish Prose, Literary and Biographical, 

150. Tbe Dramatists. — The greater names connected with 
the drama on its more literary side have already been mentioned. 
Tennyson's acted plays have been indicated (p. 226), and of those 
written by Browning, Strafford was successfully acted by Macready 
in 1837 ; A Blot in the 'Scutcheon, when performed in 1843, enjoyed 
a marked if brief success, and the poet could not but feel flattered 
by the cries for 'Author, Author,' which were then heard* 
Colombe*s Birthday was represented in 1853. Bat of the modem 
drama as a whole it may be said that it is copious in proportion Itd^ 
it is poor ; that it lacks originality may be judged from the whole- 
sale adaptation from foreign, chiefly French, ^sources; and the 
absence of high-class work is but feebly compensated for by the 

 For Robert Chambers, tee DiotKonary Appendix B. p. 318. 



vigorous development of extiayaganza, melodrama, and sensational 
plays. Of this last form, the modern father is Blon Souelcaiilt 
(1822-1890), actor, manager, and as an author said to rival the 
well-known fertility of the Elizabethan Thomas Heywood (see 
p. 67). Irish by birth, he holds a distinct place as the delineator of 
Irish life and character, yet two of his best plays — London Assur^ 
am^(1841), a brilliant early success marked by smart Sheridan- 
like dialogue, and Hunted Down (1866), deal with English subjects 
and character. In sensational drama he holds a place akin to that 
of Wilkie Collins among sensational novelists, and great was the 
success and influence of his Colleen Baten (1860). Tom Taylor 
(1817-1880), a Cambridge 'Apostle,' and a Fellow of Trinity, who, 
during the last seven years of his life, was editor of Punch, in 
succession to Shirley Brooks, began writing melodramas before he 
took to school books. In maturer years he produced about a hundred 
pieces, usually, like The TicJcet-of-Leave Man^ adaptations from 
Erench plays and stories. Others well known are 8iiU Waters Run 
Deep, The Overland Route, and Clancarty, From 1870 he strove to 
stem the sensational wave by attempting to re-establish a standard 
of literary excellence by blank verse historical dramas— '2V;u:< Axe 
and Crown and Joan ofArc(lS70), and Anne Boleyn (1876). James 
Boblnson Planclie (1796-1 880) was the originator of what is best 
in modern extravaganza, and his work was intimately associated with 
the dramatic career of Mme. Vestris. A prolific writer, like Taylon 
he is credited with seventy-twO original pieces, and with nearly one 
hundred adaptations from French, Spanish, Italian, German, and 
older English plays. But one of the most popular of recent play- 
wrights has certainly been Benry James Byron (1834-1884), 
whose domestic drama Our Boys was acted continuously for four 
years— from January 16, 1875, till April 18, 1879. From 1858 to 
1882 he poured forth a series of extravaganza, farce, burlesque and 
more regular drama, the best of which is held to be his comedy Cyrils 
Success (1868). A keen observer and witty recorder of the foibles 
of middle-class life, his works abound in puns, and in a pointed, if 
not wholly refined, somewhat Cockney smartness of repartee. The 
genial and scholarly dramatic critic, John Oxenford (1812-1877), 
produced some seventy odd plays ; and out of the sixty — chiefly 
adaptations from the French— by Jobn Palgrave Simpson 
(1807-1887), AU for Her, written with Herman Merivale, has so 
far assumed a somewhat permanent place, \irilllam Blancbard 
Jerrold (1826-1884), son of Douglas Jerrold (see p. 219), a busy 
journalist, whose residence in Paris brought him in close touch 


\tith. Napoleon III., whose Life he wrote (1874-1882), and whose 
career he defended, was modestly content with only four plays. 
His farce Cool Ma Cucumber (1851) supplied Charles Hathews the 
younger with one of his most delightful impersonations ; two 
dramas and a comedy complete the list. Mention has already been 
made of the dramatic work of Charles Roade (p. 247) when 
speaking of him as a novelist. His Masks and Faces (1852) still 
holds the stage, and his Lyons MaiU firat called The Courier of 
Lyons (1854), has been a &yourite with Sir Henry Irving. In 
1865 he dramatised his novel Never too Laie to Mend ; and his 
'greatly daring' romance Foul Play (1869), written with Dion 
Boucicault, was first adapted for the stage by the co-workers, and 
then by Beade alone as The Scuttled Ship (1877). In one of his 
last plays, Brink (1879), he adapted Emile Zola's LAssommoir, 
A busy writer and a hard worker throughout life, five new plays by 
him were acted during one year (1854) at the London theatres. 
* I am a painstaking man,' said he late in life, * and I owe my 
success to it,* 


XUnstratlTe of the Progress of tbe Aanffuagre prevlons 

to 1600. 

The following extracts are arranged in the order of their pro* 
dnction or publication. The Old English letters employed are 
\>^thiD. thifif and t$ » ^A in then, p is the capital in the one cascv 
D in the other ; ^^goxy. The character ^ signifies ' that ; ' "] in 
Extract IL signifies * and/ 

The structure of our older verse has been examined on pp. 6 and 6, 
but by the following extract from Beovmlf its characteristics may 
be still more clearly exemplified. Eighteen complete lines are here 
printed, and the caesura mentioned on p. 5 is indicated by a slighi^^ 
division between the two * half '-lines, the alliteration being marked 
by means of italics. In eleven out of the eighteen lines the con- 
8ona$U alliteration is quite regular, there being two alliterative 
syllables in the first half- line, and one in the second. This is the 
(Ase in the first five lines ; but in the sixth (1363), as in four others 
(1365, *7» '8, '75), the alliteration is defective, there being but tw4 
alliterative syllables, one in each half-line. Lines 1371 and 1373 
afibrd instances of vowel alliteration; in the former case this is 
regular, there being three alliterative words ; in the second case it 
is defective. It will be noticed (<?/. p. 6) that the vowels must differ 
(e.ff, 1. 1371* a, 0, ee; L 1373, y, u). In all cases the alliterative 
I word also bears a natural stress, and therefore unstressed syllables, 

such as '[ge]-^'ipu,' inl. 1360, and ' [ge]-m'earce6,' in 1. 1362, are not 
considered. Mr. Wm. Morris, it may be remarked, in his modern 
rendering has preserved the original rhythm, there being uniformly 
four stressed words in each line ; while, as in the older poem, the 


number of syllables varies. He has also happily retained much of 
the archaic phraseology, and has discarded the use of rhyme. 

Extract I A.B. 650 (t) 

BEOWULF. 11. i 367-1 376. 

[Beowulf having heard how the monster Grendel had desolated 
Heorot. the proud mead-hall of the Danish King Hrothgar, journeyed 
from Sweden and slew the fiend. Then once more the sound of 
feasting was heard in the hall, and the retainers dared to sleep 
there. But that very night Grendel's mother came and slew 
.Sschere, the friend and adviser of King Hirothgar, who, having 
hastily called for the hero Beowulf, bewails ^schere's loss, and 
describes the abode of the two destroyers.] 

'They dwell in a dim hidden land. 
The wolf-bents they bide in, on nesses the windy, 
The perilous fen-path where the stream of the fell-side 
Midst the mist of the nesses wends netherward ever. 
The flood under earth. Naught far away hence, 
But a mile-mark forsooth, there standeth the mere^ 
And over it ever hang grores all be-rimed, 
The wood fast by the roots over-hclmeth the water. 
But each night may one a dread wonder there see, 
A fire in the flood. But none liveth so wise 
Of the bairns of mankind, that the bottom may know. 
Although the" heath-stepper be-swinked by the hounds. 
The hart strong of horns, that holt<wood should seek to 
Driven fleeing from far, he shall sooner leave life, 
Leave life-breath on the bank or ever will he 
Therein hide his head. No hallow'd stead is it : 
Thence the blending of water-waves ever upriseth 
Wan up to the w^kin, whenso the wind stirreth 
Weather-Storms loathly, until the lift darkens 
And weepeth the heavens.* 

*Hle dygd lond 

TTarigea'S, trulf-hleoj^u, trindige nasssaa^ 

-F!recne/en-gelftd, i^^gen-strSam 
1360 Under nsessa genipn nij^er gewlt^ 

F166. under /oldan. Nis J^sst/eor heonoa , 

J/a-gemearces, })set se mere standeth, 

Ofer jragm ^tongia'S Arifmge bearwas, 

Wadn tryrtnm faest^ traeter oferhelma'S. 
i365 p&t meg nihta gehweem >ilt$-wundor sSon, 

Fyr on/15de. N5 \>seaft6d leofatJ 

G^omena bearna, ^t ^ne grvaad wite. 



DSab Jtc 7i£'S-stApa Aondam geawenoedy 

JSTeorot Aomitm tram, Aolt-wndu sice, 
1870 Fdorran goHymed, £r he/eorh sele^ 

iUdor on e^fre^ cer be in wille 

JTafelan [AyJan]. Nis IxBt ASorn st5w ; 

ponon f^-geblond flp ftstlgetS 

TFbn t9 tffolonum, )7onne loind styre)> 
1375 Xftt; gewidrn, 0*5 ^et lyft drysma^, 

JZoderas reotatS/ 

[Text £rom the Cambridge edition, 1894, ed. by A. J. Wyatt. 
The translation is from the beautiful Kelmscott edition (1895), 
pp. 48-9, of William Morris, author of the Earthly Poftu^tM.] 

Extract II. 

Ante A.l>. 900. 

THE ACTS OF SEVEItUS, by King Alpbed. [See p, 12.] 

'2Sfter JMem |>e Bomeburg waos 
getimbred Doooo wintra *} zliil, feng 
Scncrus to Bomana onwalde, ^ hiene 
Laefde zvii ger. He besi§t Piscenins 
on annm fasstenne, o)> he him on hond 
eodo : *] he hiene si)>)>an bet ofslean, 
for )>oa he wolde ricsian on Sirie 1 on 
Egypte. ^fter J^aem (he) ofslog 
Albiuus )K)De mon on Gallimn, for |>on 
)ie be eac wolde on bine winnan. 
8i]7|>an he f6r on Brettanle, *) }>ier oft 
gefeabt wi'S Peohtes *] witS Soottas, 
aer he )>a Brettas mehte witS hie be- 
werian. *] het esnne weall |>wyres of er 
call )>8et lond asettan from 8i6 o]? stS, 
*] ra^ J^aes gef6r on Eforwicceastre.' 

'After Borne had been bnilt nine 
hnndred and forty-three years, Scveras 
succeeded to the dominion of the 
Bomans, and had it screnteen years. 
He besieged Peacennitis in a fortress, 
until he surrendered to him, and he 
afterwards commanded him to be 
slain, because he would reign in Syria 
and in Egypt. After that, he slew the 
man Albinos in Gkiul, because he also 
would war against him. He after- 
wards went to Britain and there often 
fought against the Picts and Scots, 
before he could protect the Britons 
against them ; and commanded a wall 
to be constructed across over all that 
land from sea to sea ; and shortly after, 
he died in the city of York.* 

[Text from the contemporary Lauderdale MS. of Alfred's Orosius, 
edited by Hy. Sweet, MA., for the E. E. Text Soc., p. 270, 1883. 
Mr. Sweet's promised English rendering not having yet appeared, 
that of Thorpe (Bohn's Antiquarian Library) is given.] 


iV.l>. 937. 


[Gained in 987 by King Athelstane and his bitother, Edmund 
Atheling, over the Irish Danes under Anlaf, and the Scots under 



Gonstantine of Scotland. The following are parts onlj of the poem. 
See p. 12 and p. 181, 0. 119.] 

* Hottend crongon* 
and scipflotan* 
Fdd dsBiinede 
8f8|>an Sonne up* 
on mozgten tid* 
glad of er grnndas* 
Qodes condel becrht 
eoea DtihtneB' 

tfS do ajwie gesceof t 
• • • • 

* Gewitan him )>a Norjnneor 
naagled cnearrum* 
dreorig daialSa la^ 

on dinges m«re* 
ofer deep wnter 
Dlfelin aeoan* 
and eft hira land* 
Swilce )>a gebro)>er 
begen SBtaanme* 
oynlng and »J>eling* 
cfy>V^ Bohton- 
Wesseaxena land* 
w^pes lirwiTnlge. 
Letan him bchindan 
hne taryttlan 
salawig podan* 
|>Qne sweartan hnefn* 
hymed nebban* 
and |)ane hasewan padon* 
earn seftan hwit* 
jBses bntcan* 
gnedigno gii'Shaf oc* 
and \txtt gncgo door 
wolf on wcalde. 
Ke vnestS wsbI mare* 
on \>\b ciglande* 
cef er gieta* 
f olces gefylled* 
beforan Jyisstun* 
sweordes ecgmn* 
]mb8 ))e ns BSGgBkl^ boo* 
ealde n'Switan* 

' The foes lay low, 

the Soots' people, 

and the shipmen 

death-doom'd felL 

The field stream'd 

tilth warriors* blood [or jweof], 

what time tiie son up, 

at morning tide, 

the glorious star, 

glided o'er grounds, 

God's candle bright, 

the eternal Lord's, 

until the noble creature 

sank to its setting.' 

• . • • 

* Departed then the Northmen 

in their nail'd barks, 

the darts' gory leaving, 

on the roaring sea,* 

o'er the deep water, 

Dublin to seek, 

Ireland once more, 

in mind abash'd. 

Likewise the brothers, 

both together, 

king and 8ethcling,t 

their country sought, 

the West Saxons' land, 

in war exulting. 

They left behind tiiem, 

the carcases to sharo, 

with pallid coat, 

the swart raven, 

with homed neb, 

and him of goodly coat, 

the eagle [or erne] white behind, 

the carrion to devour, 

the greedy war-hawk, 

and that grey beast, 

tlie wolf in the weald. 

No slaughter has been greater 

in this island 

ever yet 

of folk laid low, 

before this, 

by the sword's edges, 

from what books tell us, 

old chroniclers. 

• This is stated by the Translator to be a conjectural rendering of *cn dffngm 
t Athelstane and Bdmund. 



8i|>JMn eastan hider 
Ens^ and Seaacar 
up beoomaii* 
of er tarad brimn 
Bryteiie sohtaa* 
wlanoe wlgsmijws 
Wealles oferoomaa* 
oorlas arhirate 
eard begeatan/ * 

since hither from the eask 
Angles and Sazaaa 
came to land, 
o'er the broad seal 
Britain sought, 
proud war-smiths, 
the Welsh o'ercam^ 
men for glory eager, 
the country gain*d.' 

[Anglo-Saxon Chronicle^ 1861, !. 202-8, ii. 86-8; Thorpe's 
Translation, Bolls Collection.] 


.D. looo (r) 

THE GRAVE. [The Speaker is Death. See p. 12.] 

* De wee bold sel^ld 
Er "Sn iboren were ; 
De wes mold imynt 
Br "Sa of moder come. 
De hit nes no idiht, 
Ne %Qo deopnes Imetcn ; 
Nes tn Uoced, 
Hu Ions ^^^ '^e were, 
Nu me tSe brinj^aB'S 
Wer tSu been scealt, 
Na me sceal "Se metcn 
And "Sa mold seo^a : 
Ne bi'S nd tSine hus 
Healiqe itlmbred, 
Hit bi'S onheh and lah ; 
Donne "Su bist ^erinne, 
De helew&ses beotS laso, 
Sidwa^es unhe^e. 
De rof bi-S ybilcl 
Dde brost full neh, 
Swa tSu soealt in mold 
Whmen ful cald, 
Dimme and dooroB.* 
Det clcn fulaet on hod. 
DorelsBS is tSaet bus, 
And deoro hit is wit^lnnen ; 
Dser t^u bin fest bidyte, 
And DsetS hef$ tSa ctesc. 
La1$lic is tSffit eor^ hus. 
And "SJ^xa. inne to wunien. 
Der tSu scolt wunien, 
And wurmes "Se to-d^^. 

' For thee was a house built 
Ere thou wast bom. 
For thee was a mocdd shapon 
Ere thou of mother earnest. 
Its height is not determined, 
Nor its depth measured, 
Kor is it dosed up 
(However long it may be) 
Unta I thee bring 
Where thou shalt remain. 
Until I shall measure thee 
And the sod of earth. 
Thy house is not 
Highly timbered, 
It is unhigh and low; 
When thou art in it 
The heel-ways are low. 
The side-ways unhigh. 
The roof is built 
Thy breast full nigh ; 
So thou shalt in earth 
DweU full cold. 
Dim, and dark. 

Doorless is that house. 
And dark it is within ; 
There thou art fast detained. 
And Death holds the key. 
Loathly is that earth-house. 
And grim to dwell in ; 
There thou shalt dweU 
And worms shall share thee 

* The Saxon text is that oC the folio beVmgiog to the library of Corpus Chrlstt 
CoUego, Cambridge (cuoon.). 



And ladnst iSine tronden, 
Kebt 1$a nenne freond 

Dot nfroivulB loUcn 
Ha "Se t$et has "Se Uke^ 
Dnt sAtb vndoii 
And iSe after btten ; 
Far 8one "Sa IM ladUo, 
And lad to teonne.* 

Thus thoa art laid 

And learest thy friends ; 

Thoa hast no friand 

That will coma to thee. 

Who will ever enqnire 

How that hooae liketh thee^ 

Who shall erer open 

For theo the door 

And seek thee. 

For soon thoa becomest loathly, 

And hateful to look iqxm/ 

[lUtutratians of Jngh-Saxon Foetry^ by J. J. Conjbeare, 1826, 
pp. 271-3.] 

ExTSAor y. 

A.I>. 1160 (r) 


• MtLLBSDio. cxxxvn. DIs gsro 
for )>e k. Steph. ofer sae to Kormandi. 
and )>er wes onderfangen. for^i "^ hi 
anenden "^ he scolde ben alsoic also )>e 
eom wses. and for he hadde get his 
tresor. ao he toddd it and scatered 
sotllce. Mioel hadde Henri k. gadered 
gold and syluer. and na god ne dido me 
for his saule tharof. )7a )>e king S. to 
Englal. com )>a macod he his gadcring 
net Oxeneford. and )>ar he nam )>e9 
Roger of Sereberi, and Alex. 9 of 
lincol. and te Canceler Roger hise 
nenes. and dide aelle in prlsun. til hi 
iafen np here castles. ]7a )>e suikes 
ondergseton *)} he milde man was. 
and softe. and god. and na jusUse ne 
dide. )>a diden hi alle wander. He 
hadden him manred maked, and athes 
snoren. ao hi nan treathe ne heolden. 
alle hi wseron forsworen. and here 
treothes forloren. for teorlo rice man 
his castles makede and agsenes him 
heolden. and tylden [le land fnl of 

castles.' * Na we willen 

ss^en sum dd wat belamp on Stephne 
kinges time. On his time )>e Indens 
of Korauic bohton an Xristcn did 
beforen Estren. and pineden him alio 
]>e Hce pining ji ore Drihten was 
pined, and on Lang Fredad him on 
rode hengcn. for nre Drihtines luue. 
and sythen byrleden him. Wenden "^ it 
•cnldo ben f orholem oo ore Drihten 

* Ai?. If cxxzvn. In this year king 
Stephen went orer sea to Normandy, 
and was there recdred ; because they 
imagined that he would be sodi as his 
nnde was, and becaose he had got Us 
treasure: bat he distribated it and 
scattered it foolishly. Mach had king 
Henry gathered of gold and silver, and 
no good was done for his sonl thereof. 
When king Stephen came to England 
(a. 1189), he hdd en assembly at 
Oxford, and there he Xoiiik. the bishop 
Roger of Salisboiy, and Alexander 
bishop of Lincoln, and the chancellor 
Roger, his nephew, and put them aU 
into prison, till they gave np their 
castles. When the traitors perodved 
that he was a mild man, and soft, and 
good, and did no jostice, then did they 
aU wonder. They had done homage 
to him, and sworn oaths, bat had hdd 
no faith ; they were all forsworn, and 
forfdted thdr troth ; for erery power- 
ful man made his castles, and hdd 
them against him ; and they filled the 
land fuU of castles.' .... * Now 
we wQl say a part of what befd in 
king Stephen's time. In his time the 
Jews of Norwich bought a Christian 
child before Easter, and tortured him 
with all the same tortnre with whidi 
our Lord was tortured ; and on Long- 
friday (i.e. Good Friday) hanged him 
on a rood, in love {'ihatred'^ to oar 



atywede j( he vas hall martyr, and to 
munekes him namen, and behyried 
him h^lioe in \)e minstre. and he 
maket j^ur nre Diihtin wmiderlice 
and manifeeldlioe miracles, and hatte 

Lord, and afterwards buried him. 
They imagined that it would be oon- 
cealed, bat our Lord showed that he 
was a holy martyr. And the monks 
took him and buried him honourably 
in the monastery; and through oiur 
Lord he makea wonderfol and mani- 
fold miracles, and he is called St. 

[Anfflo-Saxon Chronicle, 1861, i., 382-3; ii., 230-2; Thorpe's 
Translation, EoUs Collection.] 


A.]>. 12O0. 


[Brutus, great-grandson of iElneas, is banished Srom Italy foi 
slaying his father Silyins. In the Island of Leogice (conjectured, 
irithont much prohaj^ility, to be Leucadia or Lycia) he has a dream 
of Albion, in "which he ultimately settles, and builds New Troy, or 
Trinovant, called afterwards Kaerlud by his successor Lud, and 
then Lunden or Lundres. See p. 25.] 

pa )>uhte him on his swef nc : 

j>ar he on slepe leei. 

'fiat his lanedi Diana : 

hine leofliche biheolde. 

mid wnsume leahtren : 

wcl heo him bi>hihte. 

and hendiliche hire bond : 

on his heued leido. 

and )>us him to sdde : 

)>er he on slepe lal. 

Bi-sende France I }>et west ; 

)>n scalt finden a wnnsmn lond. 

)>at lond is bi-uman mid jwere ste ; 

]>ar on |m scalt wrjian sael. 

JMir is fnj;el )>ar is fisc :. 

[)er wnnia'5 f eire deor. 

}par is wode ]>ar is water : 

J^ar Is wildeme muchel. 

^t lond is swi])e wunsum : 

weallen \>er beo'S f eire. 

wunia'5 1 JTon londe : 

eotantes swi^e strOge, 

Albion hatte J>at lond : 

ah leode ne beotS J>Br none. 

per to )>a scalt teman : 

and ane neowe Troye J>ar makion. 

(ler seal of |>ine cunne : 

Then seemed it to him in his dream^ 
where he asleep lay, 
that his lady Diana 
beheld him lovingly, 
with winsome smiles, 
well she him promised, 
and courteously her himd 
on his head laid, 
and thus to him said, 
where he asleep lay : 
' Beyond France, in the west, 
thon Shalt find a winsome land ; 
the land is by the sea surrounded 
thereon thou shalt prosper. 
There is fowl, there is fish ; 
there dwell fair deer ; 
there is wood, there is water; 
there is much desert ; 
the land is most winsome 
firings there ore fair ; 
dwell in the land 
Eotens [gianiil most strong 
Albion is the land named, 
but men arc there none. 
Thereto thou shalt proceed, 
and a new Trey there make 
there shall of thy kin. 



Une-beun artaen. 

and seal )rfn nuera kan s 

wnlden ^ londix. 

j^eond )« weorld bean ihnsed : 

and )>n beo hel and isond. 

pea awoo Bmtns : 

wel was hi on life. 

He )>aate of his Evrefne : 

andhon l» laefdi him ssBlde. 

mid mnchelere laf e : 

he aeide hit his laoden. 

ha him imette : 

and JMi laefdi hine igrette. 

xoyal progei^ arise, 

and ihy powerful kin 

shall role this land ; 

over the world they shall be cde> 

and thon be whole and sound.'-* 
Then awoke Bintns ; 
well was he alive 1 
He thought of his dream, 
and how the lady said to him ; 
with mndi lore 
he told it to his people, 
how he had dreamt 
and the lady greeted him. 

[Layaman^s Brut; or, Chronicle of Britain (MS. Cott. Calig. 
A. IX., V. 1222-61), by Sir Frederic Madden, 1847, i., 52-4.] 

Extract VH. A J>. 1200 (t) 

By Oiuc, or Obmiit. [See p. 25.] 

' ^ ^^TflP^ wonndenn efft onn^en 

|)att dere child to sekenn, 
& oomenn efft till serrsalssm 

To sekenn himm Jmbt binnenn. 
& tcss hhn \>e )>iidde da^s 

fnac fmidenn i fe temmple 
Bitwenenn |»att Jndisskenn floco 

]>att Ueredd waas o boke ; 
Si taere he satt to fra^s^ci^ hemm 

Off ^essi^ bokess lare, 
& alle )7att himm herrdenn ]>ser, 

Hemm )>nhhte mikeU wunnderr 
Off |>att he wass full ^aep & wis 

To swarenn & to fraj^s^^^^* 
& Sonnte Mar^e oonmi till himm 

& sess^o himm J^nss wij>)> worde 
Whi didesst tn, lef smie, J>uss 

V^ip^ nss, for nss to swennkenn ? 
"Witt hofenn sohht to widewhar 

Ice 6l ti faderr baj>e 
Wity^ scrrhfull herrte & saris mod, 

'NVhi didesst tu |>iss dede? 
& tonne sessdo Jesa Crist 

Till ba)>e |>ass wij>|> worde 
What wass snw swa to sekenn me, 

Whatt was jpiw swa to serrshenn? 

* And they then turned back again 

that (tear child to seek^ 
and came again to Jemsalem, 

to seek him there within, 
and they him on the third day 

there found in the temple 
among the Jewish flock 

that learned was in book ; 
and there he sat to ask them 

of their book's lore, 
and all that him heard there, 

them thought much wonder 
of that he was full shrewd and wise 

to answer and to ask. 
and Saint Mary came to him 

and said [to] him thus with word, 
VHij didst thou, dear son, thua 

with us, for us to trouble ? 
we-twohare sought thee wide where 

I and thy father both 
with sorrowful heart andsorry mcod, 

why didst thou this deed ? 
and then said Jesus Christ, 

to both thua with word, 
what was [there to] yon so to seek 

what was [there to] you lo to 



Ke Tfissto se nohht tatt mo birr}> 

IQn f aderr wille f or|)enn ? 
Ke |>att me birrj> beon hosbef ull 

Abntemi hise |>ingeaB ? 
& tecs be mihtenn nobht tatt word 

Sei ta wel miderrstazmdemi ; 
& he |>a sede for)> wi)>)7 bemm 

& cUde bem heore wille 
Si Gomm wi|»}> hemm till Nazaree|», 

Swa smmn [le GoddspeU ki|>ej7|», 
& till hemm ba^ie he lutte & bteh 

\>urrh so)>£a8st hemmmnnesBe 
& was wij7)> hem till ))att he wasa 
Off jvittis winnterr elde.' 

net wist ye not that me beoomes 

my father's will [to] do ? 
nor that me beoomes [to] be carof ul 

about his thhigs? 
and they might not that word 

yot thon well nndcrstand ; 
and be then went forth with them 

nud did them their will, 
and oame with them to Nazaretb, 

80 as the GKxspel saith, 
and to them both he obe}'ed and 

through soothfast obedience, 
and was with them till that he was 

of thirty winters* age.' 

[77ie Ormulunif edited from the original MS. in the Bodleian, by 
R. M. White, and R. Holt, 1878, 11. 8925—8964. The Modern ver- 
sion is from Marsh's Origin and History of the Eiiglish Language^ 
1862, 183-^.] 

Extract VIII. A.D, 134sO (t) 

By RoBEBT OF Brunne. \^See p. 26.] 

He toke so myldlle of cnrtasie 
Withooten techyng of any him bic, 
]>at non myght oon more, 
Ko]>er |>orgh kynde, ne crcstc of 

In alle ansnere he was f uUe wys, 
Of alle manhede he bare ]>o pris ; 
Of non ^t l^me was suilke speche 
)7at tille his nobleie mot reche, — 
Not of )>e emperonr of Bome, — 
pat he oner him bore ]>e blome ; 
In alle manncre J>at Icyng suld do. 
None o|)ei had grace )>erto. 
He herd nener speke of knyght 
pat loeed was of dedSs wyght, 
pat he ne somed him to se, 
And for to haf of him mercy ; 
If he for medS seroe him wold, 
Ho ne left for silaer ne for gold. 
% "Ear his barons ))at were so bold, 
pat alle [le world pris of told,— 

[Quoted in Appendix V. to Preface to the Handlyng Synne, edited 
by F. J. Fumivall for the Roxburghe Club, 1862, xxxviii. — xxxix.] 

For no man wist who was best 

No in armcs douhtiost,-— 

Did ho ordeyn l>e rounde table 

pat men tello of many fable. 

At ^ burde and tyme of mete, 

AUc ]>o donhty knyghtes sold etc, 

Non sat within, non sat withonte, 

Bot alle eacr ronnd abonte ; 

Non sat first, non sat last. 

But pere by perS euer kast ; 

Non sat hie, non sat lawe. 

But alle cucnly for to knawe ; 

Non was set at ))0 endc. 

Bat alle o round, and alle were hende ; 

Non wist who of Jian most wos. 

For jteL sat aUe in oompas ; 

Alle at ons, doun ))ei siten. 

At ons roe, whin >e( had eten; 

All were serued of a seruys, 

Encnll alle of on assise.' 



• 13ft6. 

By Laxjbbncb Minot. 

[*The nintli song, — ^perhaps the most spirited of them, all,— com- 
memorates the battle of Neyile's Gross, and the defeat and captore 
of king David Brace ... It was by the counsel of Philippe of 
Valois that the Scots inyaded England, we are told, and they were so 
confident in the belief that all the fighting men had been carried out 
of England to the French wars, that king David talked of descending 
from his horse at the palace of Westminster.' Wright^ Jbitroduo' 
tioftf xziv. The following is part only of the ballad. See p. 27.] 

* Bir David the Bran 

Said he ndd fande {by} 
To ride thnrgh all Tngland, 

Wald he noght wonde [«toy] ; 
At the Weetminsfeer hall 

Sold his stedes shmde^ 
White oare Ung Bdward 

War oDt of the [l]ondo Itand], 
But now has Sir David 

Missed of his merkes [fiianbi]. 
And Philip the Yalaiya, 

With all thidre grete clerkes. 

< Sir FhlUp the TaUis, 

Sath [truth'] for to say, 
Sent anto sir David 

And faire gan him pray. 
At ride thnrgh Ingland 

Thaire f omen to flay. 
And said, none es at home 

To let hym the way. 
None letes him the way 

To wende whore he will ; 
Bot IBtU] with BOhiperd ishqpherd] 


* When sir David the Bmse 

Satt on his stede. 
He said of all Ingland 

Haved he no drede. 
Bot hinde John of Ooapland, 

A wight {active} man in wede, 
Talked to David, 

And kieind itaught} him his eiede. 

Thare was sir David 

So dnghty in his dede. 
The faire tonre of Londen 

Haved he to mede {rewird}, 

* Sone than was sir David 

Broght mito the tonre. 
And William the Dowglas, 

With men of hono^rre. 
Full swith [<tr(/{] ready servis 

Tand thai thare a achowve {baUU} 
For first tiial drank of the swete. 

And senin Ithen} of the sowrc. 
Than sir David the Bmse 

Makes his mono, 
The faire ooronn ct Sootland 

Haves [Aa«3 he forgone.* 
• .  • 

* The pride of sir David 

Bigon fast to daken ; 
For he wakkind the were [tew] 

That held him self waken. 
For Philyp the Yalaise 

Had he hrede baken. 
And in the tonre of Londen 

His ines [lodffinff} er taken. 
To be both in a place 

Thaire forward Ipromiu] thai 
nomen {took} ; 
But PhOip fayled thaxe. 

And David es [<0 cmnin.' 
. • • • 

* The Soottee, with thaire falshede^ 

Thus went thai oboot 
For to win Ingland 
White BdwHkd was ont. 


For Outbbert of Dorem Tbare louted thai law ilow}, 
Haved thai no dout Ifear] ; And lered allane. 

Tharfore at Nevel Gros Thus was David the Brnse 
Law gafi thai lout ibenS}, Into the toure tane.* 

[Poliiical Poems and Songs relating to English History, 1327* 
1485. Edited by Thomas Wright, 1859, !., 83-7, Rolls GoUection. 
Minot s poems hayebeen separately edited for the Clar, Press, 1887| 
by Jos. Hall.] 

ExTBACT X. A.». 1356. 

By Sib John Mandbyiixe. 

[Under the title of The Daughter of Hippocraies, but with a less 
tragic termiDation, the foUowiDg legend has been retold in the 
Indicatory by Leigh Hunt, -who says in a note that it is *. founded on 
a tradition still preserved in the island of Cos.' It is also one of 
the tales in The Earthly Paradise of our latter-day Chaucer — 
William Morris. See p. 40.] 

* And thanne passen Men thorgho the Isles of Golos & of Lango [Cos] ; of the 
whiche Hcs Ypocras IHippocrates} was Lord offe. And some Men scyn, that m 
the Isle of Lango is zit the Doughtro of Ypocras, in forme & lykencsse of a gret 
Dragoun that is an hundred Fadme of lengtho, as Men Beyn : For I have not 
seen hire. And thei of tlie lies collcn hire. Lady of the Lend. And sche lyethe 
in an oldc Castelle, in a Gave, and schcwcthe twycs or thryes in the Zeer. And 
Bche dothe non harm to no Man, but zif Men don hire harm. Axid sche was 
thos chaunged and transformed, from a fair Damysde, in to lyknesse of a 
Dragoun, be a Ooddesse, that was clept Deane [Diomai And Men seyn', that 
sche schalle so endure in that forme of a Dragoun, unto the tyme that a Xnyghte 
oomo, that is so hardy, that dar come to hire & kisse hire on the Mouthe : And 
then schalle sche tnme asen to hire owne Eynde, & ben a woman aien : But 
aftre that sche schalle not liven longe. .... And ... a n>i^ Man, that wiette 
not of the Dragoun, wente out of a Sohipp, & went thorghe the Be, tiU that he 
come to the Castelle, and cam in to the Cave ; & wente so longe, til that he 
found a Chambre, and there he sanghe a Damjrsele, that kembed hire Hede, and 
lokedeinaMyrour; &schehaddemecheTre80urer«boutenhirtt. .... And 
he abode, tille the Damysele saughe the Sohadewe of him in the Myrour. And scht 
turned hire toward hhh, & asked hym, what he wolde. And he seyde, he wold« 
ben hire Limman or Paramour. And sche asked him, sif iSbsJ^ he were a Enyghte. 
And he seyde, nay. And than sohe -seyde, that he myghte not ben hira 
Lcmman : But sche bad him gon azcn unto his Felowes, & make him Enyghte, 
& come agen upon the Morwe, & sche scholde come out of the Cave before him ; 
and thanne come & kysse hire on the Mowthe, & have no Drede ; for I sdhalla 
do the no tokmx harm, alle be it that thou see me in Lyknesse of a Dragoun. 
For thoughe thou see me hidonae & horrible to loken onne, I do the tO wytene, 
that it IS made be Enchauntement. For withouten doute, I am non other than 
thou seest now, a Woman ; and therfore drede the noaghte. And slf tbon kjsse 
me, thou schalt have aQe this TrAionre, & be my Lord, and Lord alio of alls 




that Ha. And he clq;>artcd fro hire & irente to hto Felowes to Scihlppe, and loet 
nuiks Urn Knyghte, & cam aien upon the Horwe, for to Yjtm fhia Damyaele. 
And when he aangha hire oomen oat of the Oar^ In foime of a dxaeoim, so 
Udonaa & bo horrible, he hadde so grete drede, that he fl^yii^e aaen to the 
fiobixype ; & eohe folewed him. And when Nhe aangbe, that be turned not aaen, 
■ha began to crye, as a thing that had meohe Borwe; and thaone ioba turned 
aaen, in to hire OaTe ; and anon the Xnyghte dyede. ' * 

[The Voiageand 'RravaUeofSirJohnMaund&tnlU, JD., Halliwell's 
Beprint» 1883, pp. 23-25.] 

XziBlOT XL Am'Dm 1377* 


[dooidiaf or Sloth, is a ' priest and parson.' He goes to sleep over 
his prajers, and is awaked by Bepentance. Bee p. 30, and p. 49.] 

*** Whatl awake, renke! {man} ** qnod repentance* *<and rape Jw ImaJte hagW] 
f " If I ahnlde deje U ^ day * me list nonste to loke ; 

I can ikitow} nooste petfltly my pater neater* as^ prest it 8yngefli» 

Bat I can {know"] rymes of Bobyn hood * and Bandolf erla of Ohestra, 

Ao neither of owre lorde ne of owre lady * [m leste Jwb enere was made. 
Y I hane made yowes foarty* and for-sete hem on )>e mome ; 

I parfonmed neure penaunoe * as fte prest me hi^te, 

Kerystesoriformysynnes- s^ was I nenere. 

And sif I Udde any bedes * hnt if it be in wrath, 

paA I telle with my tonge* is two myle fro myne herte. 

I am oocopied eche day * haUday and other. 

With ydeL tales atte ale* and otherwhile in cherdies ; 

Ooddes peyne and his passiomi* fnl selde )>yn]ce I [lere-on. 
Y I visited neoere fleble men * ne fettered folke in puttes {dungHMs], 

• < And as it came on towards him, with its teeth 
The body of a dain goat did it tear. 
The blood whereof in its hot jaws did seethe,- 
And on its tongue he saw the smoUng hahr ; 
Then his heart sank, and standing trembling there, 
ThroDghont his mind wild thoughts and fearful ran, 
'* Some fiend she was," he said, " the bane of man.'* 

' Yet he abode her still, although his blood 
Curdled within him : the thing dropped the goat. 
And creeping on, came dose to where he stood. 
And raised its head to him, and wrinkled throat. 
Then he cried out and wildly at her smote. 
Shutting his eyes, and turned and from the place 
Ban swiftly, with a white and ghastly face. 
• • • 

' Meanwhile the dragon, seeing him clean gono. 
Followed him not, but crying horribly, 
Caught up within her jaws a block of stono 
And ground it into powder, then turned she, 
With cries that folk oould hear far out at sea. 
And reached the treasure set apart of old. 
To brood above the hidden heaps of gold.' 
> Morris, The Earthly Paradife, The Lady <tf the Land, pp. 524-5, 


1 hATeleoflce h«e[Aear]an har]otrie[&H2^1wfMrir] * or a somor gameof loateref 

Or iMynges ilylng*] to langhe at * and bdje my nelghbore, 
pan al ^t enere Harko made* Hathew, Jolm« & InoaB.'* 

• • • 

Y ** I haae be pnst and pazBomi* paaqynge tlirettl ivynter, 
Ijete can I neither solfe {tU-fa} ne eynge* ne seyntes lynes rede. 
But I can tynde In a felde* or in a fonrlonge an hare. 
Better |nui in beatut vir* or in beoH omnet 
OoDBtme oon daiuse 'wel* and kenne it to my parochieneB.' " * 

[2%« Vision of William concerning Piers the PlowTnan, &c., by 
William Langland; text of 1377, edited by the Rev. Walter W* 
Skeat^ M.A. {Earfy English Text Society), 1869, pp. 78-80.] 

ExraAOT xn. A»D« 1380a 


By John Wiclif. [See p. 40 ; see also pp. 282 and 283.] 

'Another parable JhesuBpcttte forth Ho hem, a^yinge, The kyngdam of henenca 
iamaad liohetoaman, thataewgoodaeed Inhisfeeld. Bnt^irhenmenalepten, 
hia emnye came^ and aew abooe demel, V>r cokil {tara\t In the midil of whete, 
and wente awey. Sothely when the herbe hadde growid, and maad f^royt, thanne 
the demel, V>r ooM/, apperiden. Forsothe the seruamitia of the huabondeman 
*oomyinge ni];, Vwiden to hym. Lord, irher thou hast nat aowen good aeed in thi 
feeld? wher of than hath it derneU^r cokttl And he aelth to hem. The man 
enmye hath don thia thing. Q^rewly the aemanntia adden to him, Wolt thou we 
go, and gedren hem ? And he aaitii, Nay, leat pecanenture sa gedrynge demels* 
Vw* codUf draw Tp by the roote togidre with hem and the whete. Builro sa ^hem 
botha were til to rype come ; and in tyme of rype oom I ahal aeie to reperis, 
Xlzat gedre saeHo gedre deniela,^or coeitf M, and byndeth hem to gidro in knytchis, 
Vw* tmaU hmddiit for to be brent, bat gedere sa whete in to my berne.' 

[The Holy Bible in the earliest English versions, made firom the 
Latin Vul^te by John Wycliffe and his followers ; edited by the 
Rev. Josiah Forshall and Sir Frederic Madden, 1850, iv., 34-5.] 

* Of. Ohancer'a * poor paiaon of a town' :— 

* Wyd waa hia pariaoh, and hoiiaea far aaonder. 
But he ne lafte not for reyne ne thonder. 

In aUmeaae nor in meaohief to Tisite 
The ferreate in hia pariaaohe, moche and lite, 
TTppon hia faet, and in hia hand a ataf .' 
Thia noUe enaample to hia aheep he yaf 
That flrat he wionghte, and after that he tanghto 
Out of the goepel he tho wordea canghte^ 
And tUa flgore he addede eek therto^ 
Tbat if golde roste, what aohal yren doo ? 
• • • 

* He waa alao a lemed man, a dark 

That Oriatea goapel trewdy wolde preche ; 
Bia p a ri aohena devoutly wolde he teche.' 

{Prologue to the Cankrbum Tales.) 


BxnuLCT xni. JL.D. 1387. 


By John of Tbetisa. [Siee pp. 29 and 40.] 

* |3i8 apqnrng [if^^ritiff or impalrinff] of ))0 btirJ>tonge Ithe mother tonffue, 
•XitfflUhl ys by-canse of twey {two] )>inge8 :— on ys, f(x lbecause'\ chyldem in 
seole^ a^ened iagairuf} \te vsage and m>inere of al o]>«r nacions, bu)> [are} com- 
p^ed for to leue here itheir"} oone longage, & for to oonstme here lessons & 
here ]>mge8 a [in] Preynsoh, & habbe)>, 8n)>the [have since} ]>e Normang come 
fnrstin-to Engelond. Also, gentil men children bu)> ytau3t for to speke Freynsch 
fram lyme J>at a ithejfj bu)> yrokked in here oradd, & conne)> [know how to} 
speke A playo wl)> a child hys broach ; and oplondysch [rustic} men wol lykne 
ham-sylf [thenuelves} to gentil men, & fondeJ> [endeavour} \n]f gret bysynes 
ipains} for to speke Freynsch, for to be more ytold of [reckoned of}, 

* pja manertf was moche y-Tsed to-fore [btfore} )>e f urste moreyn [murrain or 
ploffuet—probabljf that of 1348] & ys se)>the [since} somdel ychannged [somewhat 
changed}. Fox lohon Oomwal, a mayst^ of gramere, chayngede J>e lore [leanp- 
ing} in gramer-scde, A constmccion [construing} of Freynsch in-to Bnglysch ; 
& Bichard Pencryoh Inznede \>tA manere teohyng [manner of teaching} of faym, 
ie 0^ men of Penoiych ; so ^at now, )>e ^er of onre Lord a )>oi»ond )>ie h0Q&<ed 
foure score 6b tyne, of tte seoonde kyng Bichard after J>e oonquost nyne (ije,, the 
ninth year of the reign of Richard IL\ in al >e gram^r-sooles of Engelond ohildem 
lene]> Frensoh ^ constrae|> & lnme)> an [in} Bnglysch, and habbe|> ]fer-hy 
avauntage in on syde A desaTanntage yn anoji^ ; here [(Mr} ayanntag^ ys, ^ab 
a lame]> here gram^r yn lasse tyme ]>an childem wer ywoned [woni"} to do — 
disavanntage jrs, \>ab now chfldem of gramer-soole 0Qnne)> [know} no mors 
Frensoh |nui can her« lift [knows their 1^} heele, & J>at ys harm for ham [them}^ 
& a BchoUe [if they shaU} passe pe ee it trauayle In strange londes, & in meny 
caas also. Also gentil men habbe|> now moche yleft [Itft-of} for to teehe here 
ohildem Frensoh.* 

[Trevisa's translation of Higden's Pol^chronicon, 1387, from the 
contemporary MS. Tiberius D. tIi., quoted in Morris and Skeat's 
Specimefis of Early English, Pt. 11., p. 241, ed. 1894.] 


1377-78 (Xoch) I 1377-83 (Skeat). 


By Geoffbbt Chaxtceii. 

[Boethius, 480 ?-524 (from whom the following extract is trans- 
lated), was a Boman patriciani imprisoned by the Emperor 
Theodoric During his confinement he wrote his treatise, De 
Consolatione PhilosophuB, Chaucer*8 version was preceded by ons 
by King Alfir«d. See pp. 36 and 13.] 


• In Jw mfine white |>at I stille reoordede Jjise )>inge3 vn\> my self ikU opening 
complaint}, and markedo my wepli oompleynte wi)» offloe of poyntd lityle}, I 
saw stondyng above ]>e hey^t of my heaed a woman of fall greet renercnoe by 
eemblamit hir eyen brennyng and clere seing oner )>e comnne myj^t iinig?U} of 
men. wi|> a lijfly colour and wi]? swiche yigonre and strenke)) [strength} |>at it 
my^te not be emptid itx^ttsted}. %A1 were it so )>at scho was ful of so greet 
ago. |>at menne wolde not trowe in no manere ]>at sche were of euro elde. pe 
statore of hir was of a doutous iugement. for somtyme sche constreynede [con- 
tracted] andschronkhlr scluen lyche to )>e comune mesure of men. and snmtyme 
it semode )>at she touchede \>e heuene wi)> |>e hey^te of hir hcncd, and when sche 
hef [raised} hir heucd hcycr sche percede ^ seine heuene. sa J>at )>e sy^ of men 
loking was in ydcl [in vain}. ^ Hir clo]^ weren makcd of rygt delye [thin} 
)>rede8 and sabtU crafta of perdurable [lasting} matcrc. |>o wyche doj^es sche 
hadde wouen wi|> her owen hondes : as I knowe wel aftir by hir selfe. dedaryng 
and shewyng to me )>e beauto. l>e wiche clo}>cs a derkenes of aforletcn [neglected} 
and dispised olde hadde doskid and dirkid as it is wont to dirken [darken} by- 
smoked [besmoked} ymagcs. &c.' 

[ChaucePB Boethius, from the Addit. MS. 10,340 (Br. Museum), 
ed. by Dr. E. Morris {E. E. Text 8oc.\ 1868, 6. It will be useful 
to compare the text in Skeat's Chaucer, 1894, based on Dr. Furni- 
▼all's ed. of MS. Camb. I. i. 3, 21 {Chaucer Soc,, 1886).] 

BrrRACT XV. A.I>. 1390. 

By Gboffhet Chauceb. [See p. 37.] 

* A Schipman was ther, wonyng [dwelling} f er by wcste : 
For ought I woot, he was of Dertemouthe. 
He rood upon a ronncy [hofse}^ as he couthc, 
In a gowne of faldyng [<a>arse doth} to the kne. 
A daggere hangyng on a laas [lace, lanyard} hadde ha 
Aboute his nekke under his arm adonn. 
The hoote somer hadde maad his hew al broun ; 
And certeinly he was a good f elawe. 
Fill many a draught of wyn had he drawe 
From Burdeux-ward, whil that the chapman sleep. 
Of nycc consdcnco took he no keep. 
If that he foughte, and hadde the heigher hand. 
By water ho scnto hem boom to every land. 
But of his craft to rikno wel the tydes, 
His strcmes and his dangers him bisidcs, 

His herbergh [harbour} and his mono [moon} his lodemenage [pilotage}, 
Ther was non such from Hulle to Cartage. 
Hardy he was, and wys to undertake ; 
With many a tempest hath his herd ben schako. 
He knew wel aU the havencs, as thei were, 
From Sootlond [or Gk)ttland] to the cape of Fyncstere, 
And every cryk in Bretaync and in Spaync ; 
Bis boi^ 7*clcpad was the Hagdelayne/ 


We get a farther glimpee of tliis san-bumed mariner in the pro- 
logae to his tale. The host, "with a brace of oaths, calls upon the 
panon: — 

* The Person him answerde : " Benedicife t 

What cyleth the man, so synfnlly to swere ? " 

Onr Ost answerd : " O Jankyn, bo ye there ? 

Now goode men," qnod oar Oste, " herkneth me. 

I smel a loller {lollard\ In the \nnd," qnod he, 
** Abideth for Qoddcs digne passion, 

Eor we schiil have a predicadon ; 

This loUer heer woldo prcchen us som\rhat." 
'* Nay by my father sonle I that shal he nnt," 

Sayde the Schipman ; " heer schal he naught prechc. 

He schal no gospel glosen heer ne techc. 

We leyyn \heliete\ al in the gret God," qnod he. 
** He wolde sowen some difficult^ 

Or springen coUdl {tare* *] in our clone corn. 

And thcrfor, Ost, I wame the byforn 

lly joly body schal a tale telle, 
[And I schal clinken yon so mery a belle 

That I schal waken al this oompagnie ; 

But it schal not ben of pliilo6ophie, 

Ko of physike, no tcrmcs queinte of lawe ; 

Thcr is but litel Lathi in my ma we."]* 

[Cantcrhury Tales. Aldine Edition of Chaucer's Works, ii., 13,— 
ill, 106-7. Cf. the text of Skeat's edition, 1894.] 

BXTRACT XVI. A.I>« lftft9a 


By Ebginald Fbcock. 

[The author, it will be observed, claims to write in the * common 
people's language.' See p. 42.] 

* Now that God for his godencs and charite cocse the sooner In the oomoun 
peple such vnwijs, vntrewc, and oucrhasti Tndim3rming and blamjmg maad 
upon the dergie, and that for the hormes and yncUs therbi comyng now seid, y 
schal do therto sumwhat of mi port in this, that y schal iustifie zj. goucmauncis 
{praeticet\ of the olergie, whiche summe of the comoun peple Ynwijsly and 
vnttenli ingen and condcmpnen to be yuele ; of which zJ. gouemauncis oon U 
the having and vsing of ymagls in chirchis ; and an othir is pilgrimage in going 
to the memorialis or the mynde plads [«An'Re5, rrijni^—renumbrancel of Seintis, 
and that pflgrimagls and ofCringis mowe be doon wed, not oonU prludy, but 
also openli ; and not oonli so of lay men, but rather of preestis and of bischopis. 

• Cf. Extract XSl^—The ParabU qfthe Tares in tht WheaU 


And this y sohal do bl writing of this present book In the oomoon peplis langage 
pleinli and openli and schortli, and to be depid 3%« repretsinff qf ouer micA« 
tfifUttg [UamtiHir] the dergie : and he [«<] schal bane t. principal parties. In the 
finte of whi(die parties acfaal be mad in general maner the seid r^reesing, and 
in general maner proof to the xj. seid gonemannciB. And in the ij«. iij«. iiij*. 
and V*. principal parties schal be maad in spedal maner the seid repressing ; and 
in spedal maner the proof to the same xj. gonemanncis ; thous alle othere 
gonemamicis of the dergie, for whldie the dergy is worihi to be blamed in 
brotherly and ndsboorly oorrepdonn, y sdial not be abonte to ezcose ndther 
de fe nde ; bntpreie, speke, and write in al padence and doctrine, that the dergie 
forsake hem, lene, and amenile.* 

[Pecock'B Bepressor^ 1860, i., 4, Babington's Edition, Kollf 

ExmACT ZVII. A«I>. Ift85« 

By Sib Thomas Mai.obt. 

[After the death of King Arthur at the Battle of Oaxnlan, Sir 
Lancelot visited Gnenerer at Almesbury. Passing thence he entered 
a monastery, and, there dying, his body -was carried, by his own 
desire, to his castle of Joyous Gard, concerning -which we are told in 
La Mori cPArthure, * some men say Anwick, and some men say it 
is Bamborow.' It is supposed to be Berwick. See p. 43.] 

'And whan syr Eotor herde snche noyse ds lyghte in the qnyre of loyous 
garde iLaneelcfi castle} he alyght & put his hors from hym & came into the 
qnyre A there he sawe men synge wepe / ft al they knewe i^r Ector / bat he 
knewe not them / than wente syr Bors vnto syr Eotor & tolde hym how there 
laye his brother syr Laoncdot dede / A than Syr Ector threwe hys shelde swerde 
& helme from hym / & whan he bdidde syr Lanncdottes vjsage he tyl [fell] 
donn in a swonn / & whan he waked It were harde ony tonge to telle the ddef o] 
complayntes that he made for his brother / A Laoncdot he sayd thou were beds 
of al crysten knyghtes & now I dare say sayd syr Ector thou sir Launcdot 
there thou lyest that thou were neuer matched of erthely knyghtes hande / & 
thon were the cnrtest Imost eourteotu] knyght that euer bare shelde & thou 
were the truest frende to thy louar that euer bestrade hors & thou were the 
treuest louer of a syoful man that euer loued woman / & thou were the kyndest 
man that euer stroke wyth swerde / & thou were the godelyest persone ^^ euer 
cam emonge preoi) Iprea} of knyghtes / & thou was the mekest man & the 
lentyllest that euer ete in halle emonge lodyes / & thou were the sternest knyght 
to thy mortal foo that euer put spere in the brestc / ' 

[Le Morie Darthur^ Book xxi., Oapitulum xiii. Facsimile re- 
print of Caxton's original edition of 1485, edited by H« Oskai 
Sommer, Ph.D., 1889, vol. i. p. 896*.] 


ExTBCT xvm. A.]>. isas« 


By William Ttndalb. [See p. 46, and also pp. 277 and 2S3.] 

'Another sbnllitade pnt lie forth / nnto tfaezn saynge : The kyngdm off hcTen 
jn Ijke nnto a man which sowed good soede in his fclde. Butt whyll men 
Bhlepte / Uior com his f oo / and sowed tores amonge the wheato / and went liis 
waye : WhC the blade was sprOge np / fid had brought forth frute / th6 appered 
the tares also. The serrannts cam to the householder / and sayde unto him : Syr 
eowedest not thou good seed I thy dosse /.from whence then hath it taxes ? He 
sayde to them / the firious man hath done this. Then the serraunts sayde imto 
hym : wylt thou then that we go fid gader it ? and he sayde / nay / lest whyll 
ye go aboute to wede out the tares / ye plucke uppe also with them the wheate by 
the rotts : let bothe growe together tyll harvest come / and in time of harrest / 1 
will saye unto my repers / gadther ye f yist the tores / fid bynd fhem in shoves 
to bo brCt : but gadther the wheato X to my bame.' 

[Tyndale's black-letter New TBstament (1625 or 1626). Er/s 
fao-simile. Bristol, 1862.] 

ExnuLCT XIX. iL.D. 1535. 


By Sib Thomas Morb. [Written * with a cole ... to hys daughter 
maistres Margaret Roper, within a whyle after he was prisoner 
in the towre.' See p. 46.] 

*Myne own good doughter, our lorde be thanked I am in good helthe of 
bodye, and in good quiet of minde : and of worldly thynges I no more desyer 
thenlhaue. Ibesechehymmakeyouallmeryiuthehopeofheauen. And such 
thynges as I somewhat longed to talke with you all, concerning the worlde to 
come, our Lorde pnt theim into your myndes, as I truste he dcthe and better to 
by hys holy spirite : who blesae you and preserueyou all. Written wyth a cole by 
your tender louing fath^, who in hys pore prayers forgetteth none of you all, 
nor your babes, nor your nurses, nor your good husbondes nor your good hus- 
bandes shrewde ielever] wyues, nor your fathers shrewde wyfe neither, nor om 
other frendes. And thus fare ye hartely well for lacke of paper. 

' TnoMAS Mors knight.' 

[7%« workee of Sir Thomas More Knyght, sy^netyme Lorde 
Chauncellour of England, wrytten by him in the Enylysh tonye, 1667i 
Vol. II. p. 1480.] 


EXTEULOT XX. A.I>a 18ft9a 


By HuQH Latimeb. [See p. 47, and also p. 49.] 

* Eaer thys office of proachyngo hath bene least regarded, it hath skante hadde 

the name of goddes semyce I came once myscAfe to a place, ridyng 

on a iomay home warde from London, and I sente worde ouer nyghte into the 
tonne that I would preach there in ye mominge because it was holy day, and ma 
thought it was an holye dayes worcke, the churche stode in my waye, and I 
toke my horsse and my companye, and went thither, I thonghte I shonlde haue 
found a greate oompanye in the churche, and when I came there, the churche 
dore was faste locked. 

* I tarried there halfe an honer and more, at last the keye was foonde, and one 
of the parishe commes to me and sayes. Syr thj's is a busye daye wyth tb, we 
can not heare you, it is Ilobyn hoodos daye. The parishe are gone a brode 
[abroad^ to gather for Eobyn hoode, I praye you let {prevent] them not. I waa 
fayne there to gcuo place to Bobyn hoode, I thought my rochet shoulde haue 
bene regarded, thoughe I were not ; but it woulde not serue, it was fayn to geue 
place to Ilobyn hoodes men.' 

[Seven Sermons before Mward VL on each Friday in Lent, 1549 
(Axber^s Reprint, 1869, 173).] 

Extract XXI. A.D. 1887a 

From the Geneva Bible. [See also pp. 277 and 282.] 

* Another shnilibnde put he forth vnto them, saying. The Igmgdome of heanen 
is like vnto a man which sowed good seed in his field. But while men slept, 
there came his fo, & sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. And 
when the blade was sprong vp & broght forth finite, then appeared the tares 

Then came the seruantes of the householder, & sayd vnto him, Syr soweddest 
not thou good seed in thy dose, from whence then hath it tares ? And he said 
to them, the ennious man hath done this. Then the seruantes sayd vnto hym, 
Wylt thou then that we go and wede them out ? But he said. Nay, lest while ye 
go about to wede out the tares, ye pluck vp also with than the wheat. Let both 
growe together ^1 hameBt come, and in tyme of hamest, I wyl say to the repers, 
gather ye tjreb the tares, & bind tiiem in Bfaenes to be burned : but gather the 
wheat into my bame.' 

[Geneva Bible, 1 557i as printed in Bagster^s English Hexa^la, 1841.] 


BxTRAcr yxif, A«I>a 1870s 


By RoGEB AscHAH. [See p. 69.] 

'Wise men I know, will weU aUov of my choise herein : and as for sach, vrho 
hme not wltte of tbun sdaes, bat most leame of others, to indge right of mem 
dojngcs, let them read that -wise Poet Horaee in his Arte PoeHea, who willeth 
wiaemen to beware, of hie and loftie Titles. For, great shippes, require oostlik 
taoUing, and also afterward dangerous gooemment : Small boates, be neither 
reoAB QhazgeaUe in makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie : and yet they cary 
many ^nnes, as good and oostlie ware, as greater vessels do. AmeaneAi^mnent, 
mayea8eliebeare,tbe light burden of a small ftuite, and hatte alwaise at hand, a 
ready exoose for iU handling : And some praise it is, if it so channce, to be better 
in deede, than a man dare venture to seeme. A hye titLe, dotii charge a man, 
with the beanie borden, of to great a promise : and therefore sayth Horace verle 
wittelie, that, that Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke, with a goodlie 
vetie in deede, bat oner pronde a promise.* 

Foffiunam Ai'anii cankibo et iwMle heUumf 

And after, as wiselie, 

QwuUIti reeHHu Me, qui nil molUur focpli, Ac,' * 

[Tke Soholemaster, 1570, 65 (Arbex^s Beprint» 1870).] 

BzXBACT XSCin. A<I>a 188d« 


Ry Edhttnd Sfenseb. [See p. 54.] 

'• • . Intheb^finningof the feast, there presented him self e a tall clownish 
yonnge man, who falling before the Qoeene of Faeries desired a boone (as the man- 
ner then was) whioh daring that feast she might not refuse : which was that hee 
might have the atchievement of any adventure, which during that feast dioold 
happen ; that being granted, he rested him selfe on the floore, unfit through his 

* The whole of the passage runs thus i-~ 

* Don't open like the pydio, with a burst : 
« JYoy't war and Priam*s/ate are here rehearsed,** 

What* s coming, pray, that thus he winds his horn ? 

The mountain labours and a mouse is bom. 

Far better he who enters at his ease. 

Nor takes four Ifr^Uh with empty floiaishes : 
** Sing, Muse, the man who, after Troy was burned. 

Saw divers dtiee, and their manners learned." * 

Oonington's Translation of the Satires, &c., 1871, 177« 


rnsticitle for a better place. Soone after entred a faire Ladie [ ITna} in moumuig 
weedes, riding on a vhite Asse, with a dwarfe behind her leading a warlike steed, 
that bore the Armes of a knight, and his etpeare in the dwarfes hand. She fall> 
ing before the Qneene of Faeries, complayned that her father and mother, an 
ancient King and Qneene, had bene by a huge dragon many yeers shnt up in a 
braaen Oastle, who thence suffered them not to isaew : and therefore besought the 
Faery Queene to assigne her some one of her knights to take on him thaii ezployt. 
Presently that clownish person upstarting, desired that adventure ; whereat the 
Queene much wondering, and the Lady much gaine-saying, yet he earnestly im- 
portuned his desire. In the end the Lady told him, that unlesse that armour which 
she brought would serve him (that is, the armour of a Christian man specified 
by Saint Paul, t. [vi.] Ephes.) that he could not succeed in that enterprise : 
which being forth-with put upon him with due furnitures thereunto, he seemed 
the goodliest man in al that company, and was well liked of tiie Lady. And 
eftesoones taking on him knighthood, and mounting on that straunge Oourser, he 
went forth with her on that adventure : where beginneth the first booke, viz. 

A. gentle Knight was pricking on the playne,' &c. 
[Letter to Sir Walter Baleigh, dated ' 23 lanuarie, 1589.'] 

BxTRACT XXIV. A.B. 1590. 

By EDinTND Sfenseb. [See p. 54.] 

* A gentle Knight was pricking itpurringl on the plaine, 
Ydadd in mightie armes and silver shielde, 
Wherein old dints of deepe wounds did remaine. 

The cruel markes of many a bloudy fidde ; 
Yet armes till that time did he never wield : * 
His angry steede did chide liis faming bitt. 
As much disdayning to the curbe to yield : 
Full joUy knight he seemd, and faire did sitt. 
As one for knightly giusts and fierce encounters fitt. 

* And on his brest a bloudie crosse he bore. 
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord, 

For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he bore^ 
And dead as living ever him ador'd : 
Upon his shield the like was also scor'd. 
For soveroine hoi>e, which in his helpe he had : 
Itight f aithfun true he was in deede and word. 
But of his cheere did seeme too solemne sad ; 
Yet nothing did he dread, but ever was ydrad [dreadedk^, 

• • • • 

' A lovely ladie rodo him fairo beside, 
Upon a lowly asse more white then snow. 
Yet she much whiter, but the same did hide 
Under a vele, that wimpled was full low, 

1^— — — ™— ^»— ~-^  ^— — ^— »— ^-^p—^— ^— .»^— — 

• Cf. Lciler to Sir Waller Rakujhf Extract XXIII. 


And over all a bladco stole she did throw 
As one that inly moonid : so was she sad 
And heayie sat npon her paUrey slow : 
Seemed [U] in heart some hidden care she had. 
And by her in a line a miOce white lambe she lad UUy 

\Faery Queene, Bk. i.. Canto i. 1, 2, 4.] 


BxtractZXV. A«D. 189Bi 

By Sot Phzup Sidket. [See p. 62, and also p. 59.] 

' Our Tragedies, and Comedies, (not without cause cried ont against,) obsemiog 
roles, neyther of honest doilitie, nor of skilfnll Foefcrie, excepting Gorboduck, {bp 
aadtvUl€t—€ce p. 61, s. 88] (againe, I say, of those that I hane seene,) which not- 
withstanding, as it is foU of stately speeches, and well-somiding Phrases, dyming 
to the height of Seneca his stile, and as fall of notable moralitie, which it doth 
most deUghtfnlly teach ; and so obtayne the very end of Foesie : yet in troth it 
is Tery defecUous in the circmnstannces ; whidi groeoeth mee, because it might 
not remaine as an exact model of an Tragedies. For it is faulty both in place, 
and time, the two necessary companions of aU oorporaU actions. For where the 
stage should alwaies represent but one place, and the yttetmost time presupposed 
in it, should be, both by Aristotle*s precept, and common reason, but one day : 
there Is both many dayos, and many places, ioartificially imagined. But if it 
besoin (7or6o<ltfeit, howmndimoreinaltherest? where you dud have Atiaoi 
the one side, and JjffMek of the other, and so many ynder-kingdoms, that the 
Flayer when he commeth in, must ener begin with telling where he is : or els, the 
talo wll not be concoincd. Now ye shal have three Ladies, walke to gaUier 
flowers, and then we must beleene the stage to be a Qazden. By and by, we hears 
newes of shipwracko in the same place, and then wee are to blame, if we accept 
it not for a Rock. 

Ypon the backo of that, comes ont a hidioua Monster, with fire and smoke, and 
then the miserable beholders, are boundc to take it for a Cane. While in the 
mean-time, two Armies flye in, represented with toure swords and bucklers, and 
then what harde heart will not recdue it for a pitched fielde ? * &c.' 

[An ApoloffteforPoetrie, 1695 (Arbei'fl Eeprint, 1868), 63—4.] 

* cy, Shakespeare, Kinff Henry F., Chorus i— 

— * Can this cockpit hold 
The vnsty fields of Franoe? or may we cram 
Within this wooden O the Tery casques 
That did afiEright the air at Aginoourt ? 
O, pardon,' &o. 
Mr. Knight thinks that Sldn^'s words may have prompted Shakespeare's ap- 
peal to his audience in this address to * piece out our imperfoctions with your 
thoughts.' Bee also as to ' the wooden 0,' p. 59, 8. 87. 



In the account given on p. 36, 8. 17, the Canterbury Tales were 
roagbly dated 1390. It has been conjectured, however, that the 
scheme of the Pilgrimage had been adopted, and the Prologue com- 
posed, about 1385-6 ; that some already written tales were fitted to 
the new scheme ; that others were then written, but not enough to 
complete the projected plan. The order in which the tales were 
produced cannot, of course, be finally settled ; but it may fairly be 
assumed that the best work — especially in regard to characterisation 
— is the latest. Four tales, those of the Second Nun, the Clerk, the 
Han of Laws, and the Monk, are among those supposed to have 
been written, wholly or in part, before the scheme of the poem had 
been formed ; * and the Knight's tale is probably a remodelling of a 
lost Palamon and ArcUe. For the sources of the tales see Skeat*8 
Chaucer, iii. 371-504, and the Originals and Analogues published 
by the Chaucer Society. The order of the tales in the following 
list is that proposed nearly thirty years ago by Dr. Furnivall, the 
thoroughness of whose work may be estimated by the fact that 
scholars have found but little room even for the suggestion of 
modification, f 

L Knightb*s Talb is a condensed version of the Teseide of 
Boccaccio (1313—1375), and recounts the loves of Palamon and 
Ardte for Emily, sister of Theseus* wife, Hippolita. She is made 
the prize of battle. Arcite wins, but^ dying by an accident, be- 
queaths the lady to Palamon, in a speech, which for ita dramatic 
eloquence Mr. Cowden Clarke {Biches of Chaucer, Advertisement to 

• For a brief statement of the argnments, more or less satisfactory, see Mr. 
Pollard's Primer, §5 46-8. 

t The metre of the Canterfniry Tdlesis generaXlj the rhymed heroic couplet. 
A writer in the Westminster Review gives the follo\ving * golden rule* for reading 
Chauoer. 'Pronounce the final e whenever the metre demands It, and the final 
Qrllable in all words of French origin, as e^. in cor^^ vis^e, honotU*, damoilir, 
mani^. Bear in mind, also, that the strangeness of three-fourths of the words 
results from the antiquated way in which they are spelled, and that when de- 
prived of an « or an n, or otherwise slightly altered, they become familiar. 
They are old friends disguised in foreign garb ; when we hear them ^eak 
their Sb'angencfBS yanishes.* . . .. ^ 



Steond Eiiiion, 1870) places beside the elegy otbt Sir Lftaeilot, 
quoted at p. 281 (Erfcraet XVH) 

* "Naxight may the wofnl Bplrit in myn berte 
Decdara a poynt of alle my somres merte 
To yoo, my lady t that I lore moit ; 
Bat I byqnethe the senrioe of my goit 
To yon aboTBn every oreatoxe, 
Syn that my lyf ne may no lenger dure. 
Alias, the wool alias, the peynes strooge, 
That I for yon have anfEred, and so longel 
Alias, the dethl allasmynSmelyel 
Allaa, depar^yng of our oompaoyet 
Alias! myn hertes queen ! alias, my wyf 
Kyn hertes lady, endere of my lyf I 
What ii Mt world t what atken men to havef 
Now wUh hU love, now in his colde ffraw 
Allone, wUhouten my companye. 
Farwoll my swote foo I myn Emelye 
And softe tak me in yonr annes ttreye. 
For loTe of God, and herkneth what I aeyc* 

I have hoer with my oosyn Falamon 
Had atryf and ranoonr many a day i-gon. 
For love of yow, and for my jdousie. 
And Jupiter so wis my sowle gye {gu^lt 
To speken of a servannt proprely, 
With alle dronmstannoes ttewely, 
That is to seyn, tmthe, honoor, and knig^thede 
Wysdom, hnmblesse, estaat, and hey kynzede, 
Fredam, and al that longeth to that art^ 
fio Jiqdter have of my sonle part, 
As in this world right now ne knowe I bob 
Bo worthy to he loved as Falamon, 
That serveth yon, and wol don aU his lyf 
And if that evere ye schnl ben a wyf, 
Foryet not Falamon, the gentn man." 
And with that word his speche faUe gan ; 
For fro his feete np to his breste was oome 
The cold of detb, that hadde him overoome.' 

[IL 1907-1942 

Dzyden has paraphrased this tale under the title of Palamon 

n. MuLLBBufs TiLH. — ^The Miller, -who is drunk, tells a broad 
tale, for irhich no original has been traced, of the mischances of a 

TTT. Beetb's Talb. — ^The Beere, a carpenter by trade, and withal 
' a sldendre colerik man,' retorts with an equally injurious tale of a 
milleTi based upon a French /o^iat^. 

17. Gook's Talb begins as a stoiy of a disorderly London 
prentice ; and breaks off after some fifty lines. Then generally 
follows the Tide of Gameh/riy of which the plot resembles Shake- 


ipeare'i At Y(m Like B {tee Appendix C, No. X.). This is an older 
tale (o. 1840 ?), not by Chaucer, which he, it is thought, intended 
to rewrite for the Yeoman. 

y. SiBcnAirr ov Lawb*8 Tixn is the stoiy of Constance in Gh)wer'8 
Omfueio Amantis, Book ii. ; both, howerer, drew from the Life cf 
ConsUmeexn Kicholas Triret's Anglo-Norman ChronieU (e. 1334). 

YL Scsipicam's Talb is in the Decameron (B. Tiii., K. i.), and 
shows how a good-for-nothing Monk used the money he had bor- 
rowed from a merchant to min his wife. 

Vn. Pbiobissb's Talb tells how the Jews murdered a Christian 
child, who, dead and cast in a pit, by miracle :^> 

' Ther he with throte ipoorve lay Qprlglitb 
He iilma rMlMiptoKff gaa to qmge 
So lowde, th«t al the place Ugan to lyngSi'* 

VnL Chavchb's Taijbs. — When called upon for his tale, Chaucer 
commences a parody of the Metrical Bomances, entitled the Sime of 
Sir 2!&op«, *fiill of phrases taken from leumbrae, Li beaue desconus, 
and other Bomances in the same style ' (l^yrwhitt). Being cut short 
by the frank disapprobation of the Host, who bids him tell 

* Km what atte lest 
In wUch ther be som merthe or doctrine,* 

he relates^ inproee, a highly edifying Tale ofMelibeue and Me wife^ 

Prvdenee, from a French original. The prologue to Sir Thopae 

contains that description of the Poet's appearance which has been 

already referred to (see p. 84, s. 17)* 

' Oure host to jape began. 

And than at erst he loked upon me 

And sayde thus, " What num art thon T " quod he t 

** Thoo lokeet as than woldest ^yndean han 

For ever upon the ground I se the stare i 

Approohe ner, and loke merfly. 

Now ware yoa, sires, and let this num haTS space. 

He in the wast is sohape as wel as I ; 

This were a popet in an arm to embnoe 

For any womman, smal«nd fair of fSoe. 

He semeth elvisch by his ootmtenannoe 

For unto no wight doth he daliaunce.* 

IX. Moss's Talb. — ^The Monk follows with a number of dolefiil 
tragedies of illustrious men, of which he has ' an hundred in his 
cell,' until his audience stop him, the Host saying plainly that 
' therein is no disport, ne game.' 

X. Nomn Fustb's Tilb is that of The Cock and the Fox, 
paraphrased by Bryden, and is derived from the Roman de Renart, 
ch. V. 

e CL Sxferaet Y., Appendix A, as to the doings of the Jews of Norwich. 



XI. DocTOUB OT Fhtsik's Taim is the story of Appins and Vir- 
ginia, * as telleth Titus Livins.' Chancer really follows the Bonum 
de la Mo$e, 6613-82. See Lonnsbaiy's Studies in Chaucer, ii. 283. 

XII. Pardoneb's Talb, fiom the CerUo NoveUe Antiehe, is the 
Btoiy of three comrades who find a treasure. To keep it, two of 
them kill the third, but afterwards die from drinking wioe that he, 
on his party had poisoned. The tale appears in many languages. 

XTTT. WiF of Bathe's Tale. — Alter a lengthy prelude, which 
has been modernised by Pope, the Wife of Bath tells the stoiy 
(paraphrased by Diyden in 1700) of a Knight who married an old 
woman out of gratitude. Such a tale is told by Gower, Omffseio 
JmatUis, Book i., and the ancient ballad of the Marriage of Sir 
Gawaine has a similar subject. 

AIY. Fbebb*s Tale is a malicious story of an arbitrary Sum- 
moner, who was carried away by the Piend. 

XY. SoMnroiTB's Tacb is, of course, a retaliation. It recounts 
the story of a covetous Eriar, who was baffled and humiliated by a 
sick husbandman, whose goods he desired. 

XVL Clkbk's Ta£b.— The clerk then tells the beautiful story of 
patient Griselda, perhaps the most admired of all the Thtss, which 
he (the Clerk) says he 

* Lemed at Fadowe kA a worthy clerk, 
Frannces Ftetrark, the lanreat poete 

— vhos rethoriqtie swefce 
Enlnmynd al Yiail ol poetrie.' 

This story is told in the Decamenm, D. z., K. z. Chaucer, how- 
ever, has evidently taken it from a Latin translation made by Petrarch 
from Boccaccio, in 1373. That he received it orally from Petrarch 
(1304-74), during one of his missions to Italy, as has been con- 
jectured, rests upon no satisfactory evidence. 

XVIL Maechaunt's Tale is supposed to have been derived from 
a Latin fable. It is the old story of an old husband and a young 
wife. Pope has paraphrased it in January and May, 

XVHL Sqtttbr's Tale is the *half-told' story of Cambuscin, 
Kingof Tartary:— 

* Of Oamball, and of Algarsife, 
And who had Canace to wife, 
That own'd the virtuous ring and glass ; 
And of the wondrous horse of brass 
On which the Tartar king did ride.' • 

XIX. FBAmLELEYN's Talb. — ^Takou^ he says, irom a 'Breton UU,* 

* H Penseroso, Milton writes CambiSscan. 


but told also by Boccaccio (D. x., N. v.), is tbe story of Dorigen, a 
Tirtnous wife. 

XX. Second Nonnb's Talv is from two Latin lives of St. Cecilia : 
that in the Legenda Aurea of Jacobns a Yoragine is followed np to 
about 1. 348, then that of Simeon Metaphrastes. 

XXI. Canon Yiocan's Taui relates how a priest was hoaxed by 
a pretended Alchemist. 

XXII. Maunciflb's Tale is the fable of the White Crow turned 
black, from Ovid's Metamorphoses {see also p. 32, s. 16). 

XXm. Psbsoun's Taxs, in prose, is a long professional discourse 
de IrAy de Superbid, de AvarUid, &c., said to have been suggested 
by some portions of the French original of ihe Ayenbite of Inwit (see 
p. 27, s. 14). 

These twenty-three tales — ^twenty-four if the fifty-eight lines of /S'tr 
Thopas be reckoned as a * tale ' — are, as has been mentioned (p. 37)» 
not disconnected narratives, but are united by ' links ' in which the 
pilgrims often chat about a tale already told, or refer to the neigh- 
bourhood in which they happen to be. If, therefore, the entire 
scheme had been carried out, we should have had a closely knit 
whole, in which we should have been able to follow the pilgrims both 
in regard to time and place with somewhat of the exactitude with 
which we trace the weird wanderings of Dante in his greiat poem. 
As, however, we have not all the tales, nor even * links * to all 
that we do possess, there are conspicuous gaps, although nine 
' groups ' are clearly recognisable. These it is usual to name after the 
letters of the alphabet^ as is done in the following table, in which the 
Boman figures refer to the numbering of the list printed above : — 

A. Four tales . L-TV. 

B. Six „ , V.-X. 

0. Two „ . xi.-xn. 

D. Tliree „ . XIII.-XV. 

E. Two tales . XVI.-XVIL 

P. „ „ . xvni.-xix. 

H. One tale . XXII. 

I. One tale . XXIII. 

The distance from London to Canterbury is only fifty-six miles, 
but parts of four days are supposed to be occupied in the journey. 
Incomplete as the indications are, the following details may be 
gathered :— 

Day I. April 17.— From The Tabard Inn to Dartford; four 
tales being told — those of group A. 

Day IL April 18. — From Dartford to Rochester. The six tales 
of group B. 

Day III. April 19.— From Rochester to Ospringe. The seven 
tales of groups C, D, and £. 

Day IV. April 20.--FrDm Ospringe to Canterbtuy. The re^ 

maining tales of groups F, G, IT, and T. 



TKB 9&A.T8 OF 

Thb re^)ectiye and eeparate quasto editions of Shakespeare'fl 
FUys, it has been said {see p. 64, s. 40), appeared between 1597 and 
1622— the latter being the date of the publication of Othdlo, The 
first FOLIO was published in the following year ; and the editors, 
John Heminge and Henry Gondell, in their Address * * to the great 
Variety of Headers,' while lamenting the deceased Anthor^s inability 
to superintend the publication of his writings, professed, nerertheless, 
to give the ' diyerse stolne and snrreptitions copies,' which had been 
' maimed ' and ' deformed ' by yarions issuers, ' cu^d, and perfect of 
their limbes'; and, — ^in addition to these correct texts, — ' all the rest 
[t.e. of Shakespeare's plays] absolute in their numbers, as he conceiyed 
them.' ' "Who,' they go on to say, ' as he was a happie imitator of 
Nature, was a most gentle ezpresser of it. His mind and hand went 
together : And what he thought, he uttered with that easinesse that 
we have scarse received fix>m him a blot in his papers.' It was 
these words that elicited Ben Jonson's ofb-quoted, * Would he had 
blotted a thousand I ' That (as Jonson is careM to explain in his 
Timber) the words were not malevolent, is clear from his lines under 
the Broeshout portrait, and from the noble commendatory verses, ' to 
the memory of my beloved, the Author,' which were prefixed to this 
▼ory First Folio: — 

. • ' Looko how the failiers face 
lives in his issue, even so the race 
Of Shakespeares minde and manners brightly shines 
In his well tomed and troo-filed lines, 
In each of which, he seranes to shake a lanoe. 
As brandish't at the eyes of Ignorance. 
Sweet Swan of Avon I what a sight it vrero 
To see thee in onr waters yet appeare, 
And make those flights npon the bankes of Thames 
That so did take BUza and onr Jamos 1 ' 

• This Addreu fflnstrates one of the features of the Elisabethan Bfeage (tee pu 
69, 8. 87) :—* And though you [the reader] be a Magistrate of wit, and lit on the 
Stiige at Btadt'FrUrs, or the CoeJt^ to arraigne Playes dailie/ &c» 



Yet^ notwitlutaadiiig the colourable sdYeitiBement of the plajeff 
* patten fixrth' of 1628, ' it is however demonstrable/ say Mettm. 
Clark and Wright {Msrehant of Venice; Clarendon PreM 8eri€$^ 
Srd Edition, 1869X that in nearly erezy case where a preTiona 
qnarto existed the text was printed from it, and it is almost certain 
that where there was no previous edition tiie text of the folio was 
taken, not immediately £rom the anthor^s MS., bat firom a more or 
less &alty transcript.' The general features of the IFirst Folio are 
given on pp. 64-5. The thirty-six plays which it contained were 
arranged in three groups, as follows. Those printed in italics had 
previously appeared in tiuARTo form :-- 

(b) HmiOBiKS. 
10. King John. 
16. JSicAori//. 

18. Benrif /F., PL U. 

19. Htnrf K 

20. Henry VI. (Ft. i.) 
SI. H6n]7YI.(Pt.ii.) 
33. Henz7YI.(Pt.iiL) 
28. Richard III. 

(c) TBAaxDiBB. 
29. [TVvfftu and Cret» 

26. OoriolaniiB. 

27. TUat AmdiWuleMt, 
98,' Borneo and JtMeL 
29. Timon of JLtbeni. 

80. JaUm Onsar. 

81. Kaobeth. 

82. ffamlet, 
88. Snfflear, 
84. Othetto. 

88. Antony and deo- 

86« QyinlMUDe* 

(a) CtoMXDDzs. 

1. Tbmpert. 

2. Two Gentlemen of 

8. Meriy Wives of 

4. Meamre for Measure, 
ff. Ck>ime4y of Brrora. 
e,Jiu€h Ado about IfO' 


7. LofM^s Labour's Lost, 

8. MIdsummsr Sights 


9. Merchant <^ Venice, 

10. As Yon like It. 

11. Taming of the Shrew. 

12. All's Wea that Ends 

18. Twelfth Night. 
U. Winter's Tale. 

Besides these, and not included in the Folio of 1623, was the plaj 
of Peridee, published in quarto in 1609. A second folio was issued in 
1632, a third in 1664, a fourth in 1685. After Sowe*s first * edited ' 
issue of 1709, came Pope's, 1726 ; Theobald's, 1733 ; Hanmei^s, 1744 ; 
Warburton's, 1747 ; Johnson's, 1765 ; and Malone's, 1790. Por the 
numerous subsequent editions, the reader must consult a Bibliogra- 
phical Dictionary. 

Shakespeare seldom originated a plot ; but, like Chaucer before 
him, and Holi^ after him, took his outline or framework where 
he found it, developing and filling it up from the inexhaustible 
resources of his vivid and complete imagination. Prom an Italian 
novelist, such as Bandello (whether direct from the original or 
through 8 translation it matters little), he borrows the plot of a 

• Kotin the Urt of plays preflzed to the /Wfp^lmt ncTBtthclcw indbided ia 


eomedj; from a rfironidftr, aneh as Hciilinnhed, the fecta of mi hiefegpcal 
play ; and in hia handa they beoome a Thoe^fth Jtlighi, or a Macbeth, 
Ab an iUnatcation (though by no meana a noyel one) of the great 
dnunatist'a txanafonning power may he cited the description of 
deopatca in her barge on the Qydnns. In North's Autarch, 
Shakespeare's sonrce for the incidents, the passage mns thns : — 

'Thenfore whoi (die wu Bent unto by direne lettera, both from AnUmiut 
hisiMire, and also teom his fiiend«, sbe madeao light of it, andmocdEed AntoKbu 
80 much, that £hJe dlBdaliwd to set forward otherwiae, bat to talco her barge in 
the rlTer of Cydnns ; the poope whereof was of gold, the aidlea of porpfe, and the 
oarei of ailrer, whiob kept stroke in rowing after the soond of the mnsioke of 
flutes, howboyes, cithemes, vials, and soch other instnunents as tbej played 
upon In the barge. And now for the person of her selfe, she was layed under a 
pavilion of doth of gold of tiime, apparelled and attired like the goddeese 
Vmut, mmmnnly drawne in pioture : and hard by her, on either hand cl her, 
pretie fahie boys apparelled as Painters do s^ foorth god Cupid, with little fans 
in their hands, wiUi the wUdi they fumed wind upon her. Hat Ladies and 
Gentlewomen also, the fairest, of them were apparelled like the Kimphea 
Iferetdes (which are the Myrmaides of the waters), & like the Graces, some 
steadng the hebne, others tending the tackle and ropes of the barge, out of the 
which there came a wondezfnll passing sweet savour of perfomes, that per- 
fumed the whaxfes side, pestered with innumerable multitndes of people. £lome 
of them followed the barge all along the river side ; others also ranne out of the 
dty to see her ooming in.' (North, .quoted in Staunton.) 

In Antony and CUopatra (Act ii., Sc. 2) these details take the 
following form. : The speakers are Agiippa and £ndburbus» 

Sno. When she first met Mark Antmy, she pursed up his heart, upon 
the river of Oydntis. 

Agr» There she appeared indeed ; or my reporter devised well for her. 

JSno. I will tell you. 
The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne, 
Burnt on the water : the poop was beaten gold ; 
Purple the sails, and so perfumed that 
The winds wero love-siok with them ; the oars were silveTi 
Which to the tune of flutes kept stxoke, and made 
The water which they beat to follow faster. 
As amorous.of their strokes. For her own peraoiif 
It boggard (ill description : she did lie 
In her pavilion (cLoth-of-gold of tissue), 
<yer-pioturing that Yenns where we see 
The fanqy outwork Nature : on each side her 
Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids, 
With divers-oolour'd fans, whose wind did seem 
To glow the delicate cheeks which they did oool. 
And what they undid, did. 

Agr, 0, rare for Antony t 

£no» Her gentiewomen, like the Nereides, ^ 
So many mermaids, tended her i' the eyes. 
And made their bends adomings : at the hehn 
A seguing mermaid steers ; the silken taoUe 
Swell with the touches of those flower-soft handfl^ 
That yarely frame the oiflce, . From the barge 


A. strange invLsible perfume hits the sense 
Of the adjacent wharfs. The city cast 
Her people out upon her : and Antony, 
Enthron'd i' the market-place, did sit alone, 
Whistling to the air; which, but for yaoauoy, 
Had gone to gaze on Cleopatra too, 
And made a gap in nature. 
^gr- Hare Egyptian I 

In the following list the sources of most of Shakespeare's dramatio 
"works, so fEir as they have been traced or conjectured, are indicated, 
and the probable or approximate dates of production are also given. 
The numbering corresponds with tkat of the list printed on jp. 249 :— 

I. Tempest, Comedy (probable date, 1610). — Lie schone Sidea, by 
Jacob Ayrer (d. 1605), has a somewhat similar plot. Both are 
probably from the same unknown original romance. 

II. Two Gentlemen of Vesona, Comedy (between 1592 and 
1593). — Some incidents are in Sidney^s Arcadia^ i. 6. The story of 
Proteus and Julia resembles that of Felix and Felismena, in the 
Diana of George de Montemayor (1520 — 62), translated by Bartho- 
lomew Yonge, 1598. 

in. Meeby Wives op Windsor, Comedy (Before 1602, date of 
quarto). — ^Various sources are given for the incidents. 

IV. Measube fob Measuiie, Comedy (1603?). — Taken from 
George Whetstone's Historye of "Promos and Cassandra, &c., 1578, 
borrowed in its turn from Giraldi Cinthio*s Hecatommithi, Part ii., 
D. viii., N. V. 

V. Comedy op Ebboes, Comedy (1589 — 1591). — The main in- 
cident is in Plautus' Menachmi ; but Shakespeare's play was possibly 
based on an English version intitlcd the Historic of Error, acted in 
1576—77, * by the children of Powles.' 

VI. Much Ado about Nothing, Comedy (Between 1598 and 
1600, when it was entered on the Stationers' Kegister). — The * serious 
incidents' are taken, probably through some English version, from 
the twenty -second novel of Matteo Bandello (1480 — 1562). 

VII. Love's Laboub's Lost, Comedy (About 1590. — Meres*).— 
< As far as we know, is wholly of Shakspere's invention ' (Dowden). 

VIIL MiDSUMMEB Night's Dbeam, Comedy (1593 — 1594.^ 

* ' As Plantns and Soieca are accounted the best for comedy and tragedy 
among the Latins, so Shakespeare among ye English is the most ezoelleut in 
both kinds for the stage ; for comedy witness his GStlcme of Verona, his Errors, 
Mb Love LidM>r'B Lost, his Love Labour's Wonne^ his Midsummer's Night Dreame, 
and his Merchant of Venice ; for tragedy, his Eichard the 11^ Kiohard the III. 
Henry the IV., King John, Titus Andxoulcus, and his Romeo and Juliet.* 
Fallatlit Tamia, by Francis Meres, 1598. 


Meres).— Theseus and Hippolyta come from North's Plutarch, 1579| 
Life of Theseus ; Pynmus and Thisbe from Golding's Ovid, 1567. 

IX, Mbbchamt of Vknicb, Comedy (1694— 1698.— Meres).— The 
fables of the bond and caskets are in the Gesta Bamanorum, chaps, 
zlviii. and xciz. ; the former is also in the Pecorane of Giovanni 
Florentine (circa 1378). But Shakespeare probably worked from 
an older play. This, both on the stage and in the stndy, is one of 
the most popular of Shakespeare*s Comedies. It has been edited for 
the Clarendon Press Series, by Messrs. Clark and Wright. 

X. As Yon Like It, Comedy (1599— 1600).— Founded on Lodge's 
novel of Sosalynde, Euphues Odden Legacie, &c., 1590 {see p. 69, 
8. 43), which was partly derived from the Cok^s Tale of Qamelyn 
{see p. 244). 

XL TAXiNa OF THB Shiuiw, Comedy (date of composition 
doubtfal). — Based upon an earlier anonymous play, printed in 1594, 
entitled A Pleasant Conceited Historie, called the Taming cfa Shrew* 

XIL All's Well that Eirns Wbll, Comedy (date of composi* 
tion doubtful).— If it be the Lov^s Labour*s Won, specified by Meres 
(see note, p. 295), it should be phiced before 1598. The leading 
circumstances are in the IkeoTneron, B. iii., N. iz. ; and in Paynter's 
Palace of Pleasure, 1566, Vol. i.. Novel 38. 

XTTL Twelfth Nioht; ob, What You Will, Comedy (between 
1698 (Meres) and February, 1602, when it was acted at the Middle 
Temple). — ^The 'serious incidents' are in Bandello, Part ii.. Novel 
36, translated by Bamabie Biche, 1581 ; and in the drama of &r 
Ingannati, 1637. 

XIV. Winter's Tale, Comedy (Before May, 1611, when it was 
acted at the Globe).— Founded on Bobert Greene's Pandosto; the 
THumph of Time, or The History ofBorastus and Fawnia, 1588. 

XY. King John, Hist. Drama (Before 1598.— Meres).— Probably 
worked up from an old piece called The TroublesoTne Baigneof John, 
King of England, 1591. 

XVI. LoTB AND Death of Kino Bichabd the Second, Hist. 
Drama (between 1593 and 1594). — Incidents taken from Holinshed. 
It has been edited for the Clarendon Press Series, by Messrs. Clark 
and Wright. 

XVII. Fibst Pabt of Ema Henbt the Foubth, Hist. Drama 
(Before 1598.— Meres). 

XVIIL Second Past of Kino Henbt the Foitbth, Hist 
Drama (Before 1698.— Meres).- Period occupied, from Hotepur^s 
death, 1403, to accession of Henzy V., 1413. 

XIX. Kino Henbt the Fifth, Hist. Drama (perhaps, from the 



feferenee to Essex's expedition of 1 599, -written in that year). — ^Period 
occupied, from 1413 to Heniy's marriage with Katharine of France^ 

XX. EcBST Pabt of Kino Henbt thb Sixth, Hist. Drama. 

XXI. Sbcond Pabt of Kiiro Henbt thb Sixth, Hist Drama. 

XXII. Thebd Pabt of Kino Henbt thb Sixth, Hist. Drama. 
(The dates of this and the two preceding plajs are very early.) 

XXIIL Kiho Bichabd thb Thibd, Hist. Drama (Before 1597* 
date of qnarto). — Shakespeare*8 * only authorities appear to hare 
been the old chroniclers ' (Stannton). The play ends with the death 
of King Biehard at Bosworth, 1485. 

XXIV. Knro Hbnbt thb Eighth, Hist. Drama (Before June, 1613, 
when it was acted at the Globe). — ' Frequently in Henry VIII. ve 
have all but the yexy words of Holinshed' (Dyce). 

XXV. Tboiltts and Gbbssida, Tragedy (written before 1609, 
date of quarto). — Based upon Chaucer*s Trot/hu and Criseyde 
(see p. 35, s. 17), Lydgate*8 Tray Book (see p. 41, a. 19), and 
Gaxton's Beewydl qfthe Sistaiyes of Troy, 

XXVI. CoBiOLANUs, Tragedy (1607-8).— Based on Life cf Oaius 
Martius Coriolamis, in North's PltUarckt 1579. 

XXVIL Trrus Andbonicus, Tragedy (written before 1598.-* 
Meres). — ^The source is not known. Shakespeare's share in the play 
is mucdi discussed; it is possibly the very earliest 

XXVIIL BoMBO AND JnuBT, Tragedy (written between 1591 
and 1597, date of quarto). — Based chiefly on Arthur Brooke's poem 
of the Trofficall Historye ofBomeus and JtUiett 1562, and Paynter's 
Palace qf Pleasure^ol. li.. Not. 25. It was a popular Italian story. 

XXIX. TiMON OF Athens, Tragedy (written circa 1607-8 ?). — 
The story is in Paynter's Palace of Pleasure^ Vol. i., Nov. 28, and 
in North's Plutarch, But Shakespeare probably re-cast some old 
dramatic form of it. 

XXX. Julius CjBSAB, Tragedy (probably written about 1600-1).— 
Incidents in North's Plutarch^ but there were other plays. 

XXXL Macbbth, Tragedy (probably written between 1604 and 
April, 1610, when it was acted at the Globe). — Based on Holinshed. 
It has been edited for the Clarei^don Press Series, by Messrs. Clark 
and Wright. 

XXXII. Hamlbt, Tragedy (before July, 1602, when it was entered 
in the Stationers' Begister). — ^The story of Hamlet is in the Hxstoria 
Danica of Saxo Grammatiens (1150-1220), and Belleforest's col- 
lection of Novels, 1570. This latter was translated under the title 
of the Bystorye <f Hamhlet, But there was probably an earlier 



play. Hamlet has been edited for the Clarendon Press Seriee, b/ 
MesiTS. Giark and Wright, 1872. 

XXXIII. Kino Leab, Tragedy (Before Christmas 1606, when it 
was acted at Whitehall). — The stoiy may have been taken from the 
Myrrourefar Magistraies (see p. 62, s. 33), from Geoffrey of Mon- 
moath, from Spenser^s Faen/ Queene, b. ii., c. z., or Holinshod. 
Sidney's Arcadia, perhaps, suggested an episode. King Lear -was 
edited in 1877 for the Clarendon Press Series by Mr. W. A. Wright. 

XXXIV. Othello, Tragedy (1604?).— Based npon Cinthio*» 
HecaJtommithiy Ptot i,, Deca Terza, Nov. 7. 

XXXV. Antony and Cleopatba, Tragedy (probably written in 
1608). — Story taken £rom the Life of Antoniiis, in North's P^tf/arcA. 
Period occupied, b.c. 40 to b.c. 30. 

XXXVI. Ctmbbline, Tragi-comedy (supposed to be written in 
1600). — The main incident appears to have been taken from the 
Decameron, D. ii., N. vs.. * The historical facts and allusions . . . 
were seemingly derived from Holinshed ' (Staunton). 

XXXVU. Pebicles, Pbincb of Tybe, Comedy (Before 1608, 
when it was entered in the Stationers' Eegister). — ^The original 
source is the romance of Appollonius of 7\/re (see p. 15, s. 7)} but it 
was probably taken from Gower's Confessio dmantis, and a transla- 
tion of Apollonius, by Laurence Twine, 1576. It is supposed Shake- 
speare worked npon the drama of another writer, perhaps Geoige 

The following are the dates suggested by Prof. Dowden in 
Sha/cspere, his Mind and Art ; and in his excellent Primer : — 

1.— 1588-90. 
2.— 1590-1. 
4.— 1691. 
7.— 1692-3. 
8.— 1693. 
9.— 1593-4. 

10.— 1694. 
11.— 1595. 
13.— 1696-7. 

14.— 1597. 
15, 16.— 1597-8. 
17.— 169a 
18.— 1698. 
19.— 1599. 

Titus Andronicua. 

1 Henry VI. 
Love's Labour's Lost. 
Comedy of Errors. 

2 and 3 Henry VI. 
Two Gtent. of Verona. 
Richard III. 
Midsommer Kight*s 

Ilichard II. 
King John. 
Merchant of Venice. 
Borne and Juliet (a 

revision of 1591). 
Taming the Shrew. 
1 and 2 Henry IV. 
Merry Wives. 
Much Ado. 
Heuy V. 

20.— 1599. As You Lilce it. 

21.— 1600-1. Twelfth Kight. 

22.-1601. JuUus OBBsar. 

23.-? 1601-2. All's WeU. 

24.— 1602. Hamlet. 

25.— 1 603. Measure for Measure. 

26.— 1603 ? TroUus and Oressida 

(revised 1607?) 

27.— 1604. OtheUo. 

28.-1605. Lear. 

29.— 1606. Macbeth. 

30.-1607. Ant. and Cleopatra. 

81.— 1607-8. Tlmon of Athens. 

32.-1608. Coriolanu& 

33.-1608. Pericles. 

34.-1609. Cymbeline. 

86.--1610. Tempest. 

36.— 1610-11. Winter's Tale. 

37.-1012-3. Henry Vni, 



TaB first of Milton's epics, as ire have already said, "was imtten 
betireen 1658 and 1665, when its author, — ^that * Puritan among 
poets' and * poet among Puritans' — ^was poor, blind, and advanced in 
years. It was published, in ten books, in 1667. *The measure,' in 
the words of the prefatory notice^ ' is English heroic verse without 
rime, as that of Homer in Greek, and of Virgil in Latin ; rime 
being no necessary adjunct or true ornament of poem or good verse, 
in longer works especially. . . .' * This neglect then of rime so 
little is to be taken for a defect, though it may seem so perhaps to 
Tulgar readers, that it is rather to be esteemed an example set, the 
first in English, of ancient liberty recovered to heroic poem, £rom 
the troublesome and modem bondage of riming.' How grandly 
andmngestically the muse of Milton wears that 'ancient liberty' has 
long been conceded ; and we question whether anyone since the days 
of Byron has been found bold enough to hint that rhyming couplets 
would be a fitter vehicle for that sublimest stoiy than the various and 
harmonious measure employed by the poet. *To analyse Miltonic 
blank verse' (we bonow a passage that it is hard to excel) ' in all 
its details would be the work of much study and prolonged labour; 
It is enough to indicate the fact that the most sonorous passages com- 
mence and terminate with interrupted lines, including in one organic 
structure, periods, parentheses, and paragraphs of fiuent melody, 
that the harmonies are wrought by subtle and most complex allite- 
rative systems, by delicate changes in the length and volume of 
syllables, and by the choice of names magnificent for their mere 
gorgeousness of sound. In these structures there are many pauses 
which enable the ear and voice to rest themselves, but none are 
perfect, none satisfy the want created by the opening hemistich, 
until the final and deliberate dose is reached. Tnen the sense of 
hannony ib gratified and we proceed with pleasure to a new and 


dilFerent sequence. If the tnitli of this remark is not confirmed hy 

the foUcgpng celebrated and essentially Miltonic passage, it mnst fisU 

vithont farther justification : — 

< Axid now his [Ssteii'f] heart 
BiBtflodi with piide, and hardning in his strength 
Otories : for nerer dnoe created man. 
Met such imhodSed foroe, as nam'd with these 
f ^ ^ii ^ mecib more than that small Intenti7 
Waxr'd on 1^ oranea ; though aU the giant brood 
Of Fhlegra, with th' heroio laoe were joined 
That f onght at Thebes or Dlnm, on each side 
IQxed with aoziliar Qods ; and what resounds 
In Cable or romance of Uther^i son, 
Beghrt with British and Armoiio knights ; 
And all who since, baptiz'd or imUdel, 
Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban, 
Damasoo, or Morocco, or Trebiiond ; 
Or whom Biserta sent from Afrlc shon, 
When Oharlwnain with aU his peerage f eU 
By Fontaxabbla.* 

C Airadije Lost, L U. 571-87.] 

In the early days ctParadUe Lost, we are told, <few either read, 
liked, or understood it' ' The old blind schoolmaster, John Milton,' 
wrote Waller, *hath published a tedious poem on the Fall of Han: 
if its length be not considered a merit, it hath no other.' But even 
Johnson's prejudice, — so obstinate as to proToke Be Quinoey's saying 
of it that it made that arch-critic a * dishonest man' — ^was intimately 
OTeECome. His abstract of the subject may be quoted. ' It is,' says 
he, ' the fate of worlds, the revolutions of Hearen and of earth ; rebel- 
lion against the Supreme King, raised by the highest order of created 
beings; the orerthrow of their host and the punishment of their 
crimes; the creatibu of a new race of reasonable creatures; their 
original happiness and innocence, their forfeiture of immortality and 
their restoration to hope and peace.' 

The contents of the twelve books into which Paradise Lost was 
divided in the edition of 1674 may be shortly summed up as 
follows: — 

Book L — Satan, expelled from Heaven, and lying in Chaos, con- 
soles his legions with the hope of regaining their lost estate, and then 
tells them of a new kind of creature to be made 'according to 
an ancient prophecy or report in Heayen.' To confer on the fiiU 
meaning of this prophecy he institutes a council. Pandemonium 
if raised out of the de^, and here the council sits, — 

'A thousand demigods oo gold'n seats^ 
Frequent and fnlU' 

• from a paper on BlanJt Verte, Chrnhm MagcudM^ zv. 6W-«. 


Boos n. — ^The result of the consnltatioti is that Satan undertakes 
to verify the tradition concerning the existence of another world and 
another kind of creature— Man. He arrives at the gates of Hell, and 
thence Sin and Death 

* Fiav'd after him a broad and beat*n vnj 
Ov«r Uie dark abpa, whose boiUng golf 
Taxndy endued a bridge of wondroos length 
From Hell conthm'd, reaching th' ntmoet orb 

Of this frail World ; by which the spiilte perverse 
WiUi easy interoonrse pass to and fro 
To tempt or punish mortals, ezoept whom 
God and good angels guard by special grace.' 

Book nL-^As Satan flies towards this world God the Father 

shows him to the Son, and foretells his success in tempting man, 

who was made 

* just and right, 
StifBoient to hare stood, though free to fall.' 

The Father then declares that man who * falls deceired' shall find 
grace if 

* Some other able, and as willing, pay 
The rigid satisfaction, death for death.* 

The Son of God offers himself a ransom: the Father accepts him. 
Satan, meanwhile, reaches the outermost orb of the world, and 
passing through the Limbo of Vanity, directed by Uriel, alights on 
Mount Niphates (in Armenia). 

Book IY. introduces the Arch-Enemy in the Garden of Eden, 
where^ in the guise of a cormorant, he sits on the tree of Life, 

* devising death 
To them who liVd,' 

and gathering from the discourse of Adam and Eve that the tree of 
Knowledge was forbidden them under penalty of death, resolves 
through it to tempt them to transgress. His presence in Paradise 
being announced by Uriel to Gkibriel, he is at length discovered by 
two of the latter^s ministers, * squat like a toad/ whispering tempta- 
tion in the ear of sleeping Eve. 

Book V.— ^With the morning Eve relates to Adam her dream and 
is comforted. Raphael, sent of God, descends to Eden, to remind 
Adam of his free estate, to enjoin obedience and to warn him of an 
enemy at hand ; and, at his request, tells him who the Enemy is, 
relates the story of his rf^vnlt ?n Heaven, his inciting his legions to 
rebel, and of the seraph Abdiers opposition to and desertion of him. 

In Book YL Baphael describes the war in heaven. He tella 
Adam that Michael and Gabriel were sent forth to fight against 


Satan and his hoet, that they Ibnnd the task inraperable until, on the 

third day the Heesiah, in the power of His Father, nnaided hy Bib 

<hoflt on either hand/ drove his enemies to the irall of hearen, 

which opening, caused them to plnnge with ooufbsMm into the 

bottomless pit 

Tttwniiig TCoelfed fhem whole, and on than doird ; 
Hen thdr tt hftUtatton fnngfat wKh fire 
Unqoenchahla, the hooM of woe and pain.' 

Book TIL is ooenpied with Baphael's nazratiye of the creation 
of the world. 

; Book YIIL — ^Adam's enqniries of Baphael conoraning celestial 
motions are met by the reply : — 

' SoUoit not thy tbooc^ts with mattera hid, 
LeaTO them to God above, hhn serro and fear/ 

Adam relates to the angel all he remembers since his creation, and 
Raphael, after admonition, leaves him. 

Book IX. — Satan retoms into Eden as a mist and enters into the 
serpent Eve having elected to pursue her daily work alone, is 
accosted by him. Surprised at hearing the serpent speak, she 
enquires how he became possessed of such understanding, and is 
informed that he obtained the wisdom by eating of the &uit of a 
tree which Eve discovers to be the tree of Knowledge. She is at 
length persuaded to eat of Uie fruit, and Adam, though he knew her 
to be lost, resolves, for the love he bears her, to perish with her, 
and eats also of the forbidden fruit. The book ends with their 
mutual accusations and their attempt to cover their newly-discovered 

Book X. — ^The guardian angels return from Paradise to Heaven 
and the Son of God descends to judge the transgressors, and having 
clothed them, returns to Hearen. Sin and Death, resolved to sit no 
longer at the gates of Hell, make a bridge over Chaos to this world. 
Satan returns to Pandemonium, where both he and his attendants are 
transformed into serpents. God the Father foretells the victory of 
His Son over Sin and Death. Adam, after bewailing his lost con- 
dition, exhorts Eve to seek, with him, their peace with QtodL 

Book XI.— The Son of God intercedes with His Father on behalf 

of suppliant Man, whose prayers are, therefore, accepted. Adam 

and Eve are nevertheless expelled from Paradise by the angel 

Michael, who afterwards takes Adam to a high hill and shows him 

in vision what shall take place before the Flood, and the appearance 

of the 'triple-coloured bow* in the clouds. 


Book XIL— The angel, continuing his prophetic narratiye, ex- 
plains to Adam who that Ghxist shall be whose * God-like act' 

' Shain bndse the head of Satan, cmsli bis strengthf 
Defeating Sin and Death.' 

Adam, much comforted by the relation, is then led with Eve out of 
Paradise by Michael.* 

* High in front adranc't. 
The brandish't eward of God before them blaz'd, 
Fierce as a comet ; which with torrid heat, 
And yaponr as the Libyan air adnst, 
Began to parch that temperate clime ; whereat 
In either hand the hasf ning angel caught 
Our ling'ring parents, and to th' eastern gate 
Led them direct, and down the cIi£E as fast 
To the sabjected plain ; then disappeared. 
They, looUng back, aU th' eastern side beheld 
Of Paradise, so late their £kppy seat, 
Wav'd over by that flaming brand ; the gate 
With dreadful faces throng'd, and fiery arms : 
Some natnral tears they dropt but wip'd them soon ; 
The world was all before them, where to choose 
Their place of rest, and Providence their guide : 
They, hand in hand, with wand'ring steps and slow, 
Through Eden took their solitary way.' 

[U. 632-649.] 

The temptation of our Lord is the subject of Hilton's shorter 
poem, Paradise Begainedt which, as we hare already said, was 
called into existence by the question put to the poet by his Quaker- 
friend Ellwood. (See p. 87, s. 57.) CSoleridge pronounces the 
work to be ' in its kind the most perfect poem extant.' There is no 
doubt that Hilton's consummate art in its descriptive power is here 
developed in its highest form. * There is not a hollow or a vague 
sentiment, not a useless word, in the whole poem,' though we cannot 
but feel with Southey that, owing, perhaps, to the fact of the entire 
subject being but an incident in the many incidents in the life of 
our Saviour, it had been grander as an episode in a longer work. 
The ' Death for Death,' alluded to in Paradise Lost^ is not realised 
in Paradise Begained, in which the wilderness instead of Calvary is 
the ' appendage to Eden,' and this alone has been suggested as a 
theological deficiency which has affected its popularity. That the 
poem has never attained its just fame because forced into com- 
parison with Paradise Lost is probably the key to its being so often 
unduly disparaged by readers of the present day. 

* It may not here be out of place to note the idea which Addison comments 
Dn, of the misery of Satan in the midst of his transient triumph contrasted 
with the triumphant hope of Adun in the excess of his wretchedness. 


Paradise Segained is contained In four books of irbich the tot 
pfesents Jems — ' this man of men attested Son of God,' letmng to 
the vildemeM to be ' tempted of the devil/ who, having previonslj 
announced his plans to his peers in conncili appears to Him in the 
disguise of a peasant 

Book IL shows Kaiy bewailing the absence of her son, Jesus. 
Satan, in the garb of a courtier, tempts the Saviour with a feast and 
the offer of riches. 

Book IIL continues the temptation, and the kingdoms of Asia 
are exhibited. 

Book IV. introduces Bome and Athens in their architectural and 
intellectual greatness, and our Lord, after being exposed to a raging 
storm, is brought back to the desert to be conveyed to the pinnacle 
of the Temple, from which Satan, defeated in his plans, falls, while 
angels bear Jesus away. Their hymn of triumph ends the poem. 
The following are the lines on Athens (236-284) : — 

'Look once move, ere we leave this gpocoler monnt. 
Westward, muoh nearer by soaih-west, behold ; 
Where on the JBgeaaa. shore a dtj stands 
Boilt noUy, pine the air, and light the soil ; 
Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts 
And eloquence, native to famons wits 
Or hospitable, in her sweet recess. 
City or suburban, studious walks and shades. 
See there the oUve grove of Academe, 
'Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird 
TrUto her thidk-warbl'd notes the summer long ; 
There flowery hfll Hymettus, with the sound 
Of bees* industrious murmur, oft invites 
To studious mnshig ; there Bissus rails 
His whispering stream : within the walls then view 
The schools of ancient sages ; his who bred 
Great Alftjander to subdue the world, 
Lyceum there, and painted Stoa next : 
There shalt thou hear and learn the secret power 
Of harmony, in tones and numbers hit 
By voice or hand ; and various-measur'd verse, 
iDoIian diaims and D^lan lyric odes, 
And his, who gave them breath, but higher sung 
Blind Melesigenes, thence Homer call'd. 
Whose poem Phoebus chaUeng'd for his own. 
Thence what the lofty grave tragedians taught 
In chorus or Iambic, teachers best 
Of moral prudence, with delight receiv'd 
In fati^ sententious precepts, while they treat 
Of fate, and chance, and chemge in human life. 
High actions and high passions best descriUng t 
Thence to the famous orators repair. 
Those ancient, whose resistless eloquence 
Wielded at will that fierce democraty, 

APPENDIX b. 305 

Shook the Arsenal, and fnlmin*d over Greece 
To Haoedon, and Artaxerzes' fhrone : 
To sage Fhiloeophy next lend thine ear, 
From Heaven descended to the low-roof t homo 
Of Socrates ; see there his tenement, 
Whom well inspir'd the oracle pronoimc*d 
Wisest of men ; from whose month issued forth 
Melliflaons strc«uns» that water'd all the schools 
Of Academics old and new, with those 
Bmmam'd Peripatetics, and the sect 
Epicorean, and the Stoic soTere ; 
These here revolve, or, as then lik'st, at home, 
TQl time mature thee to a kingdom's weight ; 
These rnles will render thee a king complete 
Within thyself; much move with empire join'd.* 



nils . . . abridgement 
Hath to it oircnxnstantlal bmaohM.—CifmMinef Act y. sc. I. 

[In the following Appendix a number of deceased aathors 'whose 
names are not included in the body of the foregoing Handbook are 
arranged in alphabetical order. The reader is requested to bear 
in mind that the reigns given are those during which tbey published 
or produced their works, and do not necessarily include the reign 
in which they were born. The works cited are usually not all those 
produced, but only the kest or best-knovm works* The letter p 
signifies Fbosr Works; the letter m, Metrical (or Pobtical) 
WoBxs ; and the letter d Dsajiatic Works.] * 

i» Jeaiit 1710-1765. Scottish poetess. (Georob II., 
Gborob III.) The ballad Theris nae luck about the House has 
been doubtfully attributed to her. (See Mickle.) [It was sung in 
the streets about 1772, and printed in Herd's collection 1776.] 

Adams, Sarali Slower, 1805-1848. Poetess. (Victoria.) m 
Vivia Perpetua, a dramatic poem, 1841. She wrote the familiar 
hymn Nearer, my God, to Thee, [See Moncure Conway's Cewtenary 
History of South Place Society, 1894.] 

Adams, Tbomas, fl. 1612-1653. Puritan divine. (James L 
to Commonwealth.) * Works * in Nichol's Puritan Divines, 3 toIs. 
1862, with a * Life/ by Joseph Angus, D.I). [Southey calls him ' the 
prose Shakespeare of the puritan theologians.'] 

iUkln, &iicy, 1781-1864. Historical writer. (George IY. 
to Victoria.) p Memoirs of the Court of Mizaheth, 1818; James /., 
1822; Charles L, 1833; Life of Addison, 1843 (reviewed by 
Macaulay); also some verse and 'Lorimer,' a tale. [Zife and 
Letters, by P. H. Le Breton, 1864.] 

Alnswortb, "WiUlam Barrison. 1805-1882. Novelist. 

* To anticipate the objection that many * Dramatic ' works are metrloal, it 
should be stated that the term ' Metrical ' has been adopted here more fov th^ 
sake of its UUUal letter thfA with a view to precise classification* 


(William IV., Victoma.) About 40 works ; the novels being based 
on history. Towir of London, 1840 ; Old St PauTs, 1841 ; Lanca^ 
shire Witches, 1848, &c. [*Life,' by S. L. Blanchard, 3rd ed., 

Alrd» TbomaSy 1 802-1 876. Scottish poet and newspaper editor. 
(GeobgeIV. toViciOBiA.) m Poems, 1848 (dth ed. 1878). p Old 
Bachelor in the old Scottish Village, 1845. 

JUdredf the glossator. Tenth century. He wrote the glosses 
in the Latin MSS. of the Lindisfame Gospels or "Durham BooJe, 
[Bepr. Surtees Soc. with the Rushworth Gospels, 1854-1865.] 

iUezander, 'WlUlam, Earl of Stirling, 1567 ?-1640. Scholar, 
poet, slatesman, coloniser. (Jambs I., Chablbs I.) m Six works, 
from Avrora, 1604, to Recreations with the Muses 1637* His Psalmes 
of King David, 1631, were printed as ' by King James.' d The 
Monarchiche Tragedies, 1607 (containing Darius, 1603; Orasus, 
1604; The Alexandrian, 1605; Julius Casar being added), p 
Completion of Sidney's Arcadia, 161S; An Encouragement to Colonics, 
1 624. [McTnoriais of the Earl of Stirling, and of the Souse of Alex^ 
under. Rev. C. Rogers, 1877.] 

Alfordy Benry* 1810-1871. Dean of Canterbury. (Victobia.) 
See p. 216. [* Life,' 1873 ; list of works occupies 15 pp.] 

Alfired of Beverleyf fl. 1143. Chronicler. (Stephen, Hbmby 
IL) p Kine Books of a Latin Annals or History of the Kings of 
Britain, (Pr. by Hearne 1716.) [This was an abridgment of 
Geofirey of Monmouth {see p. 19), whose history ended in 689, 
continued to 1129.] 

iUlson* Arcblbald, 1757-1839. Father of the Historian. {See 
p. 212.) (Geobqe IU.) p Essay on the Naiure and Principles of 
Taste, 1790; Sermons, 

AUion, Sir ArclUbald. {See p. 212.) [Autobiography 1883.] 

AUottf Sobert« fl. 1600. Editor and Compiler of Miscellanies. 
(Elizabeth.) p Wits Theater of the Little World (brief dassifled 
prose extracts from ancient authors), 1599. m Englands Parnassus, 
1600. (Over 2,000 signed quotations from poets.) [Repr. in Collier's 
Seven Eng, Poet. JMisceUanies, 1867.] 

Amory* Tbomas* 1691 ?-1788. (Geobob II., Geobgb III.) 
p Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain, 1755 ; Life and 
Opinions of John BuneU, Esq,, 2 Yo\a., 1 756-1 766. Virtually a con- 
tinuation of the Memoirs, and an odd medley of religion, sentiment, 
description, &c. [Hazlitt called Amory the ' English Rabelais * — 
A name also given to Swift and Sterne.] 

Andrewesy Kaiiceloty 1 555-1626. Successively Bishop of 


sod fiANDfiOOi^ O^ fife^GLlSd tll^EBAttEfi. 

Chichester, Ely and Winchester. (Jambs I.) He aided James in his 
controyersj against Cardinal Bellarmine with Tortura Torti, 1609, 
and the Heapotuio ad Apologiam BeUarmnit 1610. His famous 
Manuel of Private Demotion (prayers in Greek and Latin) has been 
often translated, e.g. by (Cardinal) J. H. Newman, 1842 ; by Canon 
Venables, 1883, &c. [Works 11 toIs. in Library of Anglo-Caikolie 
Theology, ' Life,' A. T. Bnssell, 1868.] 

ArmlBf Sobert, fi. 1610. Actor and dramatist. (Elizabeth, 
Jahbs I.) a A Ke$t of Ninnies, 1608. (Bepr. Shak. Soc. 1842.) 
[Grosart, Occas, IsiueM, 1880, repr. three oUier works.] 

Armatrttiirt T^Iib« MJ). 1709-1779. Poet, physician, essayist 
(Gbobgb IL) m T%e Art of Preeervittg Healih, 1744. A popnhir 
didactic poem in 4 books of blank verse. Often repr. (e.g. Chalmen' 
PoetSf xri., Anderson's Poets, x.) Also a tragedy, essays, &c. 

Aaliinolef Bllas, 1617-1692, Antiquarian and yirtaoso, son- 
in-law of Dogdale. (Chablbs II.) p History of the Order of the 
Garter^ 1672 ; Theatrum Chemieum, 1652 (a collection of twenty* 
nine old metrical treatises oa alchemy). A. inherited the collection 
of Tradescant, which with his additions forms the Ashmolean 
Musenm, Oxford. [His Diary was printed 1717*] 

Atlierstoiie» aAwliif 1 788-1872. Miscellaneons prose and verse 
writer. (Geobob IV. to Victobia.) m Last Bays of Hercf$laneumi 
1821 (his first work) ; The Fall of Nineveh, 1828, 6 books ; 1847* 
7 others; 1868, extended to 30 books! (His chief work.) a 
DranuUic Works, 1888. 

Aubrey* Joliii« 1626-1697. Antiquary. (Wnxux UL) p 
Miscellanies 1696, dealing with dreams, omens, ghost stories, &c, 
(Repr. 1867, Lib. of Old Authors,) Various other works. [* Life, 
1845, by J. Britton; see also British Quarterly Review, vol, xxiv., 
Prof. Masson.] 

AnngerTllle, Sieliard. C8ee Bury, Eichard of.) 

Aaatiiit Memrjt zvii. cent. Poet. (Jahbs I.) aa The Scourge 
of Venus, 1613. [Kepr. Grosart, Ooeas, Issues, 1876.] 

Auatin* Sanili, 1793-1867. Translator. (Whxiah IV., 
Victobia.) p Characteristics pf Goethe, 1833 (&om German) ; also 
trans, from Banke, Niebuhr, Guizot, &c, [S. A. was wife of John 
Austin the Jurist ,1790-1859.] 

ATeabiiiTff Sobert off xiv. cent. Chronicler. (Bdwabd III.) 
p De mirabilibus gestis Edvardi III, Pr. 1720 by Heame. 

Ay Imer, Joluiy 1521-1594. Bishop of London. (Euzabbth.) 
p An Harhorowe for faithfiiU and trewe Subjects against the late 
blowne Blasts concerning the Government of Women^ 1559|areplyto 

«-■* 4 


Knoz*8 First Blast, (See Enox.) [' Life/ bj J. Stxype, repr. CKtir, 
Preta, 1821.] 

AartOB (or Aytonn), Sir Bobert, 1570-1638. Poet (James I., 
Chablbs I.) m Poems, pr. in Jklitia Poetarum Scotorum, 1637f 
ed. A. Johnston. Bepr. 1827, 1844, 1871 (with * Life '). 

Bare, Bobert, 1728-1801. Novelist. (Gbobob IIL) p Six 
novels, 1781-1796. Barham Downs, 1784; Man as he is, 1792; 
Hermsprong, or Man as he is not, 1796. 

Barebot, IValter* 1826-1877. Economist, critic, jonrnalist. 
(Victoria.) p T%e English Constitution, 1867; Lombard St,, 1872 
(10th ed. 1892) ; Eoonomie Studies, 1880 (last ed. 1895); Literary 
Studies, 1878 (3 vols., 1895). 

SaJLWtf Sir Biobard, 1568-1645. Chronicler. (Chablbs L) 
p Chronicle of th$ Kings of England from the Time of the Bomans 
Government unto the Death of King James, 1643. [This was long 
popular, see Addison's Spectator, Kos. 269 and 329. B.*s MeditO" 
ticns on the Psalms, 1639-1640, were repr. by Grosart in 1882.] 

Baldwiiif IVUUamf il. 1547. Printer and verse writer. 
(Edwabd YI., Mabt, Elbsabbth.) B. edited the first edition of 
the Myrrovrefor Magistrates, 1559, and contributed 4 out of its 19 
* legends.' He -wrote two others, and an interesting preface for the 
Seconds Parte, 1563. (Also other works.) 

Bale* Joba» 1495-1563. Bishop of Ossoiy. (Hbnbt VIIL to 
EuzABBTH.) p Itlustrium Maioris Britannia Scriptorum Sum- 
mtrium, 1548. (500 writers mentioned ; 1557, 900 writers ; 1559, 
1400 writers.) A 5 plays remain out of 85. Kgnge Johan (repr. 
Camden Soc., 1838), God^s Promises (Haslitt's Dodsleg /.), 
Temptacgon of our Lorde (Fuller's "Worthies, Miscell., 1870), 
Johan Baptystes (Harleian Miscell. I), Three Laws of Nature, 
Moses and Christ (not repr.). [See Athena Cantabrigienses I., 225- 
230 (list of 90 works). Parker Soc., 1849, issued ' Select Works.'] 

Banlnif Jobii« 1798-1842. Novelist and dramatic poet. 
(Geobgb IV. to ViCTOBiA.) p Talss of the OHara Family, 1825- 
1826, and other works often written with his brother Michael, who 
claims 13| vols, out of 24, including The Croppy, 1828. (See 
Did, of Nat. Biog,, and 'Life,* by P. J. Murray, 1857.) 

Barbatadt Anna Xietltla, 1743-1825. Poet and miscellaneous 
writer. (Gbobob IIL) m Poems, 1773. p The Evenings at Home 
(written with her brother, J. Aikin) are still repr. [< Works,' 1825, 
with Memoir. Life, letters, and selections, 1874, by G. A. Ellis.] 

Bar^sjf Jobn, 1582-16l21t Latin poet. (Jakbs I.) m 


Euphorjnio Zusininus (or the Satyrioon)^ 1603, no copy known. 
2nd ed., 1605; part ii., 1607; Apologia, 1611 (not part iii. of the 
Satt/riconf as sometimes said); Icon Animorum, 1614 (usually 
called part iv.). Argents, 1621 (translated 1625). The Satyricon 
is partly antobiographical and personally satirical. Argents, which 
William Cowper called < the most amnsing romance ever written/ 
is a political allegory in which Queen Elizabeth, Henry lY. of 
France, Philip II. of Spain, &c., appear under assumed names. 
[M. Jules Dukas' Etude bibliographigue et litUraire, 1880; 
A. Dupond, VArghiis, une Etude, 1875.] 

Barelajp Sobert^ 1648-1690. Quaker apologist. (Chables 
II., James IL) p The Apology, 1676 (in Latin; an English 
trans, followed the same year), and numerous other works. 

Barliaing Sew. Sicliard Barrls, 1788-1845. Miscellaneoas 
writer. (Wiixiak IV., Victoria.) The Ingoldsby Legends (first 
published in Bentley's, and the New Monthly, magazine). Series I. 
1840, II. 1842, m. 1847. [ 'Life,' by his son, 3rd ed. 1880.] 

Bamardp JaJij Anne {rUe Lindsay). 1750-1825. (George 
III.) m The ballad of AtM Bohin Gray, composed 1771 » not 
claimed by her till 1823. {See Lockhart's Idfe of Scott, chap. Ixi.) 

Barnes, Bamabe, 1569?-1609. Poet. (Elizabeth, James 
I.) m Parthenophil and Parthenophe, 1593. (Eepr. in Arber's 
English Garner, vol. v.) ; A Divine Centurie of SpirituaU Sonnets, 
1595 (repr. Park's Beliconia, 1815, and with the above by Grosart 
in B.'s 'Poetical Works,' 1875). p Foure Booies of Offices, 1606. 
d Two plays. 

Barnfieldv Bioliard» 1574-1627. Poet. (Elizabeth.) m 
The Affectionate Shepheard, 1594 ; Cynthia, With certaine Sonnets, 
and The Legend of Cassandra, 1 595 ; The Encomion of Lady Pecunia, 
&e, 1598. [All repr. by Boxburghe Club, ed. Grosart, 1876; and in 
Arber's Eng, Scholar's Lib,, No. 14.] N.B. The Passionate Pilgrime, 
1599, printed two pieces from the Encomion as by Shakespeare. 

Barton, Bernard, 1784-1849. Poet. (Geobgb III. to 
VicJTOBiA.) Many forgotten volumes from 1812-1845. He is often 
termed the ' Quaker Poet.' [Poems and letters, 1849, with Memoir 
%j E(dward) r(itz) G(erald.)] 

Bastard, Tbomas, 1566-1618. Satirist and divine. (Eliza- 
beth, James I.) m Chrestoleros : SeuenBooJces of Epigrames (290 
of them), 1598 ; Serenissimo potentissiTnoque Monarcha Jacobo, 1605 
(a Latin poem to'James ; three books, about 800 lines), p Twelve 
Sermons, 1615. Grosart, 1880, repr. the poems, Latin and English. 
(See Giucalogie de la maison de Bastard, Paris, 1847.) 


aeavmont, Sir Jolin,l 583-1627. Poet. (Elizabeth, Jaxbs I.) 
m Metamorphosis of Tobacco^ 1602 (anon. : a mock heroic) ; Bogworth' 
Jield, 1629 (posthumons). The poems are in Chalmers' Poets ti.,- 
and Grosart's FuUer*s Worthies Lib, 1869. [B. was elder brother 
of Francis Beanmont. See p. 68.] 

BecoD, Tlioiii«s« D.D. (wrote sub nom, 'Theb. Basille*),' 
1512-1567. Protestant diTine. (HenbyVIII. to Elisabeth.) p 
The Workes of Th. Becon, 1563-1564. Parker Soc.^ 1843-1844, 
issued 3 rols. (a carefal ed.). [Athena Cantabrigienses, i. 246-250, 
gives a list of 47 works ; the' Princeton Review (America), y, 504, 
has a good article.] 

BeddoeSf Tbonias Xiovell, 1 803-1 849. Poet and physiologist. 
Georob IV. to ViCTOBiA.) d Brides' Tragedy , 1822 ; Death's Jest 
Booky or the FooTs Tragedy, 1850. m Impromatore 1821 (his first 
work; suppressed). Poems, 1851, with Memoir, [Best ed., 1890, 
2 Tols. ; and Letters, 1894, both ed. Edmund Gosse.] 

Behiif Apbrat or Afk-a, 1640-1689. Dramatist and novelist. 
(Charles II., James II.) p Oroonoko, or the Royal Slave (upon 
this Southern's play was founded, see p. 109), and eight other 
novels, d Seventeen plays (collected 1702). m Various occa* 
sional odes, &c. [Pope alludes to her licentious style in the line 
'The stage how loosely doth Astrsea tread,' Astrsea being her 
assumed name. Her works were repr. in 6 vols. 1871.] 

BeUenden (Sallendeiif or Ballentyne)* J'oliii« fl. 1533- 
1587. Translator. (Henbt VIII.) p 1536. Trans, into Scotch 
vernacular of the Historia Scotorum of Hector Boece (1465?- 
1 536). This, when * Englished ' by W. Harrison, formed the Bescrip' 
tion of Scotland in vol. i. of Holinshed, 1577. Trans, of lAvy (first 
five books) ; printed in 1822 in B.*s < Works.* [B. was the earliest 
Scotch prose writer ; and his Livy the first trans, of a Latin classic 
in Britain.] 

Bentley, Slcliard, D.D., 1662-1742. Clasmcal scholar. 
(William III. to Georob II.) p Dissertations upon the Epistles 
of Phalaris, 1697-1698 {see p. 98). Various editions of the classics. 
['Works,' ed. A. Dyce, 3 vols. 1836-1838*; Prof. JebVs « Life * in the 
Men of Letters Series gives an elaborate list of authorities and 
useful * annals.' Pope's shallow satire is in the Buneiad, iv« 

Bemers, Juliana, 1390 ?~1 460 ? Prioress of Sopwell Nunnery. 
(Just north-east of St. Alban's Abbey), p The Bo&e of St. Mbans^ 
1486. (Bepr. in facsimile 1881.) This contains four treatises: OA 
Hawking, Hunting, Coat Armour, and the Biasing of Arms. In 



1496 a Treatiu on WyMthynge iras added to a new edition* (Thif, 
our first woxk on fishing* was repr. in fetcsimile 1880.) No book 
except the BiUe was so frequently repr. in the sixteenth eentniy. 

BeT«riar6»W!l]llaBi» 1637-1708. Bishop of St Asaph. (Cox- 
xoinrBALTH to Amn.) p Tkutmnu TTieolcgieuB, 1711 (posthumons). 
[His theological works fill 12 toIs. in the Lib. of JngUhCathoUc 
Tkeotogy, 1842^.] 

B«werl«jr» Vet«r (of Staple Inn), fl. 1565. Translator. (Eliza- 
BBTH.) m Tho Historie of Ariodanto and Imemra, daugJUer to the 
King of ScotUs, 1566 ? [The first English translation of any part of 

aireliy Tlioiiuuiy D.D., 1705-1766. Historian and biographer. 
(Gbobos U^ Gbobgb III.) p Lives of Sobt Boyle, TUlotaon, Henry 
Prinee qf Walee^ ^e, ; historical works on the reigns of Elizabeth, 
Jamef L, Charles I. His General JHdionary, based on that of 
Bayle, appeared 1734-1741. 

■Hickloek, Tlioams» 1721-1791. Blind poet (GioBaslI., 
GnOBOB in.) aa PoenUt 1746. Eepr. in Anderson's Poete xi,, 
Chalmers' xriii., with liyes. [B. lost his sight from small-pox when 
six months old. See p. 161.] 

Blair* Bvflit D.D., 1718-1800. Professor of rhetorie at 
Edinbnigh. (Gbobgb IIL) p Lectures on rhetoric and beUes-lettres, 
1783 (10 ed. np to 1806) ; Semums, 1777-1801. [Long considered 
models of art ; 19 ed* of toL i. in seventeen years.] 

Bteke.'WllUasn, 1757-1827. Painter and poet (GEOBaBlIL) 
aa Poetical Sketches^ 1783; Songs of Innocence, 1789; Book of 
7%eL, 1789 ; Marriage of Heaven and HeU, 1790 ; Songs of Expe- 
rience, 1794. Twenty-three works in all. [His works were largely 
iUnstrated and printed by himself. 'life/ by A. Gilchrist 1863- 
1880; 'Works/ an elaborate edition, 8 Tols., 1893, containing re- 
prodnctions of the original illustrations.] 

BlenerluuMiet, Tliomaa« 1550?-1625? Poet and writer on 
Ireland. (Elbabbth.) *m The Seconde part of the Mirrowr for 
MagistrateSf 12 legends from the days of Csesar to those of 
Vniliam L (Also other works.) 

Bleaaingtom Xargnorltey CoimteBB ot, 1 789-1 840 . Novel- 
ist magazine writer, and editor. (Gbobob IV. to Victobia.) 
Yarions novels, 1883-1850 ; Conversations with Lord Byron, 1834. 
* The most gorgeons Lady Blessington,' 1896, a Life, by J. Molloy.] 

Blind Barry f A. 1470-1492. Scottish poet (Hbtbt YL) m 
Chronicle of Wallace, wr. circa 1461, first pr. 1570. Bepr. more 
often than any old Scotch poem. [See Jas. Moil's CriHcal Stutfy* 


1888; his edition of the poem for Scot Text Soo^t 1885-1886, and 
Jamieson's Preface to ed. of 1820.] 

Bodenbam* JobD, fl. 1600. Beputed editor of Miscellanies. 
(Elizabbth.) p PoliUuphuia, Wits Commontoealthf 1597 (18 ed. 
np to 1661): a collection of brief extracts, m Bdvedere; or, 
the Garden of the Muses : brief unsigned extracts, all in tennsjllable 
verse (repr. Spenser See,, 1875). Englands Helicon, 1600 (repr. 
in Collier's Seven Eng, MisceUanies, 1867). 2nd ed., 1614, has 
nine added poems (repr. 1887t ed. A. H. Bollen). Probably 
B. ed^ed neither of the latter. (See Dictionary of National 
Biography, sub nam,) 

Bonlflaee, 8t. (Winifred)* 680-755. The Apostle of Germany. 
(Akglo-Saxo:! Period.) His Latin letters (about 100) were pr. 
1629. There are also ecclesiastical statutes in 36 articles, 15 
sermons, and. Latin verse Mnigmata, &c. ['Works* in Migne*s 
Patrclogia, vol. Ixxxix. ; Dr. J. A. Giles, Patres, * Lives,' by G. W, 
Cox, &e. German ' Lives ' are numerous.] 

Boston* Tbomas, 1677-1732. Scottish divine. (Geobgb L, 
GbobobII.) His theological works fill 12 vols., as edited 1848- 
1853, by Bev. S. McMillan. [B. took a prominent part in the 
'Marrow Controversy,' so called from the Marrow of Modem 
Divinity, 1645; repr. 1718, when B. adopted and advocated its 
principles. He and eleven others were therefore called ' Marrow 
Men,' and the * Twelve Apostles.' ] 

BoylOy Charles* Fourth Earl of Orrery, 1676-1731. 
(Wiixux III., Anns.) p Trans, of the Letters of Phalaris [1695], 
Examinaiion cf Dr, Bentlejfs Dissertation, 1698, aided by 
Atterbuxy, Smalridge, and three others. (See p. 67.) d As you 
Find it, a comedy, 1703. 

BojlOy Bofer* First Earl of Orrery, 1621-1679. (Chables 
II.) d Six rhymed tragedies and two comedies (chiefly acted 
1 664-1669). He has been called the fiither of English heroic drama 
ftom having revived rhyme on the stage, p Parthenissa, 1654 ; 
completed in 1665. (A long romance after the manner of Scud^ry.) 
Also other works. 

Bradford* Joluif 1510 ?-l 555. Protestant martyr. (Edwabd 
VL) 'Works,' Parker Soc. 1848-1858. Ed. Bev. Aubrey 

Breton, mebolas, 15457-1 626? Miscellaneous poet and 
prose writer. (Elizabeth, Jambs L) A. B. Grosart has edited 
B.'s Works, 2 vols., with a good Introduction; and issued in 
1898 A Sower qfjklights, verse and prose, from Nicholas Breton, 


Ber. T. Corser's Collectanea Anglo-poetica describes many works. 
The fullest list is in H. Morle/s English Writert, vol. xi. pp. 349-59 
— K>Ter sixty hendings for Terse and prose. 

BiidveSff 9r. Jotaat d. 1618. Poet» diyine, controversialist. 
(Elizabbth.) p 1587. A Defenee of the Government established 
in the Church of England, pp. 1412. (A reply to Thos. Cartwright*a 
Discourse and to Beza*s Judgment : it was the direct canse of the 
Marprelate Controversy,) 

Brimley, Cleorvet 1819-1857. Essayist. (Victohia.) p 
Essays, 1858 (11 in number; the two chief being on Wordsworth 
and Tennyson). 3rd ed. 1882. 

Broke (Brooke),ArUinr» (2. 1563. Translator. (Elizabeth.) 
m The Tragieall Historye of Bomeus and Juliet, 1562. Translated 
from the Italian of Bandello. Oyer 3,000 rhymed lines, 12 and 
14 syllables alternate. (Bepr. 1875 by New Shak. Soc., and else- 

Brome* Alexandert 1620-1666. Song writer. (Ghabi<b8 IL) 
m Songs and other poems, 1661. d 7%0 Cunning Lovers, 1654, a 
comedy. (Milton*s nephew Phillips, in his I%eatrum Poetarumt 
calls B. the * English Anacreon.' Chalmers' Poets yi. contains the 
poems and a ' Life.') 

Broome (Brome)* Btobard, d. 1652 ? Dramatist. (Chablbs 
I., GoMMoxwEALTH.) His 15 existing comedies (out of 24) were 
repr. in 3 yols., 1873. [B. was at one time Ben Jonson's servant.] 

Brown, Oliver nsadoz* 1855-1874. Poet an^ painter. 
(Victoria.) p Gabriel Denver, 1873. Bemains (prose and verse), 
1876, with memoir. 

BrowDf Tbomasy 1663-1704. Miscellaneous writer. (Chables 
II. to William III.) Essays, poems, satires, epigrams, letters, 
translations. Collected ed. 3 vols., 1707-1708; ninth ed. 1760. 
[Addison calls him 'Tom Brown of facetious memory.'] 

Browne, Zsaao Hawkins, 1705-1760. Poet (Gbobob II.) 
m De Animi Immortalitate, 1754. (His principal work ; in Latin, 
trans, by B. Gray, 1754): A Pipe of Tobacco, 1736, six parodies 
on Gibber, Ambrose Phillips, Thomson, Young, Pope, and Swift. 

Browne, IV'lUlam, 1590-1645? Poet. (James I.) m 
Britannia's Pastorals, Bo<^ i., 1613; ii., 1616; iii. (incomplete), 
1852. An Elegy on Prince Henry, 1613, and The Shepheard^s 
Pipe, 1614 (7 eclogues), d A masque acted Jan. 13, 1614-1615. 
['Works,' best ed., 1894, 2 vols., ed. Gt)odwin; introd. by A. H. 
Bullen.] ^ ^ 

Srnoe, Mlcbael, 1746>1767. Poet. (GboroeIII.) Poems on 


teverdl occasionSf 1770 (posthnmoTis) ; 17 pieces, -with a memoir by 
his friend, Ber. John Logan. [Mnch controyersy has raged round 
this Yol., as Logan afterwards inserted sereral of the pieces in a 
volume of his own poems, 1781. They probably were his.] 

Bmnton, Mary, 1778-1818. Novelist. (Geobgb III.) Two 
novels, Self-control, 1810; XHscipline, 1814. [*Life,' the novels and 
remains, pr. by her husband, 1819.] 

Bryant, Jacob, 1715-^1804. Antiquary. (Geobob III.) p A 
new System of Ancient "Mythology, 1774-1776; The IHain of Troy;, 
1795; The War of Troy [1796]. [B. did not believe in the Trojan 
war, nor in the existence of Troy ; he did believe in Chatterton !] 

Bodgrelly Bofltaoe, 1 686-1 737. Miscellaneous "writer. (Amnb 
to Geobgb II.) Memoir of Earl of Orrery, 1732. B. contributed to 
the Toiler, Spectator and Guardian, and started the Bee. [He 
committed smcide by jumping from a boat under London Bridge.] 

BuU, Georre, 1634-1710. Bishop of St. David's. (Gharlbs IL, 
Jaiibs II.) 'Works,' repr. 1827. 7 vols., ed. Rev. E. Burton; 
lAh, of AnglO'Cathol. Theology, 5 vols. 1843-55. 

Bnlleln, IVllliam, d. 1576. Physician. (Eltzabbth.) p A 
Dialogue against the Fever Pestiknce, 1564-1565: an interesting 
work. [Repr. Early Eng. Teat Soc. 1888.] Also several other works. 

Bnrnet, Gilbert, 1 64 3-1 715. Bishop of Salisbury. (C^ables 
IL to Anios.) History of the JReforfnation, vol. i., 1679 ; ii. 1681 ; 
iii. 1715. (Best ed. 1865, 7 vols. Clar, Press,) Hist of his own 
!ZY77MW, vol. i., 1723; ii. 1734. {Clar. Press, ISZZ, Full list of B.'s 
works in vol, vi., pp. 331-52.) 

Bnry, Blobard de (Blob. Aanferville), 1281-1345. Bishop 
of Durham. (Edwabb III.) pPhilobiblon, A famous Latin treatise 
in praise of books, first pr. 1473. [Best ed. 1888, by £. 0. 
Thomas ; for this 28 MSS. from all parts of Europe were collated. 
It gives Latin and English. Prof. Morley's Universal Lib., vol. Iziii., 
contains a trans, by T. B. Ingles, 1832.] 

Bsrrom, Jobn, 1691-1763. Miscellaneous writer. (Geobob 
n.) p Universal Shorthand, 1767* m Enthusiasm, 1761. B. 
wrote Colin and Phebe. (Spectator, No. 603, Oct. 6, 1714.) * Phebe* 
IS sud to have been R. BenUey's daughter, Joanna. [Poems, 1894, 
ed. A. W. Ward ; Chalmers* Poets, xv.] 

Calamy,Bdmiiiid, 1600-1666. Divine. (Chables L to Gsables 
IL) p Chiefly sermons, 1642-1676. [He was one of the *Smeo- 
tymnuus * writers, see p. 84.) 

Calderwood, Bawld, 1575-1650. Historian. (James L 


Chabuu L) p True History qf the Ckmrek of ScoOoMd, £rom 
1660-1626. An abridgment -was pr. 1678 (28 yean after G. died) ; 
and the Woodrow Soe. pnb. another digest in 8 toIi., 1842-1849. 
[This givea a life and a list of 18 works pablished, 1619-1688.] 

OalT«flfl07. OluurlM Stuurtf 1831-84. Poet. (Victobia.) 
m Venn amd TVanslations, 1862; Translations into EngUtih and 
Latim, 1866 ; Hkeoeritus in Eng, tferae, 1869 ; Fly Leaws, 1872. 

OnvbeO, Dr. Ctoowe, 1719^1796. Divine. (Gbobox HI.) 
p Disaertation on Miraeiss, 1762 (one of the chief replies to D. 
Hnme*s Stat^ of 1748) ; PhUoaophy of Bhetorie, 1776. A Trans- 
lation of the Gospels, 1789. 

Oamplottv admwBd, 1646-1681. Jesuit. (Eixeabitb.) p 
Jkesm rationss, 1681, an anti-Protestant iroik repr. all over 
Enrope; 1687 (in 'Holinshed*) a History of Irdand, wr. 1667. 
['Lif(%' by Bieh. Simpson, 1867, gives fbU list of works, Inblio- 
graphj, &e.] 

OamptoBf TbeoMMf M.D., d, 1619. Doctor, poet, mnsician. 
(Elbabsth, Jameb L) m Poemata, 1696, repr. 1618, enlarged ; Fonr 
Bookes of Ayres (songs and mnsic), 1601-1617? 4 Fonr royal 
masques, p ObsertfaiionB in the Art of English Possie, 1602, wr. 
against Bhyme. Sam. Daniel replied in his Drfenee of Byrne, 1602. 
[* Works 'first collected 1889, ed. A. H. Bnllen. This does not 
indnde the prose.] 

CtepgimTa* JoliBf 1394-1464. Angostinian friar, theologian, 
historian. (Edwabd 17., Hxnbt TI.) p Bt Bhutrilms Henrieis, 
ded. to Henry YL, in pnuse of 6 German Emperors and 6 Kings 
of England, named Heniy): A Chronicle of England (ded. to 
Edward IV.) [Both are repr. and translated in the Bolls Series, 

Carew (or Carey), Kady Blisabetli. Poetess. (Jahss I.) 
d 1613, Tragedie of Marian the f aire Queene of lewry, a tedious 
poem in rhymed quatrains. [There are two ladies of this name ; 
one, the mother (fl. 1690), to whom Spenser ded. his Muiqpotmos; 
and the daughter, d, 1636. Probably the latter wrote this play.] 

Carew* mch a r d, 1666-1620. Poet, translator, antiquary. 
(Eloabbth.) m Trans, of 6 cantos of Tasso's Godfrey of BvUoigne^ 
1694. [The first trans, from Tasso (see Fairfax). Bepr. Groeart, 
Occa», Issuest 1881.] p A Survey of ComwaU, 1602, and a few 
other works. 

Carey, Henry* d. 1743. Mnsician, dramatist, song-writer. 
(Geobob I., Gbobob II.) Over 200 works. The 3rd ed. of Poems, 
1729, included SaUy in Our AUey (pr. sep. in 1716); and Ufamby 

aAKDfiOOft OF fiKdLISH tlTEBAttTBS. dl7 

himhy. God Save the King, flntpr. in Hamumia Anglicana, 1742| 
has been ascribed to C. It yng sang by him in 1740. [See W. 
Chappel's Popular Mueio in (Men Times, ii. 691, and Afueieal 
Times, 1879, Maich-Angnrt.] d. 1743. DramaUe works (7 plays). 

Carleton, 'WllUam, 1794.1869. Irish noyelist (Wnxux 
IV., Victoria.) Twenty yolumes. y Traits and Stories of Irish 
Peasantry, 1830-1833; Fardorougha the Miser, 1839, a powerful 
story. [*The tmest, most powerfnl^ and tendeiest delineator of 
Irish life/ Qiuarterly Review, 1841. Auichiography, and * Life' by 
D. J. O'Donoghne, 1896.] The works are being repr. 1896. 

Camtbanit Robert, LLJ)., 1799-1878. Newspaper editor 
and miscellaneons writer. (Victobia.) y 1857 Life of Pope 
(whose works he edited, 1858) ; C. edited the 3rd ed. of Chambers' 
Cfjfdopadia of Enfflish-IAterature, 1876. 

Carta, TbomaSf 1686-1754. Historian. (Gbobob IL) p 
Hfe of James, Dnke of Ormonde, 1736 (defending Charles L in 
regard to the Irish rebellion) ; History of England, 1747-1755. 

Carter, Bllsabetli, 1717-1806. Poetess and miscellaneons 
writer. (aaoBOB II.) y IkanskOion of Epietetus, 1758 (all the 
extant works), m Poems, 1 762. [Her letters were published 1817.] 

Cartwrigbt, Tbeiiiae, 1535-1603. Puritan divine. (Eliza- 
BKiH.) 9 A Second Admonition to Parliament, 1572. (This was 
part of a oontroveny with Arch. Whitgift, which led ultimately to 
Hooker's Eeelesiastioal Polity) ; An Admonition to the People of 
England, 1589. [Strype calls T. C. * the head and most learned of 
that sect of dissenters then called puritans.'] 

Carjr,Beiirj'Vra&ele, 1772-1844. Transktor. (Gbobob III. 
to Victobia.) m Trans, of Dante. Inferno (Cantos i.-XYii.), 1805, 
to which the Purgatorio and Paradiso were added, 1814. Also 
Sonnets and Odes, 1788, &c. y Early French Poets, 1846, with 
Introduction by his son. [' life,' 2 vols., 1847, by his son.] 

CaTendlalif Ctoorge, 1500-1561? Biographer. (Mabt.) 
Life of Cardinal Wblsey; wr. 1554-1557, first pr. 1641. The pre- 
face to Prof. Morley*s ed. in the Universal Library giyee a fiill 
history of the book. [C. was Wolse/s gentleman usher.] 

Centllwre, Sasamuh 1667 ?-l 723. Actress and dramatist. 
(Akmb, Gbobgb L) d 19 plays, 15 of which were acted, usually 
with success. Two are tragedies, the rest comedies or forces. The 
Susy Body, 1709 ; The Wonder ; or, A Woman Keeps a Secret, 1714 ; 
A Bold Stroke for a Wife, 1718. (This contains the character of 
the Quaker *Bimon Pure.') [* Works,' 1761, repr. 1872.] 

ClaalkliUli Jelin, xyi. dc zvii, cent, foet, (Euz^bbth.) at 


27tealma and Clearchu$, a Pastoral History in smooth and easie verse, 
pr. in 1683 by Izaak WaltOD, who caUd G. 'an Acquaintant and 
Friend of Edward Spencer ' (sio). [0. has been credited with JlcUia 
Philopartheus Louing Follie, lepr. 1879 by Grosart, who shows it 
is not his.] 

Chamberlajmet IVUllttm, 1619-1689. Physician, poet. 
(CoiiMOMWxALTH.) d Love*s Victory, a tragi-comedy, 1658. m 
Pharonnida, an Heroick j^osm.^ 1 659. Five books of fonr cantos each 
in rhymed heroics, repr. 1820. [Southey calls Ch. ' a poet to whom 
I am indebted for many hours of delight.'] 

Cliambers, Soberf, 1802-1871. Pablisher and writer of 
educational works. (Geobob IV. to Victoria.) p 1844, Vsstiges 
of Creation, an exposition of the theory of development which made 
much stir. [Repr. in Prof. Morley's Universal Lib,] Seven vols, of 
Selections from Ch.'s works were pr. 1847. [' Memoir' of B. and 
W. Chambers. 12th ed., 1883.] 

Cberry, Andrew, 1 762>1812. Actor, dramatist. (Gboboe III.) 
d Ten dramatic works, sketches, comedy, &c. m The Bay of 
Biscay, 1 vs one of Cherry's songs. 

Cbester, Robert, 1566 7-1640 ? Poet. (Elizabeth, Jahxs I.) 
m Lov^s Martyr; or, Rosalinds Complaint, 1601 ; reissued 1611 as 
The Anuals (sio) of Great Brittaine. [* Poems,' ed. Grosart, 1878.] 

Cbesterlield, Barl of (Philip Dormer Stanhope), 1694-1773. 
(Geobqe in.) p Letters to his Son, 1774 ; Economy of human Ufe, 
pr. anon., and formerly attrib. to B. Dodsley (see Notes and Queries, 
Scries I. z. 318). 

Cbettle, Benry, 1564-(1565?)*1607? Dramatist and prose 
writer. (Elizabeth.) d Five plays remain (out of 52 men- 
tioned in Henlowe's Diary), Hofman, 1631 (repr^ 1852); The 
JDownfaU and the Death of Bob. E, of Huntingdon, 1601 (both in 
Hazlitt's Doddey, viii.) ; patient GressU, 1603 (repr. by Shak. Soe. 
1841, and in Grosart's ed. of Dekker) ; Blind Beggar of Bednal 
Green, 1659 (repr. in Bullen's ed. of Day), p Kind-Harts Dreams 
[1595] and Englatides Mourning Garment,* 1603, are in tho New 
Shak. Soc/s Shakspere Mlusion Books, pt. i. 

CblId,SlrJoslab, 1630-1699. Writer on Trade. (Chabubs II.) 
p Britf Observations concerning Trade, §-0., 1668 (afterwards called 
A New Discourse of Trade), 

* This includes a well-known reference to Shakesi)eare. Ohettle, in apology 
for the words of Greene (see p. 63, s. 40), says, * My self e have seene his demeanor 
no lesse civill, than he ezelent in the qualities he professes; besides, divers ot 
worship have rei)orted his uprlghtnes of dealing, which argues his honesty, anol 
kis faoetious (i.e. felicitous) grace in wiittiug, that aprpoves his art,* 


Cburcb jardf THomaSy 1 520 ?-1604. Miscellaneous prose and 
verse -writer. (Elizabeth.) m Shore* s Wife in the 1563 ed. of 
the 'Mirror for Magistrates/ 0. was fond of alliteratiye titles. 
Churchyards Chippes, 1575; Churchyards Chance^ 1580; Church* 
yards Challenge, 1593, etc. His most valuable work, The Worthines 
of Wales, 1587i was repr. by the Spenser Soc., 1871. [Hazlitt'a 
Handbook gives 60 numbers under Ch.'s name.] 

Cbute, Antbony, (Z. 1595? Poet. (Elizabeth.) mBeatotie 
dishonoured, written under the title of Shores Wife, 1593. 197 
6-line stanzas. [Cephalvs and Frocris, 1595, assigned to Chute, is 
by Thomas Edward. See *£oxburghe Club ' reprint 1882:] 

Clarkei 9r. Samuely 1675-1729. Divine and metaphysician. 
(WiLLiAu in. to Gedbgb I.) p Boyle lectures, 1704; Scripture 
Doctrine of the Trinity, 1712 ; Sermons, 1724. [After Locke's death, 
1704, CI. -was for a quarter of a century considered the first living 

Cokaln (or Cokayne), Sir JkstoD, 1608-1684. Dramatist 
and verse writer. (Commonwealth.) d Three plays, m Small 
poems of divers sorts, 1658. [These, like the plays, are of no merit, 
but are of great interest for the almost unparalleled number of 
references to contemporary persons and events.] 

Colton, Cbarles Caleb, 1780 7-1832. (George III., Geoegb 
IV.) p Lacon, or many Things in few Words, 1820 (6 ed. by 
1821) ; vol. ii. 1822. (A collection of aphorisms of a telling kind.) 
Other unimportant works. 

Columba, St., 521-597. (Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Pebiod.) 
Dr. Beeves' ed. of Adamnan's Life of St, Columba, 1857, abounds with 
information as lo C.'s times and the works attributed to him. 

Combef GeorrOf 1788-1858. Phrenologist. (Geosgb III. to 
VicTOBiA.) p JSssays on Phrenology, 1819, followed by other 
-works on the subject ; The Constitution of Nan, 1828 (2,500 copies 
a year sold for a long time). [* Life * by Charles Gibbon. 2 vols. 
1878 ; valuable.] 

Conington, Jobn, 1825-1869. Classical scholarand translator. 
(ViCTOBiA.) m Odes of Horace, 1863 ; Horace's Satires, Epistles and 
Ars Poetica, 1870 ; Vergil in Scott's ballad metre, 1866 ; completion 
of Worsley's trans, of the Iliad, 1868 (bks. xiii—xxiv. in Spenser's 
stanza). MisceUaneous writings 1872, with ' Memoir.' 

Constable, Benry, 1562-1613. Sonnet writer. (Elizabeth.) 
m Diana, The praises of Ms Mistres, in eertaine sweets sonnets, 1592 
(23 sonnets); Diana . • . Augmented, 1594 (76 sonnets; only 27 
are signed H.O.; 8 ar« by Sidney, others by unknown writers). 

320 SAKDfiOOK Of fiKOLlsa UTSfiAXttBfi. 

[Repr. in Arber's ^^. G'am^, ii.; * "Poems,* ed. W. 0. Haslitt| 
1859. with faulty introdaction.] 

Cooper* TbooMMf 1617 ?-l 694. Bishop of Winchester. 
(Edwabd VL to EuzABBTH.) p An Admonition to the PeopU of 
England^ 1689. [This was the first of 16 pamphlets on the Bishops 
side daring the famous ' Martin Marprelate ' controversy. Repr. in 
Arber s Scholars* Library^ No. 16.] Also other controversial and 
lingaistic works. 

Corbet, Siebard, 1682-1636. Bishop of Oxford and Norwich. 
(James L, Cbabuu I.) m Certain Megant Foenu, 1647 ; some of 
these were repr. 1648 as JPOetica Stromata^ p Journey to France, 
1613. [The poems are in Chalmers* Poets, y.] 

Coryat, Tbomas* 1677?-1617. Trareller. (James L) p 
Coryats Crudities, 1611, an account of five months' travel (May 14- 
Oct. 3 1 608) in France, Italy, &c. He journeyed 1 ,976 miles, chiefly 
on foot, and visited 46 cities. The work long remained the only 
handbook for foreign travel. Two appendices, Coryats Crambe and 
The Odcombian Banquet, were also issued, 1611. 

Cotton, Vatbaiilel, 1706-1788. Physician and verse writer. 
(Geoeob IL, Gbobob IIL) m Visions in Verse, 1761 (an attempt 
to moralise Gay's Fables), [Cowper during his loss of reason stayed 
with Cotton at St. Alban's from Dee. 1763-June 1766; and C. 
attended Young, of Night Thoughts fame, on his deathbed.] 

Cowerdale, miee* 1488-1668. Bible translator. (Hbnbt 
VIIL to Eluabbts.) The Parker Soc., 1 844-1 846, issued two vols., 
i. Writings and Translations (6 works) ; ii. Semains (10 works). 

Cose, ^iniUam, 1747-1828. Historian. Archdeacon of WUts. 
(Gbobgb III., Gbobob IV.) p Memoirs of Sir B, Walpole, 1798 ; of 
Marlborough, 1818-1819; Hist, of the Souse of Austria (from 
1218-1792), 1807 ; and about 11 other minor works. 

Cramner, Tbomas, 1489-1566. Archbishop of Canterbury. 
(HsimT Yin., Edwabd YL) Bemains, 1833, 4 vols. Bdect 
Works, Parker Soc 1844-1846, 2 vols. *Life' by J. Stiype (repr. 
Clar. Press 1821); H. J. Todd, 1831 ; C. W. Le Bas, 1832; Dean 
Hook's Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. vi. p. 422 ad fin, and 
yii. in toto, 

€?rawford, Sobert, cirea 1690-1733. Song writer. (Geobob 
I., Gbobob IL) m C. contributed to Allan Bamsa/s Tea-table Mis- 
eeUany, and wrote the ballads of Tweedside and 7%e Bush aboon 
Traguair. [Most of his songs are in Johnson's Musical Museum,^ 

Creeob, Sew. Tbomae, 1669-1700. Translator. {ChabissIL 
to YThaxak and Mabt.) m Trans, of LucretiuSt 1682 (givwn 

ifANDBOOK 6p £n6L1SH LlTfeBATtJafi. 321 

in Anderson's Poets, vol. ziii. This vied for a time with Dryden's 
Virffil and Pope's Homer) ; Trans, of Horace, 1684 ; others of Ovid, 
Plutarch, Theocritus, Juvenal, Cornelius Nepos, &c. 

Croker* John IXTlUon, 1780^1861. Politician and essayist. 
(Gbobob ITT, to YicTOBiA.) p Keviews, &<*., chiefly in the 
Quarterly. C.'s edition of Boswell's Johnson was reviewed by 
Hacaulay. [*Life/ 8 vols. 1884. L. J. Jennings.] 

Croker* Tbomas Crofton* 1798-1854. Irish antiquary. 
(Geobob IY. to ViOTOBiA.) p Fairy Legends and Traditions of the 
South of Ireland, series i. 1825. ii. 1827 (several times repr., last 
ed. 1882). Several other works. 

Croly, Rev. George, 1780-1860. Divine and miscellaneous 
author. (Gbobob IV. to Yictobia.) p Salathiel, a romance, 
1829. m Poems, 1830. Many works on theology, &c. 

Crowne, Jobn, d. 1 703 Dramatist. (Ghablbs II. to Williah 
III.) d Two parts of The Destruction of Jerusalem, in heroic verse, 
1677 (extraordinarily successful). Sir Courtly Nice, 1685, in prose ; 
his most popular play (it kept the stage for 100 years); City 
Politiques, 1688 (the date of this has also been given as 1675). 
[Dramatic works, 4 vols., 1872 &c.] 

Cumberland, Siobard, 1631-1718. Writer on Jewish anti- 
quities and speculative philosophy. (Ghablbs II. to Gbobob I.) p 
De Legibus ISatura Disquisitio Philosophioa, 1672 (one of the books 
called forth by Hobbes' Leviathan, 1651). 

Cnnninffbam, Allan, 1784-1842. Art biographer. (Yic-. 
tobia.) p Lives, of the most eminent British Painters, Sculptors, 
and Architects, 1829-1833^ 6 vols. ; Life of WUkie, 1843 (pos< 
thumous). Also other works^ including verse. [* Life/ 1875.] 

Cunnincrbam, Peter, 1816-1869. Topographer and critic. 
(Yictobia.) p Handbook of London, 1849, enlarged by Wheatley, 
1891 ; and many critical, biographical, and antiquarian works. In 
1857 he edited Walpole*s Letters, 

Sarley, George, 1795-1846. Poet, mathematician, critic. 
(Yictobu.) m Errors of Ecstacie, 1822 (a blank verse dialogue 
between a mystic and a muse) ; Sylvia, or the May Queen, 1827 (a 
lyrical drama). Several tragedies and mathematical works. [D. 
edited * Beaumont and Fletcher ' with a good Introduction in 1840.] 

Bavenport, Robert, fl. 1 623. Poet and dramatist. (Ghablbs I.) 
d The City Night-cap, 1661 (licensed as early as 1624). Bepr. 
Hazlitt's Dodsley, ziii., with a list of D.'s other works on p. 101. 

Bavies, Jobn, of Hereford, 1565?-1618. Poet and writing 


teacher. (ElbabbtHi Jaxbs L) m TwelTe yolumes of verse, from 
MkuminModum, 1602, to Wits B.dlam, 1617. [All were repr. 
bj Grosart in 1878, 2 toIs.] p Writing Sohoolmasterf 1633 (prac- 
tical directionSy and engraved specimens of handwriting.) 

Bft¥tfl« JoliBf ciroa 1550-1605. Navigator. (Euzabbth.) 
His accounts of three voyages in 1585-1587 for the discovery of a 
N.W. passage, and other works, were carefally edited for the 
HaJdm^ 8oc. by Capt. A. H. Markham, in 1880, with a critical, 
bi<^graphical, and bibliographical introduction. [D. discovered 
Davii^ Straits.] 

nawiaoiiy Vranolay 1576-1618. Poet and Miscellany editor. 
(BuxABBTH.) vxA Poettcol Bapsody, 1602, repr. 1608, 1611 (in 
both cases with additions), and in 1621 (newly arranged). Collier 
included it in his Seven Eag, Miscellanies, 1867> and in 1890 A. H. 
Bnllen edited it in 2 vols. .It is the most poetic of the Elizabethan 
Miscellanies, and contained poems by Constable, Davies, Donne, 
Baleigh, Sidney, Spenser, Wotton, the two Davisons, and others. 

Bay* JobD, fl. 1606. Dramatist (James I.) d 4 plays wr. 
alone; The Jde of Gule, 1606 ; like ParUameni of Bees, 1641, and 
two others. The Travailles of the Three English Brothers, 1607 
(with W. Bowley), and 2%e Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, 1659 
(withH. Chettle). The Maydes Metamorphosis, 1600, has been 
attributed to him by Mr. Edmund Qosse. ['Works,' 1881, ed, 
A. H. Bullen. Many of his plays are lost] 

Oajr, Tbomafl, 1748-1789. Eccentric. (Gsobob III.) p 
Sandford and Merton, 1783-1789 ; and other works. [A 'Life ' of 
this odd man, by Blackman, appeared in 1862.] 

9e KoUnef Jolui Iioiils, 1740?-1807. Constitutional writer. 
(Gbobob III.) p The Constitution of England, 1775 (first pr. in 
French, 1771). Given in Bohn's Library, 1853. Also other works. 

B«.Xa|»le3r, Baron. See Warren, J. B. L. 

Senilis, Jobn, 1657-1734. Critic, dramatist^ &c. (Wiluak 
III. to Geobob II.) Miscellanies in prose and verse, 1693. d A 
Plot no Plot, a comedy, 1697; Binaldo and Armida, a tragedy, 
1699; Iphigenia, a tragedy, 1702. p Various critical and other 
works, e.g., 1711, Three Letters on the genius and writings of 
Shakespeare, [Southey said that ' Dennis* critical pamphlets de- 
serve republication.'] 

Oentacliy Bmmannel Osoar Menaliem, 1829-1873. 
Semitic echolar. (Yictobu.) p A £sunous article on the Talmud^ 
1867, in the Quarterly; another on Islam, 1869 (less strikiog). 
[* literaiy Kemains ' and * Life,' 1874, by Lady Strangfoid.J 


BlbdlBf CbarleSf 1745-1814. Dramatist and song Trriter. 
(Gbobob hi.) p Autohiograpkyy with the Words of 600 SoriffS, 1803. 
D. wrote nearly 70 dramatic pieces, and claimed nearly 900 songs. 
His sea songs are his best. He arranged his own music. 

Blokensoiiff Jobn, fl. 1594. Bomance writer and poet. 
(Elo^bbth.) The Bhepheardee Complaint [1594 circa\ a prose 
story, verse interspersed; Jrisbas, Euphuea amidst his slumbers 
(prose and Terse), 159^; Greene in Conceipt, 1598. [* Works' ed. 
Grosart, Occas, Issues, 1878.] 

]>iir«eU» Zsaae» 1766-1848. Literary historian. (Qeobob 
III. to ViCTOBU.) p Curiosities of Literature, 6 toIs., 1791-1834 ; 
Literary Character, 1795; Calamities of Authors, 1812-1813; 
Quarrels of Authors, 1814. Several romances, a Life and Reign of 
Charles L, 1828-1831, and other works. [Biographical sketch by 
his son, before the 1849 ed. of the Curiosities,] 

nobellf Sydney Tbompflon, 1824-1874. Poet and critic. 
(YiCTOBiA.) m The Roman, a dramatic poem, 1850 ; Balder, 1854 ; 
Sonnets on the Orimean War, 1856 (with Alex. Smith) ; England in 
time of War, 1856. [Poems, 1875, 2 vols. ; Frase, 1876 ; Life and 
Letters, 1878, 2 vols.] 

»oddridffe» Pbilip, D.D., 1702-1751. Konoonformist 
di vine. (Geobgb III.) p Rise and Progress of Religion in the 8otU, 
1745 (translated into many languages), and many other works. 
[Works, 10 Yols., 1802-1805, repr. 1811 ; Correspondence and Diary, 
1829-81, 5 vols. ; * Life,' 1880, by 0. Stanford.] 

Oodsley, Sobert, 1703-1764. Poet, dramatist, publisher. 
(Geobgb II., Gbobob UL) p m and d Miscellanies. D. started 
the still existing Annual Register (see p. 149), issued a Select 
Collection of old Plays, 1744 (last edition ed. Hazlitt, 1874, 15 
Tols.); and a CoUecHon of Poems by several hands, 1748; often 
r^E. and added to. [Anderson's Poets, yoI. xi., contains D/s 

Oranty TbomaSf d, 1580. Poet^ translator, divine. (Eliza- 
beth.) m A Medicinahle Moroil, 1566 (2 books of Horace's Satires 
in English verse, followed by The WaUyngs of the prophet Hieremiah, 
in verse) ; Horaces his arte of Poetrie, Pistles, and Satyrs Englished, 
1567} and other works. [Athena CantaMgienses, i. 884-6, gives a 
good account.] 

»ardale» Sir William, 1 605-1 686. Antiquary, Garter Eing- 
of-Arms. (Commohwbalth.) p Monasticon Anglicanum, vol. i., 
1655; ii., 1661 ; iii., 1673 (an account of the Abbeys, Monasteries, 
Cathedrals, and Collegiate Churches) ; Antiquities of Warwickshire^ 


1666 (the model for many conntiy histories) ; ITie Baronage of 
England 1676-1676, and other works. 

Binrfejf TbomaSf 1 663-1 723. Poet, dramatist. (Charles II. 
to GxoBOB I.) m Wit and Mirth ; or. Pills to Purge Melancholy, 
Ballads, sonneta, 1684-1720. d 29 plays. 

Bj'er* Sir Bdward, 1640-1607. Poet. (Elizabeth.) Grosart 
collected D.'s Works, 1S72. There are 13 poems (including My 
mynds to me a kyngdome m, first pr., with mnsic, 1688), and the 
prose Prayse of Nothing (an imitation of Erasmus' Praise of Folly), 
8iM IdilUa, which Collier ascribed to Dyer, are only dedicated to 
him. [Bepr. privately in 1883 by Bey. H. C. Daniel, and in Arber's 
Eng, Gamer, vol. viii., 1896.] 

BdwardSf SielMur4« 1623 ?-1666. Poet, musician, playwright 
(Euzabeth.) m The Paradyse of Daynty Jkuises, our second and 
most popular Elizabethan miscellany (eight editions up to 1600), 
124 poems, B. E. being editor and chief contributor. Bepr. in 
CoUier^s Sewn Eng. Miscellanies, 1867. d Damon and Pithias, 
1671 (repr. in Hazlitt's Dodsley, i.); Palenwn and Arcyte, a 
tragi-comedy acted 1666, is lost. 

 adwardSfTbonuui, 1699-1647. Puritan divine. (ChablesI.) 
p Gangrana; or, a Catalogue and Discovery of many Errours, 
Heresies, Blasphemies, and pernicious Practices of the Sectaries of 
this Time, 1646. [This, directed against the Independenta, made a 
great sensation; a number of replies were issued, so that R 
wrote second and third parts. See Milton's Sonnet On tlie JVeta 
Forcers of Conscience.'] 

SlUot, Jane (or Jean) of lOlnto, 1727-1806. Poetess. 
(Geobob II., Geobgb m.) Her sole poem is the exquisite ballad 
The Lament for Flodden, usually called from its refrain. The Flowers 
of the Forest are a* wede away, written when 28. [Alice Buther- 
ford (Mrs. Cockbum, 1712-94), also wrote a song, two verses of 
which have a similar re&ain ; but its subject is * fickle Fortune,' not 
Flodden field. See Jas. Veitch's History and Poetry of the Scottish 

Slllott, Bbenexer, 1781-1849. The * Corn-law rhymer.' (Geobgb 
III. to YiCTOBL^) m Corn-law rhymes, 1831 ; Carlyle has an 
•Essay' on these. [* Works' in prose and verse, 1876; 'Life and 
Letters,' 1860, J. Watkins; Memoir, 1862, J. Searle.] 

Bllwoody Tbomas, 1639-171 3. Quaker, and friend of Milton. 
(Chables n. to Annb.) p The History of the Life of Thomas 
Ellwoodf written by his ovm hand, 1714* and about 26 other works. 


[This inteosely interesting * History/ irith its re&rence to Milton 
(see p. 87), is accessible in Prof. Morley's Universal Lihrary, See 
also 2%« Penns and Penninfftons, 1867, Maria Webb.] 

Sroeidoiue, Tlftomas of» fl. 1220 ?-l 297? Scotch seer and 
poet, m Sir Tristrem, a metrical romance^ first pr. (incorrectly) by 
Sir W. Scott, 1804. Accurate ed. 1886, for Scottish Text Soe., with 
Introduction, &c., by G-. P. McNeill, who still attributes the poem to 
Erceldonne. Kolbing's ed. (Heiibronn, 1882) is excellent and cri- 
tical; he, like most others, does not accept £. as author. [See also 
Pr. J. A. H. Murray's Introd. to £.'s Bomance and Prophecies, 
Early Eng. Text Soc. 1875.] 

SrskinOf Sev. £beneaer» 1680-1754. Founder, with his 
brother Balph, of the Scottish Secession Church. (Geobgb II.) 
Wcrks, 1799 and 1826, with * Memoir ; ' these are chiefly sermons pr. 
from 1725 onwards. 

Brsklne, Bev. Balpb» 1685-1752. Seceding diyine and poet 
(Geoboe II.) m Gospel Sonnets, 1726 (first called Gospel Canticles 
1720) ; 24 ed. up to 1793 ; repr. 1870. Also other religious poetry 
and Sermons. [Works, 1764-1765, with Memoir; last ed. 1863| 
7 vols.] 

Vaber* Vrederlek IV'illiam, 1814-1863. Superior of the 
London Oratory. (Victobia.) p m Numerous religious works, 
poems, and hymns, including the Pilgrims of the Night. [' Life,' by 
J. E. Bowden, 1869, repr. 1888.] 

rabjan, Sobert, d, 1513. Chronicler. (Henbt VIIL) p 
2hs New Chronicles of England and France, 1516 ; extending to 
the battle of Bosworth, 1485 ; 2Dd ed., 1533, was continued to Henry 
yU.'s death (possibly F.'s own work) ; 4th ed. 1569, continued by 
another hand to 1559. [Historically of slight yalue, except for 
some details of London, where F. liyed as a tailor. Bepr. 1811 by 
Sir Hy. Ellis.] 

ValrfiuEy Bdwardt <?. 1635. Poet and translator. (Euzabeth, 
Jaubs I.) m A trans, of Godfrey of BuUoigne ; or, The Recoverie 
of Jerusalem (our first complete trans, of Tasso, see Carew); 12 
Edogues (10 lost), p A discourse of Witchcraft, wr. 1621, pr. 1859. 

Fansbawe. 8ir Rlobard, 1608-1666. Diplomatist and trans- 
lator. (Chablbs I. to Chables n.) m. Trans, of Guarini's Pastor 
Fido, 1648 ; Horace's Odes, 1652 ; CamoeuB' Lusiad, 1655. d Trans, 
of two plays of Don Antonio de Mendoza, Querer por solo querer, 
Love only for Lot^s sake, 1654 ; and Fiestas de Aranjuez, 1671. 
[Interesting memoir by IjidyF., first pr. 1829, ed. Sir H. Nicholas.] 


rann«rt Br. Btelmrdy 1 78(^1 797. Master of Emmanuel 
ColL Gamb. (Gsobob HE.) p Easat/ on the learning of Shakespeare, 
1767 ; to show tliat S/s classical learning was gained second-hand. 
[His-onljpublishedwork; repr. inBoswell's Fariorum Shakespeo/re, 
1821, Tol i.) 

VerrvAon, Adam* 1723-1816. Prof, of Philosophy at Edin- 
burgh. (Geoboe IIL) p History of the Soman Republic, 1788 (of 
no permanent valne); Principles of Moral and PoliticaZ Science, 

Verrter, Busan Btfmoiistoney 1782-1854. Novelist. (Georgb 
in., William IV.) p Three novels; Marriage, 1818 ; 2^ InherU" 
ance, 1824 ; Destiny, 1831. These deal chiefly with apper class 
Scotch society. [Repr., 6 vols., 1882 and 1894.] 

Fieldt Mattiaalelv 1 587-1 683. Actor and dramatist. ( Jaues I.) 
d Three plajs survive; A Woman is a Weathercock, 1612; Amends 
for Ladies, 1618 (both these comedies are in Hazlitt's Dodsley, 
zi.); The Fatal Dowry, ^'tmgQdij, 1682 (wr. with Massinger, and 
repr. in his works). 

IfUtter, 8ir Bobert, d. 1653. Political writer. (Chables I.) 
p Patriarcha; or. The Natural Power of the Kings of England 
asserted, first pr. 1680, to help the Court party. [It defends the 
patriarchal system, as against Hobbes' 'social compact ;' Xocke's 
Two Treatises of Government, 1690, Opposed it, the first being a 
direct reply.] Also other works. 

rislier, Sdward, fl. 1627-1655. TJieoIogian. (Charles L, 
CoHMOnwEALTH.) F. has been identified with the *E. F.' who 
wrote the Marrow of Modern Divinity, 1645, which, eighty years 
later, gave rise to the * Marrow' controversy {see T. Boston), but 
internal evidence is said not to support this. 

Flalier, John, 14d9?-1535. Cardinal Bishop of Bochester. 
(Hbhbt VII., Hbnet VIII.) The Early English Text Soc. has 
issued one vol. of English ' Works' (ed. Prof. J. E. B. Mayor), and 
a Ltfe and Letters is to be edited by Eev. Eonald Bayne. 'Life,' by 
T. E. Bridgett, 1888. F.'s Latin theological works were pr. 1597 at 

TipkUettteyf Cbaiies, 1 575 ?-l 638. Poet and divine. (Eliza- 
BjBTH to Chaslbs I.) • Grosart in Oocas* Issues, 1881, collected his 

/.Fletolier, -Andrew, of Saltonn (now Batton), 1655-1716. 
]^olitical writer. . ( Javes I. to Akne.) Political Works collected 
17371 [Full account in Dictionary of National Biography,'] 

I!letcber, Oilc8,.LL.D,. .1549?^1611. Poet and ambassador. 


(ExizABETH.) HI lAda ; or, Foemes of Love (repr. by Grosart 1 876); 
and some Latin poems., p Of the Russe Common Wealth, 1501 ; 
and an Essay « . thAt the Tartars . . are the Posterity of the Ten 
Tribes of Israel, pr. 1677. 

Plorence of IV^oroester* d» 1118. Chronicler. (Hsnbt I.) 
p. A Latin Chromcle from the creation till 1 1 1 7. [£d. by B. Thorpe 
for the Eny, Historical Soo,, 1849 ; Bohn's Hist. Library contains a 
translation ; also J. Stevenson's Church Historians, vol. ii., 1853.] 

rordniit Joluif d. 1384 ? Scotch chronicler. (Edwibd III.) 
p Chronica Gentis Scotorum; and Gesta Annalia, Upon these Walter 
Bower {d, 1449) based Bks. i.-y. out of the sixteen composing his 
Scotichroniooh, [See W. F. Skene's ed. of Fordun, Edin. 1871- 
1872; Tol. i. gives information as to MSS. and the relations of 
Fordnn and Bower.] 

Poster, Jolia« 177(^1843. Essayist. (Victosia.) p Essays, 
1805 (four in. number, one being on Decision of Character);, contri- 
bations to thib Eclectic Heview, 1806-1839 (184 articles, a number 
being repr. in 2 yols., 1844); Essay on 27te Evils of Popular 
Ignorance, 1820. [' Life/ ed. J. E. Byland^ 1846.] 

Foze» Jobn, 1516-1587. Martyrologist. (Mast, Elizabbth.) 
p Acts and Monuments of these latter and perilous Ddyes, fe., usually 
callkl the JBook of Martyrs. Latin editions 1554, 1559, 1562 ; this 
last appearing on the same day as the first English edition, 1562. 
Often repr. (last ed. 1877» ed. Dr. Stoughton) and abridged. F. 
produced some 25 works, among them d Christus Triumphans, a 
Latin mystery play, formerly used as a school book on account o^ its 

Frftancey Abraliam, fl. 1587-1633. Hexameter poet. (Eliza- 
beth.) m The Lamentations of Amhttas, 1587 (Thos. Watson's 
Amyntas in English, see Watson); Ths Countesse of Pembrokes 
Yuychurchf 1591 ; her Emanuell, 1591 ; and a jThird Pari . . • 
entituled Amintas Dale, 1592, all in hexameter (with some prose), 
p Three works. [F.'s yerse is an extreme example of the ' reformed 
versifying ' in which Gabriel Harvey (see p. 53) was a leader. See 
also Spenser^s letters to Harvey. G-lobe * Spenser/ pp. 706-10.] 

Ckkrer* IVllUaniy fl. 1580-1619. Latin dramatist (Eliza- 
beth, James I.) A-Mdeayerand Ulysses Redux, 1592; and much 
Latin verse. Portions of other plays remain in MS. 

Gale, TlieophilnSy 1628-1678. Nonconformist tutor and 
divine. (Chables II.) p The Court of the Gentiles, in 4 parts, 1669- 
1677 ; in this all European languageis are traced to Hebrew, and all 



science, philosophj, and ancient literature to Hebrew tradition! 
Also theological -works. 

OeoArey the Orammarlan {alias Btarkey), fl. 1440. 
(HxNBT VI.) p Protnptorium Farvutorum^ an English-Latin 
dictionary fiiBt pr. 1499, by Pynson, and edited for the Camden 
Soc., 1843-1863, by Albert Way. It is of great valne as an aathentic 
record of I6th century East-Anglian. Medulla Grammatice, a Latin- 
English dictionary, is with probability assigned to G-. 
' OUTordff Mwaaekphrtijf fl. 1580. Poet. (Elizabeih.) m A 
JPosie of Gilloflowers (ne), 1680 ; repr. by Grosart 1870 and 1876. 

CMlbertf Sir Mumphreyf 1639?-1683. Navigator. (Euzi- 
BBtH.) p A Diecourge of a , , , new Pcusage to Cataia, 1676. 
I7te Erection of Q, Elisabethes Achademy . . . for education of , , , 
youths . . . and gentlemen was first pr. 1869 by Dr. Fnmiyall. 

OlldoiivCliartoSv 1666-1724. Miscellaneous writer. (GbobobL) 

p Cun^Me Art of Poetry, 1718 ; Laws of Poetry, 1721. d Fire 

Plays. Pope, whom he attacked, put him in the Dundad, bk. iii., and 

in tiie Prdoyue to the Satires, L 161 : — 

Yet then did Oildon draw his Tenal quill ; 
I wl8h*d the man a dinner, and sate stilL 

OllUeSf J0I11I9 LLD., 1747-1836. Historian and classical 
scholar. (Geobgb HL, Gbobgb IV.) p History of Greece, 1786 
(long popular), and other works. 

01airriU«f Banulf de,<;. 1190. Chief Justiciar. (HbmbtII.) 
p H'octatus de Legibus et Constietttdinibus BeyniAngliae. First 
pr. [n.d.] circa 1664. This is our first legal classic, and one of the 
first law treatises produced in North Europe. [Latest ed. in < HoUs 
Series/ ed. Sir T. Twiss.] 

Olaptbome, B«iir7', fl. 1639. Dramatist. (Chabibs I. 
Commonwealth.) m Poems, 1639. d Argalus and Parthmia, a 
pastoral tragedy, 1639 ; Albertus WaUenstein, a tragedy, 1639 ; The 
Ladies Priviledge, a comedy, 1640; and other plays. ['Works,' 
consisting of Plays and Poems, 1874, 2 toIs.] 
, 01ower,Bioliardf 1712-1786. Poet. (Gbobob II., Geobob m.) 
m Leonidas, 1737 ; an epic on the Persian wars, 9 books, blank 
Terse; Atheniady 1787, 30 books 'much longer and far worse 
than " Leonidas," but no one has been able to read either for a cen- 
tury ' (Leslie Stephen). His ballad, Hostel's Ghost, pr. 1740, was a 
party song after Admiral Vernon's taking of Portobello, 1739. 
Hosier had led an unfortunate expedition to this place in 1726, and 
died there. [See Percy's Reliques, Series IL^ Bk. iii.. No. 26. The 
• Poems ' are in Anderson's Poets, xi., and Chalmers', xvii.] 


Godwin, Franols, D.D., 1562-1633. Lishop of Llandaff and 
Hereford. (Elizabeth to Chablbs I.) p The Man in the Moone, 
1638 ; see p. 47. [Possibly Swift gained some ideas for GuUiyer's 
voyage to LapntA from this.] Numerous other works. 

Oooflrov BamabOy 1540-1694. Poet and translator. (Eliza* 
BETH.) m Efflogs, Epytaphes and Sonnets, 1568. (Eepr. in Arbor's 
Reprints^ 1871); and yarious translations, e.g. the Zodiacus Vita 
of ' the most Christian poet Marcellus Palingenins/ 1560-1565 ; the 
Fopish Kingdome, 1570 (repr. 1880) of Thos. Naogeorgus (i.e. Kirch- 
mayer) ; and two others. 

OrabamevBeT.7aiii«Sy 1765-1811. Scotch poet. (GeobgkUI.) 
m The Sabbath, 1804 (much admired by Scott; and by Prof. Wilson 
in the Nodes Anibrosiana), Also Wallace^ a tragedy ; and Mary, 
Queen of Soots, a dramatic poem, 1801. 

Oranirer» JaineSf 1723-1776. Biographer and print collector. 
(Gbobgb HL) p Biographical History of England from Egbert to 
the Bevolutioni 1769. As this work referred to Tarious portraits, 
seyeral illustrative supplements were issued. 

Gray* Bavld, 1838-1861. Scotch poet. (Yictobia..) m The 
Luggie, and other poems, 1862, with a Life by J. Hedderwick. En- 
laired ed. 1874. [Essay by E. Buchanan, 1868. * Letters, poems 
and selected prose.' 2 vols. Buffalo, U.S.A. 1888.] 

Qrejf ArtlkUTf 1536-1593. Statesman. (Elizabbth.) p A 
Commentary of the Services and Charges of WiUiam Lord Grey de 
Wilton. Incorporated in Holinshed's Chronicle. Repr. by Camden 
Sec, 1847. 

Oriffliif Bartliolomewy d. 1602. Poet. (Elizabeth.) m 
Fidessa, more chaste then kinde (62 sonnets), 1596. Bepr. Grosart, 
Oceas. Issues, 1876. 

OroT«f SCattlieWf fl. 1587. Poet. (Elizabeth.) m The 
most famous and tragicall Historic ofPelops and Hippodamia, 1587. 
Bepr. Grosart, Occas. Issues, 1878. 

Oa«*t (Glieast or Oeste), Bdmiind, 1518-1577* Bishop of 
Salisbury. (Elizabeth.) m Trans, of the Psalms for the 'Bishops' 
Bible,' 1568 (still in use in the Prayer Book). [* Life,' 1840, by 
Henry Gheaet Dugdale.] 

Onllpin, Bdward, fl. 1598. Poet. (Elizabeth.) m S/da- 
letheia, or a Shadovoe of Truth, in certaine Epigrams (70), and 
Satyres (7). Bepr. Grosart, Occas. Issues, 1 878. 

Oatbriev Tbomas, D.D., 1803-1873. Scottish preacher and 
philanthropist. (Victobia.) p 7%« Gospel of Ezekiel (sermons), 
and many other works. The Plea for Bagged Schools, 1847 (11 cd. 


that year), led to establishiDg the 'Original Eagged Schools' in 
Edinburgh, and of others all over Europe. [Autobiography and 
memoir, 1874.] 

BaUes, BaTid Dalrjmplo, Aerd, 1726-1792. Historian. 
(Gborom ni.) p Annals of Scotland (1058-1370), 1776^1779, &c 

BalMf Bdwardy fl. 1579. Satirist. (Elizabeth.) m Newa 
out of Powles Churchyofde wherein is reprooued exeteewe and vnhwfuU 
eeeking after riches^ J^e., 1567. Bepr. 1872. 

Baklajtf Bleliard, 1552?-! 6 16. Geographer. (Elizabeth* 
James L) p The Principall Navigations, VoiageSy and Diseoueries 
made by the English Nation^ 1589. This was the first form of H.'s 
great work, reissued 1598-1600, 3 toIs. folio. (Latest ed. 1884, ed. 
E. M. Goldsmid.) Several other works deal particularly with 
American discoveries. [The HaMttyt Society has reprinted many 
early geographical works.] 

Bale, Sir Kattliew, 1609-1676. Lawyer. (Chables IL) 
p History of the ComTnon Law of England, 1713; Contem^tions 
Moral and Divinef 1676. 

Ballfaz, George Baville, Marquis of, 1630^.1695. (GhablbsIL 
to WiLUAic III.) p Political, historical, and moral tracts. 

BaUy Arfhar, circa 1540-1604. Translator. (Elizabeth.) 
m Ten Books of Homers Biades translated out of French, 1581. 
The first attempt to English Homer, begun 1563 ; trans. &om the 
French of Hugues Salel, in 14-syllable verse. 

BaU, Bdward, 1498-9-1547. Chronicler. (HenbyVIIL) p 
7%e Vhion of the two Noble and Illustrate Fameliesof Lancastre and 
Yorke, 1542 ; 2nd ed. 1548. It extends from the accession of 
Henry lY. to the death of Henry VIIL, * the undubitate flower and 
very heire of both the said linages.' 

Ballf Josepbv 1574-1656. Bishop of Norwich. (Elizabbth to 
James I.) m Virgidemiarvm, Sixe JBooks, First three BooJces, of 
Toothlesse Satyrs, 1597; The three last Bookes, Ofbyting Satyres, 
1598. The Kings Prophecie : or. Weeping Joy, 1603 (a welcome to 
James L, and H.'s last vol. of verse), p Mundus alter et idsTn, 1605 
(see p. 47y s. 27.) [Chalmers' Poets, v., contains most of the poems ; 
Grosart, 1879, edited all. Hall's devotional writings have often been 
repr. * Vorks,' 10 vols., 1863 ; * life,* 1886, Rev. G, Lewis.] 

Balybnrton, Tbomaa, 1674-1712. Theologian. (William 
III., Anne.) p Natural Bdigion Insufficient, 1714 (posthumous, 
like all his works). [* Works,* 1835.] 

Bamilton, AxktYkonjf 1646?-1720. Writer of m^moiii. 


(Annb.) p Mhnoires du ComU de Grammcnt (d. 1707), 1713* 
This deals wiih the * amoroQS intrigaes ' of the ootirt of Charles IL 
from 1662-1664. Often repr., both in its original French and in 
English. Latest ed. PariSi 1888; London, 1889 (both illustrated). 
Ho also wrote five ' Gontes/ or stories. 

BamUton, Bllxabotl!, 1758-1816. Miscellaneous writer. 
(Geobgb ni.) p The Cottagers of Olenbumie, a tale, 1808. 
Works on education, &c. [' Memoirs/ 1818, by £. 0. Benger.] 

Bamlltoiif 7anet, 1795-1873. Scottish poetess. (Victobja.) 
wa Poems and Essays, 1863; Ballads, 1868; Poems, Sketches and 
Essays, 1885. [The patriotic and humorous lyrics rank high.] 

BamUton, \iruilam, of Oilbertfield, 1665?-1701. Scottish 
poet. (Geobgb I.) m Contributions to Allan Bamsay's Tea-table 
Miscellany, His Bonny Heck (an elegy on his dog), was first pr. 
in 1706. Wi3ilie vxis a Wanton Way is his bestrknown piece. 
[He modernised Blind Harry's Wallace, 1722.] 

BamiltoB, ^iruilaiii, of Bangour, 1704-1754. Scottish poet. 
(George IL) m Poems, 1749 (unauthorised ed.). H. wrote what 
"Wordsworth justly called the * exquisite baUad,' the Braes of Yarrow, 

Bardyng, 7otaii, 1378-1465? Chronicler. (Henbt VI.) m 
A doggerel metrical Chromcle of England, in 7-line stanzas, of no 
literary merit. Pr. 1543 by E. Grafton {see p. 74), who continued 
it up to date in prose. (The verse extends from the earliest times 
till 1461.) [Repr. 1812, ed. Sir Hy. Ellis.] 

Bare, Aurustaa ^Villlain, 1792-1834. Divine. (Geobgb 
IV., William IV.) p Guesses at Truth, 1827 (with his brother 
Julius) ; ITie Alton Sermons, 1837. 

Bare* 7ii1Iim Cliarle8» 1795-1855. Archdeacon of Lewes. 
(Gboboe IV. to ViCTOBiA.) {See A. W. Hare.) p Life of John 
Sterling J 1848. [Sterling was Hare's curate at Hurstmonceuz, and 
Hare's • Life ' called forth that of Carlyle.] 

Bartngtoiiv Sir Jotm, 1561-1612. Translator, satirist, &c. 
(Elizabeth, James L) m Orlando Furioso, 1591 (from Ariosto); 
Epigrammes, 1613. p The Metamorphosis ofAjax, and three other 
connected satirical pamphlets, 1696 (all repr. 1814). The Nnga 
Jntiqua, 1769-1775 (repr. 1804), contains miscellaneous verse and 
prose. Also other works. 

Barman, Tliomas* fl. 1567. Writer on beggars. (Elizabeth.) 
p A Caueat or Warening for commen Cvrsetors, vulgarely called 
Vagahones, 1566 or 1567. [24 essays on rarious kinds of thieves 
and tramps, &c. Reph 1880, New Shak, Soo»] 

Barrls, James, 1709-1780. (Geobqe II., Geobge III.) p 


Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry concerning TJnivertal Grammaf, 
1751 ; aod three other works. [' Works/ Ust ed. 1841.] 

Barrison, lVllUaiD» 1534-1593. Topographer, chronoioger, 
historian. (Elizabeth.) p A Description of England in Holinshed's 
Chronicle, 1577. [Br. Fumiyairs edition of Bks. ii. and iii. has 
valuable notes.] 

Hartley, 9avid« 1705-1757. Philosopher. (Geobge XL) p 
Oheervatione on Man, 1749. H. had much inflnenoe on later ethical 
thought Coleridge speaks of 'Hartley of mortal kind wisest' 
(^Beligious Musings), and named his son Hartley Coleridge after 

Batliway, &ieliard« fl. 1602. Dramatist. (Elizabeth.) d 
The First Fart of Sir John Old-Castle, twice pr. 1600; once anon,, 
and once as by Shakespeare. Henslowe's * Diary ' mentions 14 other 
(lost) plays. 

Bawker, Bew. Bobert Bteplien, 1803-1875. Poet and 
antiquary. (William IV., Victoria.) m Records of the Western 
Shore, 1832-1836; Echoes from, Old Cornwall, 1846; Quest of the 
Sangraal, 1864 (his best work); Oimish Ballads, 1869. ['Poetical 
Works,' 1879 ; Prose, 1893. Baring Gould has written a ' Life.'] 

BawlLeswortb* 7oliaf LL.D., 1715? -177 3. Miscellaneous 
writer. (Gbobob II., Geobge III.) p Trans, of F^nelon's Tel&- 
machus, 1768; Voyages of Byron, Wallis, Carteret and Cook^ 1773 
(inaccurate). See also p. 136. 

Bayley, ^ViUlam, 1745-1820. Poet. (Geobge ILL) m 
Triumphs of Temper, 1781 (his most successful poem), p Life, 
Letters, and Works of Wm, Cowper(d, 1800), 1803, 

Bajward, Sir 7o]iii, 1564 ?-l 627. Historian. (Elizabeth.) 
p The First Part of the Life and Baigne of King Henrie the lUI., 
1599, and other historical and religious works. 

Benry', SCattliewy 1 662-1 714. Konconformist divine and com- 
mentator. (William III.^ Anne.) p Commentary on the Bible 
(completed to the end of the Acts), 1708-1710, and other works. 
[This practical commentary is not yet superseded.] 

Berbert, Bon. A. Bev. ^VtlUam, 1778-1847. Dean of 
Manchester. (Geoboe III, to Victobia.) m Helga, a poem in 7 
cantos, 1815 ; AttHa, an epic, 1838, &c. [* Works,' 8 vols., 1842.] 

'Kerveji VaineSf 1714-1758. Calvinistic divine and devotional 
writer. (Gbobob II.) p Theron and Aspasio (a series of dialogues 
and letters inculcating imputed righteousness), 1755 ; Meditations 
and Contemplations, 1745-1747. (26 ed. by 1792; translated into 
many languages.) 


&«rvejv7olm,]«ord, 1696-1743. Writer of memoirs. (Geobgb 
n.) p Valuable Memoirs of the Court of George U, and Queen 
Caroline^ first pr. 1848 (repr. 3 yoIs. 1884), and many other works. 
[Qaeeu Caroline used to call him *her child, her pupil, her charge ; ' 
and Pope alludes to his royal favour in a sayage attack in the 
Frologue to the Satires, 11. 305-33 : 

Etfe's tempter thus the Rabbins have ezprest— 
A cherub's face, a reptile all the rest.] 

BeyUn* Voter, 1600-1662. Theologian and historian. (JaiiesL 
to Chablbs II.) p Eoclesia Vindicata, 1657; Ecclesia Sestaurata, 
1661 (justifying Laud's acts ; repr. for Eocles, Hist. Soo, 1849) ; 
G^prianus Anglicanus^ 1668 (a defence of Laud). These (and other) 
works are TBloable for contemporary ecclesiastical history. 

Beywoodf Jasper, D.D., 1535-1698. Jesuit and poet. 
(Elizabbth.) d Trans, of Seneca's Troas, 1559 ; Thyestes, 1560 ; 
JRercules Furens, 1561. m Eight poems in the Paradyse of Baynty 
Deuises, 1576. 

Hinrin«» 7oliii, circa 1545-1602. Poet and compiler. 
(Elizabeth.) m H. wrote The First Parte of the Mirrour for 
MagietfateSt 1^74, being 16 legends dealing with events before 
the Incarnation. {8ee Baldwin, whose edition of 1559 had dealt 
with events from 1388-1483 a.i).) Several other works. 

Bill, Aaroa, 1685-1750. Poetaster and dramatist. (Anne to 
Geobqb II.) m Miscellaneous poems, d Seventeen plays. Pope's 
ambiguous compliment in the Dunciad (ii. 295-8), and Hill's 
rejoinder, alone preserve the latter from oblivion : 

Next . . . tried : but hardly snatched from sight ; 

Instant buoys up, and rises into light ; 

He bears no token of the sabler streams, 

And mounts far ofE among the * swans of Thames.* 

Boadlj, BeaJamla, M.D., F.B.S., 1706-1757. Physician and 
dramatist. (Gbobob II.) d The Stupiciotis Husband, a successful 
prose comedy, 1747. H. aided Hogarth in the Analysis of Beauty^ 
1753. Also medical lectures. 

Boflaadf Barbaray 1770-1844. Novelist. (Geobob IIL to 
VicTOBiA.) p The Son of a Genius, 1816, and other works chiefly 
of didactic fiction. 

Bolorofty Tliomas, 1745-1809. Dramatist, novelist^ trans- 
lator, (GeobgeIII.) Some forty works. 9 Anna St, Ives, 1792, 
and other novels, d 7%e Soad to Buin, 1792 (9 ed. in a year), and 
olher plays. ['Memoir ' by himselfi last ed. 1852.] 


Boljrdayf BartoBt 1603-1661. Dramatist, translator, divine. 
(Jambs L toCHASLBS n.) mTrans. of Persius, 1616 ; Horace's Odes, 
1 663 ; Juvenal, 1673. 4 T^xvoyofda \ cr, The Marriagea of the Arts, 
1618, a eomedjT in prose and verse (one of onr longest plays). 
p Sensons, &e. 

Book, IVUtor Varqii]i»r» 1798-1875. Dean of Chichester. 
(ViCTOBU.) p ExUnastieal Biography, 1845-1852 (8 vols., the 
names of 'fathers and divines' being arranged alphabetically); 
Lwe$ of the Arehbishopa of Canterbury, 1860-1876 (12 vols., 
arranged chronologically) ; Church Dictionary, 19^2, Hthed. 1887. 
[Life and Letters, by B. W. Stephens, cheap ed. 1850.] 

Bopo, Tbomasy 1770?-1831. Bomance writer and virtnoso. 
(Geobqb HL, Gbobob IV.) p Costume of the Ancienis, 1809; 
Anastasius; or. Memoirs of a Modem Greek, 1819, a romance, 
attributed at first to Byron, who (it is said) wept bitterly on reading 
it, 'for two reasons : one, that he had not written it; and the other, 
that Hope had.' 

Bomo, Ctoorffo, 1730-1792. Bishop of Norwich. (GhBonaB 
IIL) p Commentary on the Psalms, 1771 (twenty years' labonr)^ 
and other works. Works and Memoir, 6 vols. 1799. 

Bonloj, Bamnel, D.D., 1733-1806. Bishop of St Asaph. 
(Gbobob III.) p Trans, of Hosea, 1801 ; and of 7%e Book of 
Psalms, 1815. Also varions theological and scientific works. 

Boward, Klent. Bdward, d. 1841. Marine novelist. 
(WnxiAM IV., VicTOBiA.) p RattUn the Beefer, 1836 ; The Old 
Commodore, 1837, and five or six other works. 

Bowe, Johxkf 1630-1705. Nonconformist divine. (OovifON- 
WEAI.TH to Annb.) p Sermons and theological works. [Howe was 
Cromwell's domestic chaplain. There are varions ' Lives,' the latest 
being that by R. F. Horton, D.D.. 1895,] 

Bowell, Tliomas, fl. 1568-1581. Poet. (Elizabbth.) m 
The Arbor ofAmttie, 1568 ; Kewe Sonets andpretie Pamphlets [n.d.], 
1568 ; Hotoell His Denises, 1581. [Poems repr. by Grosart, Oceas, 
Issues, 1879.] 

Bowitt, Mary, 1799-1888. Miscellaneons writer. (GkobgbIV. 
to ViCTOBiA.) p m Over 40 works. ['Mary Howitt, an Auto- 
biography,' 1889. Repr. 1891.] 

Bowm,^lirilUaiii, 1792-1879. Miscellaneons writer. (Gbobos 
IV. to ViCTOEiA.) p TheBookofihe Seasons, 1831 ; TheBuralLife 
of England, 1838; and other works, the best of which deal with 
native and country life, m Poems. 

Bowson, 9olui 8«til, D,D., 1816-1885, Dean of Chester. 


(ViCTomA.) p UJe and, Epistles of 8t, Paid, 1862 (with Eev. liV. J. 
GoQybeare) ; also other works on the same subject ; doTotional 
works and sermons. 

Bafflaos, Jobn, 1677-1720. Poet. (Anns, Gxosox I.) p 
CoDtribntions to the Tatter, Spectator, and Guardian (see p. 136). 
d The Siege of Damaseus, a tragedy, 1 720, the best and last of 
many works. H. died the night of its production. [Swift calls H. 
'too grave a poet/ and classes him 'among the mediocribns in prose 
as well as rerse.' ' Poems/ in Chalmers' Poets x.] 

Bmno (or Bome)f Alexanderv 1560 ?-l 609. Scottish poet. 
( EuzABBTH.) m Hymns and Soared Songs, 1 699 (repr. by the Bsnna- 
tyne Club, 1832). His best verses are A description of the Dag of 
Estivall, a lyric on Summer; and lines on the Defait of the Spanish 
Navie (the Armada). Both are in Sibbald's collection. 

BannlSf mniUain, circa 1630-1597. Musician and Poet. 
(Elizabeth.) m Certagne Psatmes, 1650 ; A HgvefvU of ffunnge, 
'Genesis in English Meetre/ 1678; Seven Sobs of a SorrowfuU 
Sonlefor Sinne, whereunto are also annexed his BandfuU of Honi- 
sttokleSf a metrical rersion of the Athanasian Creed, 1683 ; Bunnies 
Recreations, 1688; Uilso 12 poems in the Paradgse of Daynig 
Denises, and two in Englands Helicon, 

Bnrdy Biebard, D.D., 1720-1808. Bishop of Worcester. 
(Q«ORGB n., Gborgb III.) p Introduction to the studg of the 
Prophecies concerning the Christian Church, 1772 ; Life of Warbur^ 
ton, 1794, whose works he edited. Also other works. 

Batebesoiiy Vranols, L1.D., 1694-1746. Philosopher. 
(ObobgsII.) p Inquirg into the original of our Ideas of Beautg 
and Virtue, 1125 \ Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Pas^ 
sions a/nd Affections, 1728 ; System of Moral Phitosophy, 1766. 

Butebtiisonf Kney, \^20^post 1676. Biographer. (Coiocok- 
"VTBALTH, Chablbs IL) p lAfc of CcH, Hutchinson, her husband, 
wr. 1664-1671 ; first pr. 1806, and often repr., latest ed. 1885, with 
portraits. [It is a unique picture of Puritan life, haying ' the grace 
and tenderness of a portrait by Van Byck' (J. K. Green).] Also 
other works. 

XnolilMad, BlisaboUi, 1 763-1 82 1 . Novelist, dramatist, actress. 
(Gbobob III., Gbobgb IV.) p A Simple Story, 1791, her best work, 
and an early example of the * Novel of Passion * (still reprinted). 
Nature and Art, 1796. d Plays. [* Life/ 1833, James Boaden.] 

Ireland, WUUam Benr j, 1777-1836. Forger of Shakespeare 
^'^t .((Jboiwb m. to William ly.) As a lad of 18 and 19 he, 

336 HAin)BooK OP English literaturh. 

like Chatterton, forged Vortigem, a tragedy, 1795, and Miscellaneous 
Papers and Legal Instruments under the hand and seal of William 
Shakespeare^ 1796. These deceived many, but he confessed the 
forgery in the Authentic Account of the Shakespeare Manuscripts, 
1796, expanded in 1805 into Confessions, Also novels, verse, &c. 
[James Fayn's novel, The Talk of the Town, 1885, takes up the 
tale of these &mous foigeries.] 

JsLVkem Z. of BnflrUtnd, 1566-1625. m Essayes of a Frentise 
in the Divine art ofpoesiCt 1584 (repr. in Arber's Reprints, 1869); 
Poetical exercises at vacant houres, 1591, repr. 1818. p Four religious 
Meditations on passages of Scripture: Basilikon Doron ; or, his 
Maiesties Instructions to his dearest sonne, Senry, 1599 ; controver- 
sial works with Bellarmine {see Andrewes) ; and A Counterblast to 
Tobacco, 1601. (Repr. Arber's Reprints, 1869.) 

7ewellv 7oliii» 1522-1571. Bishop of Salisbury. (Elizabeth.) 
p Apologia pro Ecdesia Anglicana, 1562, the first methodical state* 
ment of the position of the Church of England against Borne. Often 
trans, and repr.; the first trans, by Lord Bacon's mother, 1564. 
[* Works,' 1609 ; best ed., 1848, 8 vols., ed. B. W. Jelf.] 

7oluisoiiv Bloliardy 1573-1659? Bomance writer and poet. 
(EuzABETH; James I.) p The Famous Historie of the Seauen Cham* 
pions of Christendom, 1597, often repr. ; The most pleasant History 
of Tom a lAncolne, 1607 ; Look on me, London, 1613 ; and two other 
works, m The Nine Worthies of London, 1592 ; The Crowns Gar- 
land of Golden Roses, 1612 ; and four others. 

7olinstoii, Artlmr, M.D., 1587-1641. Scotch writer of Latin 
verse. (Chablbs L) m Psalmorum Davidis Paraphrasis Poetica, 
1637, his chief work, often repr. J. edited the Lelicia Poetarum 
Scotorum, 1637 {see Aytoun). Much Latin verse. 

7oaeSf Bbeaeser, 1820-1860. Poet. (Victobia.) m Studies 
of Sensation and Evsnt, 1843 ; repr. 1879, with ' Memoir.* 

7ortlii, 7olia, D.D., 1698-1770. Ecclesiastical historian and 
critic. (Geobob I. to Geobgb III.) p Remarks on Ecclesiastical 
History, 1751-1774 (still valuable); Life of Erasmus, 1758-1760 
(quite superseded). 

SameSf Benry Boiii«f Kord, 1696-1782. Scottish judge. 
(Geobge I. to Geobqe UL) p Principles of Morality and Natural 
Religion, 1751 ; The Art of Thinking, 1761 ; Elements of Criticism, 
1762 (often repr.) and about 18 other works. 

Savaiiafflii 7aUai 1824-1877. Novelist and biographer, p 


Woman in France during the Eiffhteenth Century, 1850 ; Various 
graceful tales. 

Xayo, Sir 7olm 'WUllam, 1814-1876. Military historian. 
(VicroBiA.) p History of 7%e War in Afghanistan, 1851 ; History 
of the Sepoy War (i.e. the < Mutiny '), 1864-1876 (this is the best of 
a number of works on Indian subjectf? ; it has been reviled and 
continued by Col. Malleson, 6 vols. 1888-1889). 

Xeble* 7olia« 1 792-1866. Divine and poet. (Obobob IV. to 
ViCTOBiA.) m The Christian Year, 1827 (109 editions of from 
8,000 to 5,000 copies by the year after his death) ; Lyra Innocentium, 
1846 ; and other works. [His edition of Hooker, 1836, as revised 
by Church and Paget, 1888, is still the standard edition.] 

Son (orS«iiB)v TbomaSy 1637-1711. Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. (Chables II. to Williaji IU.) p m Morning and Even' 
ing Hymns, poems, sermons, &c. [* Life/ by Dean Flumtree, 1888. 
Poetical works, 4 vols., 1721 (hymns, two epics, &c.) ; * Prose,' in 
Ancient and Modem lAhrary of Theological Literature, 1889.] 

Xilllffrew, Tliomas« 1612-1683. Dramatist (Chables II.) 
4 Comedies and Tragedies, 10 plays, chiefly in prose ; these were 
not published till 1664, but several were acted before the Civil 
War. [E. is best remembered as a wit. Pepys called him ' a merry 
droll/ and declared that he had a 'fee for cap and bells under the 
title of the King's Foole or Jester.* Diary, Feb. 13, 1667-8.] 

Xlnr, Benry, 1592-1669. Bishop of Chichester. (ChablbsI., 
Chables II.) m PsaZms of David turned into Metre, 1651 ; Poems, 

KnoZf 7olui» 1505-1572. Beformer and historian. (Mabt, 
Elizabeth.) p The First Blast of the Trumpet against the 
Monstrvovs regiment (i.e. *rule ') of women, 1558 (repr. Arber's E!ng, 
Scholar's Lib,) ; History of the Reformation in Scotland, 1587-1644. 
[* Life/ byT. MacCree, 1818; * Works/ 6 vols., 1846-1864, ed. David 
Laing. Both excellent*] 

&alnflr» XICalcolm» 1762-1815. Scottish historian. (Gbobqb 
hi.) p History of Scotland, from James YI. to Anne, 1802 (still 
of considerable value). 

Kambarde* ^VUllam, 1536-1601. Topographer. (Eliza- 
beth.) p A Peramhfdation of Kent, 1576, the first county history 
known. Also 5 other works. 

KanOf Bdward'WllUain, 180U1876. Arabic scholar. (Vio 
TOBiA.) 9 Modem Egyptians, 1836 (1st ed. sold in two weeks: 
last ed. 1890. It is still a standard authority); Trans, of The 



Arabian Nights, 1838-40 (oar first accurate trans, often repr.); 
Arabic-English Lexicon, 1863-74, Continued by S. Lane Poole, 
1877-1892, [Life by S. Lane-Poole, 1877.] 

Xiaacbaiaev Gerard, 1656-1692. Bramatie biographer and 
eritic (Williah III,) p Account of the English dramatic Poets^ 
1691. (Valuable in some respects, but inaccurate in bibliographical 

XMUghjomef 7o]ui, ll.ll., 1735-1779. Poet and translator. 
(GhobgeIII.) p Trans., with his brother, of Pluiarch*s Lives, 1770 
(still in circulation), m Poems are in Chalmers* Poets, xvi. He 
produced about 25 works. 

Kardaer, aratbanlel, 9.11., 1684-1768. Nonconformist 
divine and scholar. (Gsoboe IL, Geobgb III.) p CredibUiit/ of 
the Gospel History, 1727-67. This at once took first rank. Paley 
and others freely used and popularised his thoughts. 

Kaw, Bev. WlUiam, 1686-1761. Nonjuror and mystic. 
(Gbobob n., Geoeob III.) Serious Call to a devout and hdy 
Life, 1728. [Law much influenced the Wesleys, Whitfield and the 
early Evangelicals. Dr. Johnson called Law's work *the finest 
piece of hortatory theology in any language ; ' he first read it at 
Oxford, when aged 20, and found it ' quite an overmatch for me ; 
and this was the first occasion of my thinking in earnest of 

Xiee, Barriet, 1757-1851. Novelist and dramatist. (Georoe 
III.) The Canterbury Tales with S. Lee, q.v, 

Xeop Sopbla, 1750-1820. Novelist and dramatist. (George 
111.) p The Canterbury Talcs, 1797-1805. Twelve tales told by 
travellers accidentally thrown together. Byron founded his 
Werner upon the * German's Tale, Kruitzner,' which he read when a 
boy, and says it contains ' the germ of much that I have since 
written.' (See Preface to Werner.) 

Keifflitoii, Bobert, 1611-1684. Archbishop of Glasgow. 
(Commonwealth, Cuables II.) p Sermons and Commentaries. 
1692-1708 (posthumous, like all his work). Often repr. ; fall 
account in "W. West's ed., 1869-1875. 

Keland, John, 1506?-1552. Antiquary. (Henby VIII., Ed- 
ward VI.) p The Itinerary, a description of England, first pr, 
by Heame, 1710. 9 vols. [Leland was our earliest modern English 

Xeanoz, CharlottOp 1720-1804. Miscellaneous writer.. 
(George III.) p Harriot Stuart, 1750. The Female Quixote, 
1752, her beet work. Also other ^rorks, includiug plays and poCtaia 


[Dr. Johnson flattered Mrs. Lennox. See Hawkins' Life of John- 
son, p. 286.] 

Keslle, Ctiarles» 165rui722. Nonjuror and oontioversialist 
(William III. to Geoboe I.) p A short and easy Method with 
the Deists, 1698. Often repr., translated and abridged. Also 
nnmerons other works. [*Life and Writings/ by R. J. Leslie, 
1885 ; Works, 7 Tols,, 1832.] 

Iiejrdeiiy John, M.D., 1775*1811. Physician and poet 
(Geobge in.) m Poetical Remains, 1819; Poeim and BaUads, 
with a memoir by Scott> 1858. A centenary edition was pub. in 
1875. p Various ^orks. 

JMlOf Georsref 1693-4739. Dramatist. (Geobob II.) 4 
George Barnwell, acted 1731. This was wonderfully ^ccessful, 
and kept the stage for oTer.a centuiy^ Thackeray wrote a 
burlesque on it, with the same name. The play was founded on 
the ballad given in Perei^s JReliques, series iii., book iii., No. 6. 
Arden of Faversham, 1762. This adaptation of an old play pr. 
1592, and once attributed to Shakespeare, was left unfinished by 
Lillo. It was acted 1759, as completed by Dr. John.Hoadly. The 
Fatal Curiosity, 1737, and other plays. [Works* 2 vols., with 
memoir, 1810. Lillo helped to popularise * domestic drama,' and 
influenced the novel at home and the drama abroad.] 

Xdngrard, 7olm, D.D., 1771-1851. Koman Catholic historian 
of England. (Geobge III. to Victobia.) p History of Eitgland to 
1688, 1819-1830. Last ed. 1888, 10 vols. Numerous other works. 

Uster, Vtaos. Beory, 1800-1842. Novelist and dramatist. 
(Geobge IV. to Victobia.) p Granby, 1826, a clever society 
novel, and some 6 others. 

Kloyd, Robert, 1733-1764. Poet. (Geobge III.) m Tha 
Actor, 1760| and other poems. [L. was the friend of Churchill, 
and was engaged to his sister. ' Works/ 1774.] 

&ocker»Xiampsonv Fredertok* 1 82 1-1 895. Poet and humour- 
ist. (Victobia.) m London Lyrics, 1857 (10th ed. 1885) ; LyraEle^ 
gantiarum, a collection of some of the best vers de soditS and ters 
eC occasion in English, 1867| enlarged 1891. p m Patchwork 1879. 
[My Confidences, an Autobiographical Sketch, 1896.] 

Icodflre, TbomaSf 1558 ?-l 625. Poet, dramatist, roxnance 
writer, translator. (Elizabeth, James I.) d The Wounds of 
CiviU War, 1594 (repr. Hazlitt's Dodsley, vii.) ; A Looking Glass 
for London, 1594 (with Eobert Greene: repr. in Gr.'s works), m 
PkOlis, 1593, was his chief vol. of verse-~40 poems, p Rosalynde 
(see p. 252, No. z.), repr. CaiSelVs National Lib, AUo other 



xomaiices and moral prose, together with trans, from Josephus, 
Seneca, and Da Bartas. 

&ofltp Capellf 1751-1824. Miseellaneons writer. (Geobob 
III.) Some 18 works, among them Laura, or an Anthology of 
Sonnets, in 6 languages, original and translated. 5 vols., 1812- 

3boffaii»Sev.7oliiif 1748-1788. Poet and divine. (Geobge 
IIL) m Poems, 1781. These included the * Ode to the Cuckoo,' 
which Burke called the most beautiful lyric in our language, d 
Sunnanude, a tragedy, 1783. p Sermons, 1790-1791. [L. was 
one of the most popular preachers of his day. The controversy 
about his ed. of the poems of M. Bruce, q.v.^ has been dealt with 
by B. Laing, 1873, and by John Small, in the BriiUh and Foreign 
Evangelical Review, 1877 and 1879. The poems are in Anderson 
zi., Chalmers zviii.] 

Kyttteton, Oeorgre, Ist Baron Lyttleton, 1709-1773. Miscel- 
laneous writer. (Geoboe II., George III.) p Letters Jrom a Per- 
sian in England to his Friend at Ispahan^ 1735 ; Observations on the 
Conversion . . . of St. Paul, 1747 (often repr.) ; Dialogues of the Dead, 
1770 (often repr.) ; m Miscellaneous poems (given in Anderson x. and 
Chalmers ziv.). These include the lines beginning Tell me, my hearty 
can this be Love ? [Dr. Johnson said of the St Paul, ' infidelity has 
never been able to fabricate a specious answer.' L. is known as the 
'good Lord Lyttleton.' ' Memoir ' and Corre ondence, 1845.] 

SCaeaalay, Mrs. Catharine, 1731-1791. Historian and 
controversialist. (George IIL) p History of Bingland from l^(i^- 
1714, 1763-1783 (now forgotten). Also other works. [Mary 
WoUstonecraft in 1792 called Mrs. M. ' the woman of the greatest 
abilities that this country has ever produced/] 

M'Cnllocli, 7olin Bamsay, 1789-1864. Statistician and 
political economist. (George IV. to Victoria.) p Dictionary of 
Commerce, 1832 ; and works on Political Economy. 

Maokaj, Cbarles, LL.D., 1814-1889. Song writer and 
journalist, &;c. (Victoria.) m Collected Songs, 1859. Among 
these are The Good Time Coining, and Cheer, Boys, Cheer ; Various 
poems and prose works. Dr. M. edited the * 1001 Gems ' of 
Poetry, &c. ' 

Mackenzie, Sir Gebrgre, 1636-1691. Icing's Advocate in 
Scotland. (Charles II. to William III.) p A Moral Essay, 166-5, 
and about 30 other works. Collected ed., 1716-1722. ITis 
Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland was pr. 1822. [Dryden 


called him ' the noble wit of Scotland ; ' the Covenanters termed him 
'Bloody Mackenzie/ He practically founded the Advocates' Library, 

Maffinn, 'WUliam, LL.D., 1793-1842. Poet, jonmalist, 
miscellaneous writer. (G^boboe HL to Victobia..) p m Eomeric 
Ballads, 1860 (appeared in Eraser's Magazine, 1838 &c.) Mis- 
cellanies, last ed. 1885. 2 vols. [Thackeray introduced him in 
Pendennis as Captain Shandon.] 

BCallet (orig. XOalloolL), Bavld, 1705 ?-l 765. Foet^ mis- 
cellaneous writer. (Gbobgb III.) p m and d Ballads and miscel- 
laneous works. [Rtde Britannia, which is at the end of the masque 
of Alfred, acted Iif 40, has been ascribed to him : more probably it 
is by Jas. Thomsua. The poems are in Anderson iz. a&d Chalmers 
xiv.] » 

Kaloa«, Bdmnndy 1741-1812. Shakespearian critic. (Geobgb 
III.) His edition of Shakespeare in 10 vols. — ^vol. i. being in two 
parts — ^appeared 1790. It included various 'Essays' — e.g. on the 
order of Shakespeare's plays, &c. 

Kanley, Mary d« la Rivldre, 1672?-! 724. Miscel- 
laneous writer. (Amns, Gbobob I.) p Secret Memoirs . . . from 
the New Atlantis, 1709, a vigorous attack on the Whigs, who had 
promoted the Revolution of 1688-1689. Other works, indnding 
plays. [Mrs. M. succeeded Swift as editor of the ' Examiner' in 

Karktaam, CtorFaso or J«rvis» 1568 ?-1637. Miscellaneous 
writer. (EuziLBSTH to Chables I.) p Many works on agriculture, 
fishing, archery, &c. m The Poem of Poems , , , the Divine 
Song of Salomon in Eight Eclogues, 1595 ; and two other poems, 
1600-1601, which were repr. by Grosart in 1871. d Herod and 
Antipater, 1622. [M.'s poem in 174 8-line stanzas on the Honor- 
able Tragedie of Sir Richard QrintUe,- 1595, as repr. by Arber, 
1871, was used by Tennyson for his ballad ' The Bevenge.' He has 
been called our *■ earliest English hackney writer.'] 

Marmloa, 81iack«rl67» 1603-1639. Poet and dramatist. 
(Chables I.) m Cupid and Psyche, 1637, in heroic couplets : repr. 
1820. d Three comedies, ZTo/^oikfo Leagver, 1682 ; A Fine Companion, 
1633; The Antiquary, 16^1, repr. in Hazlitt's Dodsley, ziii. All 
three repr. 1875 

Matnrin, Sev. Charles Robert, 1782-1824. Novelist and 
dramatist (Geobgb III., Gbobob IV.) p MeJmoth, the Wanderer, 
1820, and seven other novels. ' Melmoth,' his best work, had much 
influence on the French romantic school: Balzac wrote a kind 


of sequel to it Bepr. 1892 with a *life.' d 3 Tngedies. 
Bertram, 1816, na for 22 nights, and 7 ed. were sold that jear. 

BKazwoUf 'William Bamllton, 1792-1850. Irish noTelist. 
(QioBGB IV. to YieiOiUA.) p Stories qJ Waterioo, 1834, his 
bestrlmown work, still zepr. ; Hector O^HaUorofh 1842-1843, illos- 
tcated hj Leech ; and other tales. [He originated the ToUidung 
style of fiction which culminates in Ghas. Lever.] 

BKazwoU, Sir William 8tirlliig» E.T., 1818-1878. His- 
torian. (Yicrosxi..) p Annals of the Artists of Spain, 1848; 
Cloister lAfe of King Charles V., 1862 ; V^asquez and his Works, 
1855. [< Works,' 6 vols., 1891.] 

May, Tbomasy 1595-1650. Poet (Jauxs L to Goxiiok- 
WXALTH.) p History of the Parliament of England whid' began 
November 3, 1640, 1647 (repr. Clar. Press, 1854), a valuable work. 
m Trans, of Lncan's Fharsalia, 1627 ; VirgiFs Georgics, 1628 ; and 
two narrative poems on the reigns of Henry IL ( 1633) and Edward 
IIL (1635), both in 7 Bks. d The Hfif, a comedy, 1622 <repr. 
Hazlitt's J>odsUy xi.) ; The Old Couple, a comedy, 1668 (repr. 
Dodsleg zii.) ; and three tragedies. 

Ka]rn«» Jasper, D.D., Archdeacon of Chichester, and dramatist, 
1604-1672. (GbabubsL to Ghablbs II.) p Trans, of Luoian's 
Dialogues, pr. 1664, but completed by 1638 ; and Sermons, m 
Trans, of Donne's Latin Epigrams, 1 652. d Two plays. The CUye 
Match, a comedy, 1639 (repr. in Hazlitt's Dodsleg ziii.); The 
Amorous Warre, a tragi-comedy, 1648. 

aflCaynev ^'obn, 1759-1836. Scottish poet. (Gbobob III» to 
WxLiJAx IV.) m The Siller Gun, 1777» 12 stanzas describing a 
Dumfries Wapenschaw (by 1836 this became 5 cantos) ; Halloween, 
1780 (this possibly suggested Bums' Tam o* Shanter) ; Logan Braes, 
1789, a song from which Bums adopted two lines for his own of the 
same name. Also other poems. 

M«lmotli» "WllUam, 1710-1799. Translator. (Geobob II., 
Geobge III.) p Pliny's Letters, 1746; Cicero's Letters, 1753; 
and other works. [Warton actually places the trans, of Pliny 
above the original.] 

Melville, Sir 7ames, 1535-1617. Autobiographer. (Edwabd 
VI. to Elizabeth.) p Memoirs of his own Life, 1649-1593, first 
pr. 1683. Latest ed. 1827, Bannatyne Club, reissued 1833 for 
Maitland Club, [Valuable for contemporary history.] 

KelTlUe (nCelTlU), 7amM, 1556-1614. Eeformer. (Euza- 
BETH, James I.) The Diary of James Melville (1556-1601), pr. 
1829 for Bannatyne Club : repr. 1844 for Woodrow Soc. with a con- 


tinuatioD, 1 696-1 6 1 0. Very valuable for contemporary ecclesiastical 
history. Several other works. 

MCennes, Sir Tolm, 1599-1671. Admiral. (Charles I. 
to Chakles II.) m Wits Recreation, 1640; Musarum Delicia; 
cr, the Muses* Recnanon, 1666; Wit Restored, 1668. Keprinted 
together 1817 and 1874. [These are really anthologies, and M.'s 
name appearR with that of Dr. Jas. Smith, 1605-1667.] 

MereSy Francis, 1566-1647. Clergyman, translator, prose 
writer. (£uzabeth, James I.) p Palladis Tamia; Wits Treasurt/ : 
being a second part of Wits Commonwealth^ 1698 {see J. Bodenham; 
and pp. 63 and 261 note). The passages relating to Elizabethan 
literature are repr. in 8hak. Allusion Bks., Ft. I., 161-167 (New 
Shak. Soc., 1874), and in Prof. Arber's English Gamer, ii. p. 94 
&<*. Also Gods Arithmeticke, a sermon, 1697i and two devotional 
translations from Spanish. 

nCerrlck, Tames, 1 720-1 769. Poet and scholar. (Geobge II.) 
Some 13 works, m Poems on Sacred Subjects, 1763 (9th ed. 1807). 
His bright little poem The Chameleon is best known, though a 
number of his psalms and hymns are still retained in our hymn 

ncetejrard, Slisa, 1816-1879. Miscellaneous writer. (Vic- 
TOBiA.) p Life of Josiah Wedgwood, 1866-1866; Handbook of 
Wedgwood Ware, 1876, and other works connected with W. : also 

Miokle, 'VTUllam TnUiui, 1736-1788. Poet. (George III.) 
m Trans, of Camoens* Lusiad, 1771-6. This superseded that by 
Fanshawe, q,v. Ballads and poems, e.g. Cumnor Hall, quoted by 
Scott (Introd. to Kenilworih), Therms nae Luck about the House is 
attributed to him (see Jean Adams). The poems are in Chalmers 

Miller, Tbomas, 1807-1874. Poet and noyelist. (Yictobia.) 
p m Over 46 works, novels and poems. [M. was called the 
' Basket-maker ' poet, that having been his trade early in life. His 
first success was due to verses sent in fancy baskets to the Countess 
of Blessington.] 

Mottboddo, James Burnett, Xord, 1714-1799. Scottish 
judge. (Georqe III.) p Essays on the Origin and Progress of 
Language, 1778-1792; Arment Metaphysics, 1779-1799 (a defence 
of Greek philosophy). In many of his views M. was in advance of 
his day. 

Xontromery, Alexander, 1666?-1610? Scottish poet. 
(Elizabeth.) m The Cherrie and the Slae, 1697, in H-lino stanzas. 


Ft. L, a lore piece ; Pt. 11. is a moral allegory, in which the Cheny 
» Virtue, and the Sloe^ Vice. Flyting betwixt Mimtgomery and 
Polwart, 1621. [In 1887 the Sootdsh Text Soc repr. the poems 
nith introduction, bibliography and notes.] 

Mo bH wa e r J t »eT. Kobert, 1 807-1 855. Poetaster. (Geoboe 
IV. to Victoria.) m Omnipresenoe of the Deity, 1828 (8 ed. in 8 
months; 28th ed. 1858); Satan, or Intellect without God, 1830 
(very popular) ; The Messiah, 1832, and other poems. [Macaulay's 
famous 'review' appeared in the 'Edinburgh' of April 1830, 
after the second ed. of Satan and the 1 1th of the Omnipresence.'] 

Xontrose* James Oraliainff Marquis of, 1612-1650. Poet. 
(Charles I.) m Lyrics, the best knoini of which is that beginning 
' My dear and only Love, I pray J 

ncoore, Bdward, 1712-1757. Fabulist, dramatist and editor. 
(Geoboe XL) d The Gamester, a successful prose domestic tragedy, 
1753 ; and a comedy. The Foundling. He edited Tlie World, 1753- 
1766, and wrote 61 out of 210 numbers. His Fables for the Female 
Sex, 1744, are in Anderson z. and Chalmers xiv. 

MCore, Benrjr, D.D., 1614-1687. Platonist, theologian. 
(Charles I. to Charles II.) m PkUoeopkieaU Poems, 1647 
(including an enlarged revision of his first poem, the Sony of the 
Soul, 1642). Bepr. by Grosart, 1878. p Mystery of Godliness, 
1660; Mystery of IniquUy, 1664. 

Xorvan, Sydney, XAdy, 1783?-1859. Novelist. (George 

III. to Victoria.) p The Wild Irish Girl, 1806. Sentimental, but 
shows real power ; her best work. 7 ed. in two years. Other tales 
and verse. [* Life,* by S. Owenson, I860.] 

Morris, Cbarles, 1745-1838. Captain in the Life Guards and 
song writer. (Gboboe IIL, George IV.) m Lyra Urbanica ; or, 
the Social Effktsiofis of Cap, Morris, 1840. Some of these had 
appeared, 1786. [Many of his best songs were first sung by himself 
at club dinners.] 

Biotlierwell, ixnuiam, 1797-1835. Scottish poet. (George 

IV. to Victoria.) p m Minstrelsy, Ancient and Modem, 1827. 
m Poems, Narrative and Lyrical, 1 832. His famous ballad, Jeannie 
Morison, was sketched when 14, and printed in 1832 in a periodical. 
[Last ed. of ' Poems,' 1881.] 

Bioaltriey Sew. John, 1799-1874. Poet. (Victoria.) m 
My Brother's Grave, and other Poems, 1837; The Dream of Life, and 
other Poems, 1843 (autobiographical, with interesting references 
to his contemporaries, Macaulay and others) ; Altars, Hearths, and 
Graves, 1854. ['Poems,' 1876, with memoir by Derwent Coleridge.] 


Muloasterf Biobardf Id30?-I611. Teacher. (Elizabeth.) 
p Positions , , .for the Training up of Children, 1681 ; repr. with a 
good account of M.'s life and writiDgs by B. H. Quick, 1888. [Leben 
und WerJce, Bich, Mulcasters, pp. 58, by Theodor Klaehr; Dresden, 

Bialffrave, Jobn Sbeffield, Sari of, 1649-1721. Poet, 
statesman. (Ohables II.) m Essay on Satire, 1675; Ussa^ on 
Poetry, [In 1703 M. became Duke of Buckingham.] 

atiinday, iLntlionj', 1553-1633. Dramatist, poet and trans- 
lator. (EuzABETH, James I.) d John a Kent and John a CuTtiber^ 
1595 ; repr. 1851 for Shak. Soc. M. was concerned in the Bowr^fall 
and the Death of Bobert, Earl of Huntingdon (see Chettle) ; and 
with Sir John Oldrcastle {see Hathway). Henslowe mentions 14 
other plays: all are lost. From 1605-23 M. produced 8 civic 
pageants, p Seven translations of Komances. Amadis de Gaule, 
1595 ; Palmerin of England, 1602, &c., and 24 miscellaneous works 
(list in Diet, of Nat. Biography), m numerous ballads. 

Wabbes, Tbomas, fl. 1638. Dramatist. (Chables I.) d 
Three comedies, Covent Garden, 1638; Totenham Court, 1638; 
The Bride, 1640. Two tragedies, Hannibal and Seipio, 1637 ; The 
Unfortunate Mother, 1640. Several masques, among them Micro' 
cosmus, a MoraU Maske, 1637 ; said to have been the first masque 
exhibited on a public stage. [< Works,' ed. A. H. Bullen, 1887.] 

Walme, Carolina, BaronoMiff 1766-1845. Scottish bidlad 
writer. (Gbobgb III. to Yictobia.) m Humorous, sentimental 
and pathetic ballads, and Jacobite songs: The Land <?' the Zeal, 
The Laird o* CocJcpen, Caller Herrin*, Charlie is my Barling, &c. 
No collected ed. till 1846, after her death; last ed. 1886, by Dr. 
Ghas. Bogers. 

Wapler, Sir 'WtUlamFranoU Patrick, 1785-1860. General 
and historian. (Gbobgb IV. to Yictobia.) p History of the Penin- 
sular War (1807-14), 1828-40; last ed. 1877-82. Many contro« 
versial pamphlets, &c. ['Life,' 1864, by Lord Aberdare.] 

Waunton, Sir Robert, 1563-1635. Politician. (Chables I.) 
p Fragmenta regalia, 1641 (posthumous) ; a valuable account of the 
chief courtiers of Queen Elizabeth's days, with interesting reminis- 
cences, completed about 1630. [Often repr. Prof , AtheT, Beprints, 
1870, reproduced the 1653 ed.] 

Weedbam (Vedbam), Marobamont, 1620-1678. Journal- 
ist. (Chablbs I.) p He conducted various newspapers, e.g. 
Mercuriua Britanicus {sic), 1648-6^ against royalists; Mercurius 


PragmaiieuSt 1647-1649, in defence of King Obarles I. ; Mercurm 
PoUtieua, 1650-1659, championing the Oummonwealth ; and some 
20 other works. [He was the chief journalist of tbe time; see 
3k>ume*8 English Newspapers, 1887, 1. 12-29.] 

WevUlev Mmmry, 1620-1694. Political and miscellaneous 
writer. (Charles IL) p Plato Bedwivus, or a JHalogue con-' 
ctming Government, 168 1, a scheme for governing by means 
of councils responsible to parliament. Also other works, including 

Newcastle, XlCarcaret Cave&dlsb, Badiess of, 1624?- 
1674. Miscellaneous writer. (Cohhonwbalth, Ohabijss II.) 
p m d * If there be a type of chaos, or a chaos of type in literature, 
it is in these thirteen folios ' of poems and fancies, letters, philo- 
cophical opinions, tales in prose and verse, plays, &c. Of her 
Life of the Duke of Newcastfe (her husband) Lamb said * no casket 
is rich enough, no casing sufficiently durable, to honour and keep 
safe such a jewel.' [The * Golden Treasury' series, under the. title 
of The Cavalier and his Lady^ has some excellent prose and verse 
selections, including a brief autobiography.] 

arewtoiifTliomaB, circa 1542-1607. Tranfilator. (Elizabi^th.) 
p A Notable History e of the Saracens, 1575; his chief work, d 
N. edited Seneca his tenne Tragedies translated into Englysh, 1581 ; 
this included his own trans, of the Thehais, Numerous other 

Wieolas, Sir WieliolaB Karris, 1799-1848. Antiquary. 
(Georgb IY. to YicTOBiA.) He compiled or edited numerous — 
about 40 — and valuable works, which throw light on our older 

Wonrls, Joliii, 1657-1711. Mystic, divme and platonist. 
(Chables III. to William III.) p The Picture of Lorn unveiled, 
1682, a trans, from Latin, m p ^ Collection of Miscellanies, 1687, 
consisting of poems, essays, letters, &c. Some 20 other works. 
[He was rector of Bemerton, Wilts, Geo. Herbert*8 old home, and 
was the last of the Cambridge Platonists, of whom Hy. More, q.v., 
was another example.] 

Wortlibrooke, Jolin, fl. 1570. Preacher &c (BuzAmrcH.) 
p A Treatise wherein Dicing ^Dauncing^ vaine Playes or Enteriudes • • • 
are reproved, 1577. The first distinct attack on plays, probably mx 
months earlier than Gosson's * School of Abuse.' 

XTuee, Tbomasid. 1617. Translator. (Elxzabbts.) m Trans, 
of Seneca's Ocfavia [1561?], repr. in the Yolume of Newton, ^.v., 


Oldham, Joliii, 1653-1683. Poet. (Chaeles II.) m Satires 
upon the Jesuits^ 1679, at the time of the * Popish plot;* Satire 
against Virtue, 1681 ; Trans, of Juvenal, &e,, collected in 1770 by 
the * half-pay poet/ E. Thompson; as * Compositions in l^rose and 
Verse/ with a memoir. 

Oldmlzon* Joliii, 1673-1742. Historian and pamphleteer. 
(William III. to Geoboe I.) p History of England, 1730-1739, 
a party work, of no permanent value ; and other historical works. 
m Amyntas, 1698; based on Tasso's Aminta^ d The Grow, or 
Lov^s Paradise, an opera, 1700. 

Ople, BErs. Amelia, 1769-1853. Novelist and poet. (Geosgb 
III., Geobob IV.) p Father and Daughter, 1801, and other tales. 
Scott wept oyer this ' simple moral tale/ and the ' Edinburgh 
Eeview' (July 1830) termed it an 'appalling piece of domestic 
tragedy/ Sydney Smith declared 'tenderness is your forte, and 
carelessness your fault/ All her tales are domestic, moral, tearful. 
['Life/ 1854, Cecilia L. Brightwell] 

Owen, 7olin, I).D., 1616-1683. Puritan theologian. (Comhok- 
WBA.LTH, Charles I.) p Exereitations on the Ejnstle to the Hebrews, 
1668-84 (last vol. posthumous). [Owen ranks with Baxter and 
Howe among the greatest of Puritan divines. ' Works,' 24 yds. 
1860-1855, ed. W. H. Goold.] 

Painter, mrilllam, oirca 1537-93. Translator. (Elizabeth.) 
p The Palace of Pleasure. PU I. 1666 ; Pt. II. 1667. A collec- 
tion of tales — 100 in the- 1575 ed; — from Boccaccio, Bandello, &c. 
The reprint of 1890, 3 yols., ed. by Joseph Jacobs, contains a mass 
<)f information. 

Valgrawe, Sir rraaeto, 1788-1861. Historian. (Williak 
IV., ViCTOBiA.) p History of the Anglo-Saxons, 1831; Bise and 
Progress of the English Oommonweaith, 1832 ; History of Normandy 
and England, 1851-1864, and 15 other principal works. [Freeman 
called the second work 'a memorable book,' and Hallam spoke 
of the ' omnifarious reading and fearless spirit ' it manifests. P. 
did much to promote the critical study of medieyal English 

Paltook, Ro1>ert, 1697-1767. Romance writer. (Geoboe II.) 
p Life and Adventures of Peter WUhins, a Comishman, 1751 ; an 
interesting romance, often repr. Grig. ed. and some plates repr. 
1884 by A. H. Bullen. It contains an account 'of the Country ot 
the Glnmms and Gawreys, or Men and Women that fly,' andSonthey 
declared that these ' winged people are the most delightful creatures 


that ever were devised/ Memoirs of the Life of Pamese, a Spatiisk 
Lcdy^ 1761 ; a dull tale, dedicated to P/e second cousin. 

VarkeFf aiattbew, 1504-1576. Archbishop of Oanterboiy. 
(Elizabeth.) p Be Antiguitaie Britannioa Eodeeia, 1572, and 
other works. [*Life,* by J. Strype, 1711, repr. Clar, Press 1821 ; 
' Correspondence,' Parker Soc. 1852.] 

Veaeock, Tbomas Xiove, 1785-1866. Novelist and poet. 
(Geobgb III. to YiCTOBiA.) p Headlofiff Hall, 1815 ; Crotchett 
Castle, 1831, and other novels, m Palmyra, 1806, and other 
poems. [Peacock was the friend of Shelley.] His works were 
repr. 1875, and in 1891 ed. by Dr. Cramett. Prof. Saintsbnry has 
written Introductions for others, 1895-1896. 

Percy f 'Wllllain, d. 1648. Poet and dramatist. (ELizABirrH.) 
m Sonnets to the Fairest Calia, 1594, repr. in Arber^s Eng, Cramer, 
vi. ; and by Grosart^ 1877. d Two plays, The Cuck-Queanes, and 
The Faery PastoraU, first printed by Boxburghs Club from MS.1824. 

Vettiei Oeorgef circa 1548-1589. Translator. (Euzabeth.) 
p A petite Pailace of Petiie his pleasure [1576]. 12 tales, the 
first, Sinorix and Camma, being the subject of Tennyson's Cup ; 
The Ciuile Conuersation of M, Stephen Guazzo, 1586. . {See B. 

Vettji Sir 'VTiUiam, 1623-1687. Political economist. 
(Chablbs II., Jambs U.) p Treatise of Taxes and Contributions, 
1662 : various essays on Political Arithmetic, 1683 &c., concerning 
the people, housing, hospitals, &;c ; and other works. [Valuable 
bibliography by Prof. C. H. Hull in Notes and Queries, Sept 1896; 
biography by Ld. £d. Fitzmaurice, a descendant, 1895.] 

VbiUps, AmbroMi 1675 ?-l 749. Poet. William IIL to 
Qeobob I.) m Pastorals, in Tonson's Miscellany, 1709. The 
same vol. contained Pope's Pastorals (see the Guardian, No. 40, for 
Pope's malicious comparison), d The Distressed Mother, a tragedy 
{ih^Andromague of Bacine, see Addison's Spectaior, Nos. 290 and 
335), 1712; repr. 1725 with two others. [The nickname 'Namby 
Pamby ' is first used by Hy. Carey, ^.v., in a parody mentioned by 
Swift in 1725.] 

PbillpB, Catherine, 1631-1664. Poetaster. (Chablbs IL) 
m PoemSt 1667 (posthumous), d Pompey, a trans, of Comeille's 
PompSe, 1663 &Q, [She was called by her contemporaries *The 
Matchless Orinda.'] 

FinkertoiifJ'olui, 1758-1826. Scottish antiquary and historian. 
(Gbobob IIL) p History of Scotland, 1797; Collection of Voyages 
and Travels, 17 vols., 1807-1814. 


PiXy Mm. MCarr, 1666-1720? Dramatist. (Wuxjah and 
l^BT.) d Ibrahim XUL^ Wm^ror of the Turks, 1 696, a tragedy ; 
The Innocent Mistress, 1697, a very snccessfal comedy : I%e Double 
Distress, a tragedy, and other plays, never collected. [As a dramatist 
she showed ' more activity than had been shown before her time 
by any woman except Mrs. Afra Behn.' E. Gk>sse.] 

Vomflret, Jobn, 1667-1702. Poet. (William and Mabt.) 
m Poems on several ocoaMons, 1699; T^e Choice, 1700. [Of this 
Johnson said in 1779, * perhaps no composition in our language has 
been ofbener pemsed' — tempora mutanturl The poems are in 
Chalmers viii.] 

Vorson, Uobard, 1759-1808. Greek Scholar. (G-eoboe III.) 
p Letters to Archdeacon Travis, collected ed. 1790. (These, pr. in 
the Gentleman's Magazine 1788-1789, deal with the authenticity 
of 1 John V. 7.) Annotated editions of the classics. [His won- 
derful memory and wide reading fitted him for textual criticism, to 
which he mainly devoted himself.] 

Porter, Anna Maria, 1780-1832. Novelist (Gbobgb IIL to 
"William IV.) p The Hungarian Brothers, 1807, dealing with the 
French revolutionary war, and 1 8 other novels. 

Porter, Benry, fl. 1599. Dramatist. (Elizabeth.) d The 
Pleasant Historie of the two angrie Women of Ahington, 1599, repr. 
by Percy Soc. 1841, in Hazlitt*s * Dodsley/ vii., in Nero and other 
plays (Mermaid Series), 1888. Gh. Lamb considered this * no whit 
inferior to either the Comsdy of Errors or the Taming of the Shrew* 
Henslowe*s Diary mentions 4 lost plays. 

Porter, Jane, 1776-1860. Novelist. (Geobob IIL to William 
TV.) p Thaddeitsof Warsaw, the story of a Polish exile, 1803 
(9thed. by 1810); The Scottish Chiefs, 1810, still repr. This is 
one of the few historical novels before Scott which have lived. 

Praed, "Wlntlirop nKaokworth, 1802-1839. Poet. (Gbobge 
TV.; William IV.) m Poeins, three American editions, 1844, 1850, 
1859, before the first English authorised ed. with *Life* by Der- 
went Coleridge, 1864; Political and occasional poems, 1888. p 
Essays, in Morley*s * Universal Library/ 1887. [Praed stands next 
Prior as a writer of familiar verse.] 

Preston, Tbomas, M.A., LL.D., 1537-1598. Dramatist.* 
(Elizabeth.) d Cambises, ' a lamentable tragedy mixed ful of 
pleasant mirth,* [1570 ?] repr. Hazlitt's Dodsley, iv. 

Price, Riobard, 1723-91. Nonconformist, writer on morals' 
and political economy. (Geobge II., Geobge IIL) p Review of 
the Principal Questions and Difficulties in Morals, 1757, and many 


other works. [Borke's B^flections on the Frmteh BevcMwn «u a 
direet reralt of Price's sermon on N07. 4, 1789.] 

Viieet Sir Vvedator 1747-1829. Writer on the Fiefcaresqne. 
(GaoBOB IIL» GaOBOB IV.) p Etajf9 on the Tiatureique^ 179i-1810. 
Best ed. 1843, iUostrated, 

. Vrldeavz, Bmapbreyf D.D., 1648-1728. Dean of Nerwieh, 
Orientalist. (Willum UL to Gbobob I.) p lAfe of Mahomet^ 
1697 (now qnite yalneless); Comuetion qf the Old omd New Testa" 
mente, 1716-1718, often zepr. : ont of date, bnt long of zeal yalne. 
[•Letters,* 1875, Camden Society.] 

Frlestteyt Joseplif LL.D., 1733-1804. Theologian and scientist 
(GaoBOB IIL) p JDisquUitiofu rdating to Matter and Spirit^ 1 777 ; 
History of the Corruptions of Christiamty, 1782, his best knOwn 
work, bnmt by the hangman at Dort, 1786. Also many other 
works. [He is best known now as the discoverer of oxygen. See 
Dr. J. Haztineau*s Essays, Beviews and Addresses, 1890 ; Hnzley's 
Science and Culture, 1881. Works. 26 vols., 1817-1832.] 

Proeter, Mryn "WBUer, 1787-1874. Poet. (Gxobob IV. to 
Victoria.) p Life of Charles Lamb, 1866-8. m Marcian Colonna, 
an Italian tale, 1820; ui SicUian Story, 1820; JDramatie Scenes, 
1819. d Mirandoh, a tragedy, 1821, [* Barry ^rnwall ' was the 
imperfect anagram he adopted.] 

Vroeteri Tbomas, fl. 1578. Miscellany editor. (Euzabbth.) 
m A Gorgious Gallery of Gallant Inventions, 1578. Onr third 
im&oellany, begun by Owen Boydon. B^ir. in Park's Heliconia^ 
1815 ; by the Kozbnrgbe Club 1844 ; and by Collier 1867. 

Pnrntie, TTtUlamr 1600-1669. Puritan pamphleteer. Chabiks 
I. to Chaolbs II.) p About 200 books and pamphlets. SistriO' 
masiix. The Players Scourge or Actors Tragedy, 1633 (pr. about 
Nov. 1632). For this &t little quarto of over 1000 pp. Prynne 
was tried by the Star Chamber, pilloried and lost his ears ; a defini- 
tion in the Index being held to reflect on the queeoy who had acted 
in W. Montagu's Shepherds Paradise in Jan. 1633. 

Vammanasarf Oeoriref 1679 ?-l 763. literary impostor; 
sham native of Formosa. (Annb to Gbobqb I.) p Historical and 
Geographical Description of Formosa, 1704. After his exposure^ 
circa 1708, he lived as a hack-writer. His Memoirs, 1764, are 
two-thirds filled with an account of his imposture. [H. Walpole 
considered him a greater genius as a literary impostor than 

Pnroblis, 8amuel» D.D., 1575-'1626. Writer of travels. 
(James I.) p Pufo\(tS hisPifc^mage, 1613 ; Hal-hytus PdsthUmus, 


or Pwrdkis his POgrimes, 1625. [P. inherited Haklayt's MS, 
coUectionv. His work is Tast and in some respects valuable.] 

Puttenliamf Oeoive, 1532?-1690. Critic and poet. (Ez.iea» 
BBTH.) p The ArUofEnglisheFoegU, 1589, repr. in Arber's Beprints, 
1869 : pp. 14-6 discnss F.*8 claim to its authorship, m Parthe^ 
niadest 17 poems, pr. in Haslewood's ed. of the^r^«, 1811. 

B. 8.y fl. 1593. Miscellany editor. (Elizabeth.) m ThePhxnix 
Nest, * set foorth by B. S. of the Inner Temple, Crentleman/ 1593. 
It is our fifth miscellany. Bepr. by Collier, 1867. [Hob. South- 
well, Bich. Stanyhurst, Bich. Stapylton, Bob. Smythe, are some of 
the guesses at the unknown B. S.] 

Ravenscroft, Sdward, fl. 1671-1697. Dramatist. (Chables 
II.) d The Careless Lovers^ a comedy, 1673 ; The Italian Hushandi 
a tragedy, 1698, being 2 of 12 performed 1671-1698. 

Seidf Tliomasi D.D., 1710-1796. Philosopher. (Gboboe III.) 
p Inquiry into the Human Mind, 1763 ; Essays on the Intellectual 
Powers, 1785 ; Essays on the Active Powers, 1788. [T. B. was Prof, 
of Moral Piiilosophy at Aberdeen and Glasgow. He is the * chief 
founder of what is generally called the Scotch School of Philosophy ' 
{Encycl, Sritan, ed. iz.) ; he revolted from the sceptical conclusions 
of Hume. 'Memoir* by Dugald Stewart, 'Works' ed. Sir Wm. 
Hamilton, 6th ed., 1863.] 

Blclie, 8aniaby» fl. 1574-1624. Soldier and miscellaneous 
writer. (Elizabeth, James I.) Hazlitt*s ifo/ic^doo^, pp. 503-6, gives 
27 works ; see also Lowndes, pp. 2082-4. The Percy Soc. repr. The 
Honesty of this Age, 1844 ; and the trans, of Herodotus, attrib. to 
Biche, was repr. 1888. See Appendix C, No. XIII. 

Soblnson, Clement, fl. 1584. Poet and miscellany editor. 
(Euzabbth.) m A Handefull of ^pleasant deities, 1584, repr. in fac- 
simile by Spenser Soc. in 1871 ; and by Prof. Arber, 1878. [It is 
the fourtii of our seven Elizabethan miscellanies : 33 pieces, 8 being 

Boscoef mrilUam, 1753-1831. Historian and biographer. 
(Geobgb III. to William IV.) p Idfe qf Lorenzo de* Medici, 1795 ; 
Leo the Tenth, 1805. Both often repr., last ed. 1383, ed. Hazlitt. 
[*Life,' 1833, by his son H. Boscoe.] 

Sose, 'William Stewart, 1775 ?-1843. Translator. (Geoboe 
III. to WillumIV.) p The Orlando Innamorato at BoHaxdo, with 
extracts in verse, 1823. m Amadis de Gaul, 1803; the Orlando 
Furioso of Ariosto, 1823-1831, and other works. 

Vossetti, Maria rrancesca, 1827-1876. (VictoBia.) p A 


Shadow of IkmU; being an Essay towazds studying himself, bis 
world, and his pilgrimage, 1871. 4th ed. 1884. [She iras sister 
of Christina and Dante Gabriel Bossetti.] 

XowteBdSff Samnelf 1673?-last mentioned 1628. Miscel- 
laneona verse writer. (Elbabbth to Javes I.) Complete Works, 
1598-1628, nowfint collected. 3 toUl, 1880, ed. by Edmund Qoste 
for Hnnterian Club. This contains 24 works, all verse but two, 
and one of these contains verse. Three works are lost. 

Sewley* Samueli fl. temp.JAXBa I. Dramatist, d When yon 
see mo you knoio me, or the famous Chronicle History of King Henrie 
the Eight, 1605, ed. with notes by Prof. Elze, 1874; The NoUe 
Soldier, 1637, repr. in A. H. Bnllen's Old Hays, i. 1882. 

Sowleyt mrilllain, xvii. cent. Dramatist. (Jajces I.) d 
Fonr plays written alone. A New Wonder, a Woman never vext, 
1682 ; ul Maich at Midnight, 1633 (both in Hazlitt's Dodsley, zii., 
ziiL), and one other comedy; MCs lost by lust, a tragedy, 1633. 
[Hazlitt's Doddey xii. pp. 94-5 gives a list of 12 others.] 

Seji mruiiain, zvi. centniy. Beformer. (Hevbt Yin.) 
m Rede me and he nott wrothe. For I saye no thynge but Trothe, a 
satire, with Jerome Barlowe, sometimes called The burying of the 
Mass in Rhyme, 1528, repr. in Arbor's Reprints, 1871. [Eoy was a 
Minorite Friar, and helped Tyndale with his trans, of the New Testa-' 
ment, 1525.] 

Itafgle, Oeorge, 1575-1622. Latin dramatist. (James I.) 
d Ignoramus, 1630, a Latin comedy acted at Cambridge before 
James L, 1614. Nine Latin editions. Englished by R(obert) 
C(odrington), 1662. 

RusseU, Jobn, Barlt 1792-1878. Statesman. (Georob IV. 
to YiCTOBiA.) p Life of Lord William Russell, 1819; Life and 
Times of C J, Fox, 1859-66 (K. had pr. Fox's Memorials and Cor- 
respondence, 1853) ; Memoirs of Thos, Moore, 1853-1856, &c. 

Xnssell, Saobelf Kady, 1636-1723. (Chablbs II. to Anne.) 
p Letters, 1773 (i.e. 50 years after her death), often repr. [She 
was the wife of Lord Wm. Bussell, executed 1683. 

That sweet saint who sate by Bnssell's side 
TTDcler the jndgment seat. 

See Guizot's Married Life of Rachel, Lady limscll, 1855.] 
BusseU, "Vruaam, LL.D., 1741-1793. Historian. (Geobgb 

III.) p History of Modem Europe, 1779, often repr. and continued. 

A compilation, but useful. 
Xymer^TliomAs, 1641-1713. Historiographer royal. (Chabim 


il. to Anns.) p Faderaf Chnveniiones, IMefta, et citjuscunquegefieris 
Acta Publico, 1704-1735 ; a collection of dociunents respecting our 
relations with foreign powers from the year 1101. [Rymer in vols. 
i. to XV. carried on the work to 1686 ; Kobert Sanderson in vols, 
xvi. to zx. to A.D. 1654. Best information in Sir T. D. Hardy's 
SyUahus to the * Poedera.' 8 yols. 1869-1886.] 

Salet Oeorre* 1680-1736. Lawyer and Orientalist. (Oeo&gsT 
II.) p Trans, of the Koran or Alcoran of Mahomed, 1734, still 
repr. [Gibbon calls him ' onr honest and learned translator.'] 

SandySf Ctoorye, 1 577-1 644. Traveller and translator. (James* 
I., Chablbs l») 'p a JRelation of a Journey begun a,d, 1610 (to 
Turkey, IJgypt, Palestine, Italy, &e.), 1615; m OvicPs Metamor- 
phosia EngUshed, 1626. This was completed in Virginia, U.S.A.9 
and is the first important poetical work produced in America. 
[Dryden speaks of *the ingenious and learned Sandys, the best- 
versifier of the former age/ and Gibbon calls him ' that judicious 

SettlCf glkanab, 1648-1724. Dramatist and verse writer. 
(Charles II. to Geobgb I.) m See p. 105. d The Empress of 
Morocco, 1 673, and other plays. [Dryden in Absalom and AcJiitophel, 
Ft. II., speaks of him as 

Doeg though without knowing how or whj' 
Made still a blundering kind of melody.] 

Seward, Anna, 1747-1809. Poetess. (Gbobob III.) m 
Louisa, a poetical novel, 1782; original Sonnets, 1799. Scott 
edited her Poetical Works, 1810. Her Letters, 1811, fill 6 vols. 

Sberidan, Franoes* 1724-1766. Novelist and dramatist. 
(Geobge II.^ George III.) m Memoirs of Miss Sidney Biddulph, 
1761, a novel of the Bichaxdson school. 0. J. Fox thought it the 
best of the age; History^ of Nou/rjahad, 1767 (posthumous), a 
romance, d The Discovery, a successful comedy, 1763 ; The Dupe, 
a comedy, 1764. [Memoirs, 1824, by her granddaughter, Alicia 
Lefanii. T. S. was the mother of Bichard Brinsley Sheridan.] 

Smartf Clirlstopber, 1722-1770. Poet and translator. 
(Oeoboe I